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alert the public and obtain decisions and favorable results in fighting Communist aggression and terror. But it must be realized that no matter how distasteful any such activities as counterintelligence, security regulations, intelligence and espionage acts, and politically influencing foreign countries and their populations may be to many loyal, although poorly informed Americans, including some responsible Government officials, though considered an essential evil by others, the United States and its foreign allies will be in a far more perilous position if we fail to become much more active and concerned regarding Western security and our true political strength versus communism.
Now, Major, this testimony clearly highlights the fact that we are not doing enough in training Americans to counter Communist subversion of all types.
I find very alarming the testimony that many loyal, supposedly informed Americans, including some responsible Government officials, do not fully understand the threat that communism poses, and it is highly important that our people, our Government leaders, our military commanders, and that our people generally understand this threat and the seriousness of it, is it not, Major?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Yes, sir.
DISCUSSION ON SHORTAGE OF ARMY PERSONNEL
Senator THURMOND. Now, concerning the extent of our West German activities—and this is important-Mr. Hans says the following
Major BUCHSBAUM. May I ask you, sir, where that is? I would like to follow it.
Senator THURMOND. Show him where that is. Now, continuing: When it is possible for the Soviets to concentrate on private and official Western agencies to such an extent that infiltration and subversion cause these agencies to become ineffective and even terminate their operations, then it is apparent that our success in this field is highly questionable.
Major, the man who made these statements is an American CIA agent with many years experience in West Berlin. If he is correct in his assessment, then we can only assume that we are failing in very basic security and intelligence training of the military and we are failing in providing adequately trained intelligence specialists in sufficent numbers to such key spots as West Berlin.
From your experience, I was just wondering if you had any comments on this subject, or could you elaborate on anything that would be helpful.
Major BUCHSBAUM. Well, sir, I am aware, unfortunately very sadly aware, of the shortage of trained intelligence personnel, particularly at the present time when a number of experienced officers, a large number of experienced officers
Senator STENNIS. Shortage of what?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Of experienced and trained military intelligence personnel.
Many of our experienced officers and also noncommissioned officers are retiring. The oversea requirements also demand a large number of trained intelligence specialists.
The result is that we are very short and have to make do in many areas where we would rather have an adequate supply of fully trained and capable individuals.
It is a great weakness, but, except for training more intelligence personnel and assigning more people to the various areas where they are needed, I do not see a solution.
Senator STENNIS. Senator, was he speaking of the Army?
My statement, the statement I have been reading from, was by a military man who was a former Counterintelligence Corps officer.
Senator STENNIS. I think that is a very interesting point. Would you mind asking him if he can pass on that situation with reference to other fields, this drain caused by our military being called on to do so many things, and the shortage of men ?
Senator THURMOND. Well, if he is familiar with that. I specifically questioned him about the shortage of intelligence officers.
Senator Stennis just wondered if you had any comment on the shortage in other fields, or are you familiar with that?
Major BUCHSBAUM. I am not familiar with any other areas, except that I know, I have neighbors who are in other staff sections, and we are complaining that we are understaffed, because, naturally, the needs of the Army overseas has preference, and the same persons cannot perform duties at two different places at the same time.
So if we retire people and we send a large number of people abroad because they are needed there, we have, the rest of us who are now in this country, who are serving in the continental United States, have to suffer a great shortage of personnel. I am suffering such a great shortage of personnel in my own branch.
Senator THURMOND. That is intelligence you are speaking of?
I lost all three of my trained sergeants plus one officer for various reasons, oversea assignment or retirement, and, although the G-2 and also the personnel, G-1, 1st Army, is trying very hard to get replacements, there is no improvement in sight until personnel from overseas can again return to this country.
Senator STENNIS. Personnel what?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Personnel from overseas can return to this country, because there just is a limited number of personnel of all types, and if we have a buildup in one place, there must, of necessity, be shortages in other places.
Senator STENNIS. If the Senator will yield to me, I would like to ask a question.
Senator THURMOND. Yes, sir.
Senator STENNIS. I think this is rather significant. You said that the first cause for this shortage was that you have had a number of retirements ?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Yes, sir.
Senator STENNIS. In your enlisted men, in your sergeants, and also in the officer group!
? Major BUCHSBAUM. In this particular instance, sir, I had one enlisted man and one officer retire, and two enlisted men, two NCO's went
Senator STENNIS. I thought you were talking, though, about the Army generally, not just your jurisdiction.
Major BUCHSBAUM. I am using my particular situation, sir, as an example of what is going on in the Army throughout the United
States, I am sure, because from my conversations with friends and fellow officers, I can
Senator STENNIS. That is what I wanted to get to.
The second reason was the drain on the services here at home due to oversea commitments.
Major BUCHSBAUM. Absolutely, sir.
Senator STENNIS. That is taking away much, at least, of your better type of personnel?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Right, sir.
Senator STENNIS. I think that is very valuable testimony. That is something that I had thought was happening. You testified that it is a fact in your department, and based upon your contacts with others, you think the drain is felt there, too?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Yes, sir.
I do feel that the drain is felt everywhere in the Military Establishment in the continental United States. We all realize that the overseas troop units must have priority over our own needs.
After all, we were overseas before and we cried for personnel and we would have resented it if stateside units would have held on to the personnel that we badly needed overseas.
Now, we happen to be here and we have to make do and work harder and worker longer hours and make up for it.
Senator STENNIS. I do not agree with you that they are necessarily entitled to the best personnel or the best in anything unless combat is imminent, because to have the proper reserves here to go elsewhere on call on our many commitments, these units that are training here and those of you charged with responsibilities like yours, are certainly entitled to much of the talent. It seems to me that we are sending men now to Thailand, as you know.
Major BUCHSBAUM. Yes, sir.
Senator STENNIS. And Í hope that they are well prepared to go, but it illustrates that those of you at home have responsibility.
I think this is interesting testimony. I thank the Senator for yielding to me.
TESTIMONY BEFORE SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE RELATING TO EXAMPLES
OF INFILTRATION BY COMMUNISTS
Senator THURMOND. Yes, sir.
Now, on page 34, if you will turn there a minute, the witness brings out specific examples of infiltration by Communists in our own ranks. It is the same old story: The lack of alertness on the part of our official agencies to insure that infiltration by Communists into our ranks would not be easy. Hans stated :
The fact that certain U.S. officials in Germany intentionally or inadvertently defeated the best American interests in Germany by playing into Soviet bands further caused the Soviets and Communists to assume that the U.S. Government would not take drastic action to insist on its announced policies being carried out in spite of Soviet objections or lack of cooperation. Such American officials as the former head of the OMGUS (Office of Military Government, U.S.)
radio branch and his deputy, having been members of the Communist Party be fore, took actions shortly after the Soviet blockade of Berlin seriously affecting the personnel and effectiveness of broadcasts by RIAS (U.S.-sponsored radio in Berlin). Through their decisions a powerful transmitter was not used in Berlin as orginally planned, ardent and popular supporters of official American policies and interests in Europe such as the excellent commentators Von Varady and Eugen Hartmann, were not only fired without notice or due cause, but were even prevented from gaining other employment, and radio commentators were selected who, openly as well as secretly, supported leftist and SPD interests strongly opposing Western military preparedness, such as NATO, and efforts to contain or combat Soviet aggression.
I was just wondering if you had any comment on that statement or is that in line with the operations of Communists?
Major BUCHSBAUM. I was not in Berlin at that time, sir, and I have no knowledge of these incidents.
Senator THURMOND. Now, on page 34, appears testimony about infiltration by Communists into West anti-Communist propaganda programs, as experienced by Mr. Hans. This testimony states:
Other independent RIAS commentators, such as Ernst Tillich, who also staunchly backed U.S. policy, were dropped, as well, at a later date. This lack of understanding by certain American officials abroad (in this case, Berlin), regarding the importance of fostering and constantly helping the true local friends of America, was greatly responsible for resentment, despair, and doubt in the wisdom of openly endorsing U.S. interests in the face of constant Communist intrigues, infiltration, and frequent acts of violence, against which many once eager friends of the United States were not even adequately protected. Although the aforementioned OMGUS officials finally resigned in 1953 (shortly before a planned loyalty investigation and about the time OMGUS ceased to exist anyway), the radio branch Hagen International Broadcasting Conference in 1947, permitted the Soviets to obtain the best possible radio frequencies for East German stations which then broadcast strong communist propaganda throughout Germany.
Major, would you be familiar with any of that information contained in that statement ?
Major BUCHSBAUM. No, sir, I am not.
SPY SCHOOL IN EAST GERMANY
Senator THURMOND. Major, while you were in Berlin, you were,
of course, in immediate proximity of the focal point for almost every espionage organization operating in Communist orbit. In addition to the East German zone's own enormous spy system, Berlin is the focal point for subversive apparatus of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania, Bulgaria, and even North Korea and Red China.
In fact, this is a training and dispatching zone for Communist agents scheduled to serve in South America, Iran, Algeria, and West Africa.
The Soviet, itself, maintains two separate espionage organizations there—the largest being a branch of the KGB, the Committee of State Security.
From this vantage point, the KGB engages in political, economic, and scientific espionage against all Western Europe and North American targets. The other espionage service of the Soviets is the Military Intelligence Service known as GRU.
Did you, while you were in Berlin, become acquainted with the activities of General Gribanov, the Soviet KGB head in Berlin?
Major BUCHSBAUM. No, sir. Counter espionage was outside the scope of my mission.
Senator THURMOND. Major Buchsbaum, much of the activity of subversion, infiltration, and harassment with which our forces in Berlin are confronted emanate, of course, from the East Zone's Ministry for State Security, headed by Erich Mielke, who, incidentally, murdered two Berlin police captains in 1931. Mielke, or whoever happens to be the head of the Ministry of State Security, is, of course, subject to the control and supervision of an "advisors section" of the Soviet KGB which is permanently assigned to East Germany.
In 1960, the Ministry of State Security created another division called Department "R,” which has the specific responsibility for conducting operations against allied military missions assigned in Berlin.
Major, in your duties in Berlin, I was just wondering if you were familiar with this Department “R” operation in any way? Major BUCHSBAUM. No, sir, I have no firsthand knowledge on it.
BRIEFING OF U.S. PERSONNEL ASSIGNED TO WESTERN EUROPE
Senator THURMOND. Major Buchsbaum, the scope of subversion and espionage activity of Communists in West Germany and Western Europe is almost beyond comprehension.
The East German Ministry of State Security, operating from headquarters on Normannenstrasse in East Berlin, has a minimum of 16,000 agents operating inside West Germany, who are, in turn, backed up by some 22,000 staff officers. Of these 16,000 agents, more than 5,000 reside in West Germany.
In 1960 alone, 2,802 agents were actually caught in West Germany.
Between 1951 and 1960, 590 persons were convicted of espionage and related felonies in West Berlin alone. Kidnapping is one of their specialties. West Berlin and West German authorities have documented 255 cases of successful kidnapping and 143 other planned or attempted kidnappings since World War II, not to mention numerous others not uncovered.
Major, to what extent are American personnel assigned to Western Europe and West Berlin informed of this monumental effort by the Communists to undermine their activities, to infiltrate their operations, and to compromise them personally?
Major BUCHSBAUM. Well, sir, when I went to Berlin, I was briefed, I was personally briefed on the danger of kidnapping, danger of infiltration.
I would assume that all officers were briefed the same way. But I have no direct and personal connection with the counter espionage effort in Europe.
SPY SCHOOL IN EAST GERMANY
Senator THURMOND. Major Buchsbaum, the Communists are very diligent in training their own subversion and espionage personnel. One of the schools of spies located on the outskirts of East Berlin goes under the harmless sounding name of "School of Administration."
This spy school is under direct supervision of the "Ministry of State Security" (Colonels Bartonek and Woehl). Maj. Gen.