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I left the Army in 1946 and in civilian life I did participate in Reserve activities in the intelligence field. I was the commanding officer of an intelligence detachment in the U.S. Army Reserve.
I was recalled to active duty in 1948, spent 4 years in the Office of Military History, and then was assigned to the G-2 section of Headquarters, USAREUR, in Heidelberg. I was the Desk Chief there for 3 years.
After my return to the States in 1955, I was assigned to the G-2 section of the 1st U.S. Army and remained in that assignment until 1958.
From 1958 to 1959 I attended the officers advance intelligence course at the U.S. Army Intelligence Center at Fort Holabird.
Subsequent to that, I went overseas and was assigned as the G-2 to the Allied Staff, Berlin.
I returned from Berlin in June 1960, spent a great deal of time in the hospital, and in September 1960 I was assigned to the G-2 Section of 1st U.S. Army on Governors Island. I am at the present time the Chief of the Review Branch of the Personnel Security Division of the G-2 Section.
BUCHSBAUM'S DUTIES IN PRESENT ASSIGNMENT
Senator THURMOND. And so your present assignment is in charge of the Review Branch of the G-2 Section?
Major BUCHSBAUM. The name of the branch used to be Adjudication Branch. It is now Review Branch, but the functions remain the
Senator THURMOND. Does your assignment entail daily review of Communist subversion and propaganda activities in the New York metropolitan area?
Major BUCHSBAUM. No, sir, it does not.
In my assignment I review security cases. I determine the kind of investigations to be conducted on various cases of subversive allegations.
I review the investigative reports after they are returned to us, and make recommendations to the Department of the Army on the disposition of the cases.
Senator THURMOND. Anything else, or is that all ?
you summarize for us, insofar as you can on an unclassified basis, the number of cases adjudicated by your branch?
Major BUCHSBAUM. In the last 3 months we have handled an average of approximately 150 cases a month.
Of those cases, the vast majority pertain to preinductees, and we had a larger number than usual of Active Army cases due to the call to active duty of Reserve and National Guard units. Civilians comprise only a very small percentage, as do applicants for appointment to commissioned rank.
The smallest percentage is that of members of the U.S. Army Re
DISCUSSION ON SCHRADER'S RECOMMENDATIONS
Senator THURMOND. It is my understanding that one of your assistants is Mr. Schrader, who also has had considerable experience in dealing with Communist subversion, infiltration, and agitation. That is correct, is it not?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Yes, sir; that is correct.
Senator THURMOND. In 1959, Mr. Schrader recommended that more be done by the military services to encourage public high schools to expose Communist subversion and propaganda.
Are you familiar with Mr. Schrader's recommendations ?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Not firsthand, sir. That recommendation was submitted prior to my arrival at 1st Army. I have heard about it recently. I had no prior knowledge.
Senator THURMOND. The reason I am interested in Mr. Schrader's suggestions is that in 1955 the Secretary of Defense issued a letter to the Secretaries of the three services to encourage thinking along the lines of Mr. Schrader's recommendations.
Are you aware of this Department of Defense interest?
Senator THURMOND. It is my understanding that Mr. Schrader's material was processed through the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Department of Justice, the Department of Defense, Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence and several other offices, but that no action was taken other than expressing appreciation for Mr. Schrader's initiative in making his recommendations.
I feel that one reason why we have not done more in educating young Americans on the threats of communism is because of the bureaucratic reactions to suggestions such as that received from Mr. Schrader.
Certainly, the education of American high school teachers on the deviousness of Communist propaganda and subversion is the first step toward generating an understanding of the problem and insuring that American youth get accurate information on the nature of the threat.
Do you not feel this to be an essential step?
RESPONSIBILITY FOR HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS
Senator THURMOND. Mr. Schrader's recommendations, if they had been acted upon by, for example, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, might have given us an earlier start in the national awakening to the threat of communism which, I feel, is occurring from coast to coast.
What is your view of this situation?
Major BUCHSBAUM. May I again point out that I have no firsthand knowledge of his recommendation. I have never seen or read it. I have only heard of, or received a summary of, his recommendation.
I do not feel that a Federal authority has the possibility to prescribe the type of material used in high schools. I believe that the States, the cities, the counties, or the authorities that have their own high schools would greatly resent it, and particularly today when the great fear of Federal encroachment in the schools is one of the main topics that we can read of in the newspapers.
However, I do believe that material should be made available to all school boards that desire such material.
I believe that there should be a way of disseminating it and making schools and school boards aware of the existence of the material.
Various schools, or, rather, school boards and I have seen cases in my own work at 1st Army-are screening their teachers from the point of view of reliability, and there have been cases that I know of where teachers have been excluded from the school system and have been removed from their schools because of teaching Communistslanted ideologies.
Senator THURMOND. I want to say that I thoroughly concur in your statement that education is a matter for the States.
Since Mr. Schrader's recommendations were referred to a Federal agency, then if the Federal Goverment is going to take any action, it had an opportunity to do so, but nothing was done.
DISCUSSION ON COMMUNIST SUBVERSION OF YOUTHS IN CITIES
Now, Major, will you give us your evaluation of the continuous and growing problem of subversion by communism especially of our city youth such as in the highly congested metropolitan areas as New York City ?
Major BUCHSBAUM. I believe that no normal, healthy, intelligent child can fall for the Communist line. There are many organizations that try to induce youths who do not know what it is all about to join their ranks. This may work for a very short time, but I do not believe that a youngster who can think for himself, unless he falls into that frustrated category that I mentioned in my prepared statement, is a worthwhile subject for Communist indoctrination.
However, the danger at the present time is one of public relations.
I can see that Communist-infiltrated or Communist-sponsored organizations, by ostensibly favoring popular causes and by using suggestive names that do not reveal the real character of the movement, get thoughtless and nonthinking youngsters in large numbers to demonstrate or to join the ranks, to swell their ranks and give the appearance that that movement is much stronger than it actually is.
We have had cases where people have participated in such mass meetings, demonstrations; if you talk to young people, if you interview them, if you try to establish their motives, you will find that they are far from the Communist idea.
They joined a group because there was one cause that they believed they could support, but I do not believe that the Communists will ever be able to make real partisans of the Communist cause out of those youngsters.
There are some, but those individuals who they may gain had a predisposition for joining subversive organizations. They must be preconditioned in the home, or they must be preconditioned by a social or emotional maladjustment.
DELINEATION BETWEEN FBI AND ARMY INTELLIGENCE MISSIONS
Senator THURMOND. I realize, of course, that the FBI has the mission to keep abreast of those activities that affect the public at large; but Military Intelligence has the mission to provide security against subversion, propaganda, infiltration, agitation and espionage directed against the military services.
Will you outline for us these areas of responsibility of the military and the delineation between the FBI and Army Intelligence ?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Yes, sir. The Army is responsible and has the right to investigate its own members, and that includes the members of the active military force.
Civilians are under the investigative authority of FBI.
However, if we have any connection, if the Army has any connection with a case such as, if the civilian is a preinductee, being processed for service in the Army, if he is a member of the U.S. Army Reserve or if he is a civilian employee of the Department of the Army, we request authority from the FBI to investigate that individual.
There has been no cases in which the FBI would have refused to give us that authority.
They may have asked us, and they have in many cases asked us, to postpone our own investigation if they had an investigation pending, because it is obvious that we would only have hindered each other if both of us had investigated the same individual at the same time. Furthermore, it would have been a very wasteful duplication of effort.
Whenever the FBI asked us to wait with our investigation until they have completed theirs, they automatically send us complete reports after they have finished their own investigations. There is an excellent spirit of coordination and cooperation between the Army Intelligence Agencies and the FBI.
COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA OBJECTIVES
Senator THURMOND. Major, I believe that you are familiar with Communist propaganda activities directed against specific targets such as the military, the FBI, and the House Committee on Un-American Activities.
I wonder if you could outline for us just what the Communists hope to accomplish by generating antimilitary and antigovernment hate campaigns ?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Senator, you have pointed out the very three institutions which are of the greatest danger to the Communist conspiracy.
First, the Army. Naturally, the Army is one of the forces defending this country, and the enemy today, although we are not in a declared war, the enemy in the actual existing war today is the Communist world.
By undermining and undercutting the Army in any way possible, we are weakened in our defensive posture, and, thereby, we are strengthening the defense and the military posture of the Communist countries. This is as far as the Army is concerned.
As far as the FBI is concerned, this is a most effective tool for finding out and getting information on the domestic Communist conspiracy. It is always a very good principle to attack your opponent who is attacking you. The Communists fear the activities of the FBI because the FBI is the best agency to expose them to the proper authorities.
That is why they must fight the FBI, if they want to survive in this country.
As far as the House Un-American Activities Committee is concerned, this agency has done more than any other agency to publicize the actual organizations which constitute a danger to this country.
It has pinpointed by name the organizations which have as their goal the wrecking of our own society. The FBI does not publicize their reports, although they have great knowledge of everything that is going on in the subversive field. They naturally cannot publicize these factors. However, the House Un-American Activities Committee can and does. And that is why the Communists in this country attack the House Committee on Un-American Activities.
PATTERN OF DISSEMINATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA
Senator THURMOND. Major, we have studied the activities of these antimilitary fronts and find that a very large percentage of their activities center in the New York metropolitan area. From there, they feed out to the other States, usually concentrating again on highly congested, urbanized, industrial and military areas.
Could you elaborate for the subcommittee on the pattern of dissemination of Communist propaganda ?
Major BUCHSBAUM. I do not know the entire pattern. I can only tell you the story that I gained from individual cases. Now, I do know of many instances in which members of Communist organizations in New York have been sent out across the country to set up various clubs, groups, organizations, to organize meetings and generally to support Communist activities in other cities.
I also know that Communist cells and Communist organizations and clubs in other cities turn often to the organization in New York for propaganda material and for advice on organizations, on demonstrations, on meetings, and this is the extent of my knowledge.
AGITATION OF U.S. RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS
Senator THURMOND. I understand that you are also thoroughly familiar with Communist influences and agitation of U.S. racial and
Could you provide an outline of these? Major BUCHSBAUM. I would add to racial groups, ethnic groups. I believe I probably know a little more about ethnic groups than I do about racial groups.
Senator THURMOND. I would be pleased to have you do that, proceeding along that line.
Major BUCHSBAUM. Yes, sir. The Communists always thrive on any area of discontent, unhappiness, or confusion.
Groups of individuals speaking a foreign language, having different customs and being suddenly transplanted into an environment that they are not familiar with, are confused; they are unhappy; and they are maladjusted.
Now, they try to flock together in order to be able to speak their own language, in order to live in an environment and in a small group which has the same customs that they have. The Communists are utilizing their unhappiness, dissatisfaction, and frustration within those groups by infiltrating nationality groups, particularly in New York.