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EVALUATION OF TOWN HALL SEMINAR Senator THURMOND. Would you just in brief give us your evaluation of that program and the effectiveness against the cold war threat?

Colonel WAGASKY. There was no question in my mind, sir, about its effectiveness.

As I stated previously, it was done professionally. The speakers were experts in their field, and they covered the entire gamut of the Soviet threat.

Senator THURMOND. I have a copy of the 1960 Town Hall seminars in which Air Force Lieutenant General Mundy spoke concerning the Industrial College of the Armed Forces teams which are scheduled to lecture throughout the United States to the Reserves, and business, industrial, and labor organizations.

Are you familiar with this program and could you give us your comments and evaluation concerning it?

Colonel WAGASKY. I believe that is the same one I speak of as the Town Hall seminar.

Sentator THURMOND. Is that the same one?
Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir.

Senator THURMOND. I have some programs here of earlier seminars and the one you attended, but they are similar.

Colonel WAGASKY. I understand they were similar in content and composition, sir.

AIR FORCE SEMINAR ACTIVITY

Senator THURMOND. It is my understanding that the Air Force's participation in cold war education largely centered around the Industrial College of the Armed Forces lectures and that only rarely did the individual local Air Force commands generate their own cold war seminars. Can

you speak in regard thereto concerning CONAC's activities? Colonel WAGASKY. I can only speak for CONAC in that I attended this one seminar for CONAC during February and March of 1961, and I cannot speak for the other commands.

Senator THURMOND. Well, had they generated any cold war seminars?

Colonel WAGASKY. To my knowledge they had not.

PROCEDURE USED IN COMPILING AIR INTELLIGENCE DIGEST

Senator THURMOND. Colonel Wagasky, in these hearings we have referred frequently to the Air Intelligence Digest, compiled and disseminated under your guidance from CONAC. We have used this publication as an example of how hard-hitting, thought-provoking, unclassified intelligence information concerning communism can be effectively disseminated to subordinate commands, units and the troops. I feel that you are to be congratulated for having maintained this highly professional intelligence digest.

Will you please indicate the procedure used in compiling this publication ?

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir. Thank you for the compliment. Also, I thank you in behalf of the staff that creates this publication.

We have a staff of four people. It starts with screening approximately 100 documents, of which I have a list that I can put in the

record if need be. Screenings are accomplished by Maj. Bruno Ostelli, Mr. James Murray, and myself; it then goes over to Mr. Murray, who is the layout man, who in turn coordinates with T. Sgt. Charles Duran, Jr., who adds the artwork to it.

In turn they give their production to a typist (Mrs. Marvina H. Sanner) who produces her part, justifying the copy and so forth. It is all compiled, packaged, and sent camera-ready to the 2200th Printing Squadron at Langley Air Force Base, Va. This printing squadron prints this publication and returns it to us in the amount of 5,500 copies at the present time.

Two thousand and two hundred of these are distributed within CONAC proper, 2,300 are distributed by Headquarters, USAF, to other Air Force units. The Navy receives 500, the Army approximately 200, foreign countries about 80 copies, and these go to Italy, Canada, Korea, the Union of South Africa, the Philippines, as I recall to the best of my knowledge now, plús Civil Defense and the Library of Congress.

Senator THURMOND. Does the Chief of Information at your headquarters cooperate in the dissemination of this unclassified intelligence digest?

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir, he does.

INTELLIGENCE SERVICES PROVIDED BY WAGASKY

Senator THURMOND. Do you provide intelligence assistance or materials in support of the command's public or internal information programs on a regular basis, or does the Office of Information make any specific requests for your support?

Colonel WAGASKY. On å regular basis I have a Tuesday briefing for continental Air Command's staff, which includes General Blake and his major staff every Tuesday. This is regular, usually classified.

On a called-for basis for the information officer I have given approximately three troop information sessions. I have talked publicly once to a Rotary Club in Perry, Ga.

I have also given specific classified briefings that were called for by the information officer. For example, at the present time there is a classified briefing that I gave to the staff 2 weeks ago, developed by the 12th Air Force, that covers Soviet aerospace and all of its spheres of latest scientific developments. The information officer has asked me to give that to the troop information program, which I will do within the next 2 months.

SCOPE OF WAGASKY'S INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES Senator THURMOND. What is the scope of your intelligence activities?

Colonel WAGASKY. My primary function in the Continental Air Command is to train reservists in the intelligence field, sir.

This includes approximately 600 intelligence personnel-400 officers, 200 airmen that are divided into flights as classes and in Reserve units. This is the primary mission.

I also work on the annexes for war plans which Continental Air Command is responsible for. These are the two primary missions. Also a third responsibility is keeping the command informed.

UTILIZATION OF AIRMAN MAGAZINE

Senator THURMOND. Does the Chief of Information produce his own digest or bulletin containing timely intelligence data, or does he transmit publications, such as the Airman, which originate in the Department of Air Force, Director of Information, or in the Department of Defense ?

Colonel WAGASKY. He does the latter of your remark, sir; sends out the Airman, the newsletter, which is extracted from a news service, as I understand it, that comes from Headquarters, USAF, plus films.

UTILIZATION OF UNCLASSIFIED INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION

Senator THURMOND. Is there any OSI or Department of the Air Force unclassified intelligence material disseminated to you, or do you cull unclassified information from classified materials originating at Department of the Air Force for further dissemination ?

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir, I do this.

DISCUSSION ON AIR FORCE PUBLICATION COMMUNISM SPEAKS

Senator THURMOND. Colonel, are you familiar with the monthly Air Force publication, Communism Speaks?

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir.

Senator THURMOND. As you know, it is generally agreed that this was very excellent, unclassified, hard-hitting exposure of Communist propaganda and subversion. Its distribution was stopped in April of 1959. Do

you feel that publications such as this would aid the Air Force to raise the quality of information and training programs on communism in subordinate units and among the troops!

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir.

MATERIALS DISSEMINATED BY WAGASKY'S OFFICE Senator THURMOND. Is any additional material disseminated by your office other than the Air Intelligence Digest to Air Force Reserve units to be included in their intelligence and security training?

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir; we disseminate classified publications that come from the entire intelligence community (Army, Navy, and Air Force, and some State Department), plus the training materials from Air Training Command on this subject, and, of course, you mentioned the Air Intelligence Training Bulletin. That is it, sir.

HELPFULNESS OF CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE DOCUMENTS

Senator THURMOND. Have you used any documents produced by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee or the House Committee on Un-American Activities exposing communism in the United States and its propaganda techniques and methods of infiltration, either in briefings, training aids, or as reprints in the Air Intelligence Digest ?

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir.
Senator THURMOND. Have you found them helpful?
Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir.

COLD WAR TRAINING FOR RESERVE UNITS

Senator THURMOND. Colonel, we reviewed the command's training program for both Organized and Active Reserve units and for Inactive Reserve elements. We found that in one region no training materials or guidance was received which challenged their capabilities and engaged their interests. This shortcoming was no doubt less evident in the organized units. But even in those there was apparent lack of emphasis on training in cold war subjects.

Of course, this is only one facet of all around training, but it provides vital motivation to accomplish preparation for specific duties and skills which must be filled in the event of an emergency. Cold war training appears to be of great interest to Reserve members. We found that a cold war project can also be most effective to hold the interest of reservists.

This is being done to some extent by your office. We understand it is also done in the inspector general area and by Research and Development Reserve Commands.

I compliment you and the Reserve unit known as Boston specialized training flight in psychological operations for its Project 1961 and the resulting Reserve training study for psychological operations officers.

Would you elaborate on the steps taken in producing such fine cold war material and tell us what guidance you furnished the participants?

Colonel WAGASKY. Yes, sir. Thanks again for the compliment, sir.

On projects training which these reservists do in the intelligence classes--we asked USAF Headquarters what subjects they would like for these reservists to pursue, inasmuch as the reservists would have a full year to look into any

one given subject. When we receive these lists from Headquarters USAF, we further refine the list and send it to the classes, and at the end of the list we add “or any other projects or subjects

that you may want to pursue.” We submit this list to the classes. They return their recommendations to us.

We approve their selections and send it back. We ask for three quarterly reports per year, and they submit their finished project and credit accordingly.

Senator THURMOND. What distribution and use is made of the report?

Colonel WAGASKY. The report made the staff rounds of Continental Air Command and Headquarters, USAF. This one specifically is presently in Headquarters, USAF, being looked at for future use.

Senator THURMOND. Colonel, besides this type of unit project training, are you called upon to support or monitor unit training in the command, or to provide materials for use in commanders call at lower echelons?

Colonel WAGASKY. On a regular basis we are not called upon, with the exception of the Air Intelligence Training Bulletin that goes down to the unit level, where the information officer uses it at his own discretion.

RESULTS OF AIR FORCE SELECTIVE SURVEY

Senator THURMOND. The Air Force in its selective triannual survey in October 1961, asked "Are you getting adequate information on how

communism operates?". At CONAC Headquarters 49 of 198 responded “No," and at Robins Air Force Base 68 of 210 responded "No."

Do you think that more is being done by the various commands now to improve the flow of this information?

Colonel WAGASKY. I am not qualified to give you an answer on that one, sir.

WHETHER INTELLIGENCE SHOULD TAKE GREATER PART IN TROOP

INFORMATION

Senator THURMOND. Do you not think that intelligence staffs, such as yours, should take a more active part in producing and monitoring programs of instruction about the enemy?

Colonel WAGASKY. As I answered the chief counsel previously, sir, as the setup now is, intelligence puts in its experience and guidance as an input into the information and education program, and they use it as they see fit.

CARTER'S COMMENTS CONCERNING MILITARY SPEAKERS ON COMMUNISM

Senator THURMOND. Colonel, as you no doubt know, your Chief of Information, Colonel Carter, has said that he would recommend against compliance with requests by the public for uniformed speakers on communism and cold war subjects, because of several indications of possible controversy.

We have asked the Department of Defense to check Colonel Carter's comment. The reply indicated that quality of knowledge about communism may have been the reason for this negative attitude.

It is difficult for me to see how military men can be expected to speak with any depth or frequency as to their mission in our Nation's affairs without some reference, whether or not expert, to communism. Also, Colonel Carter felt that communism was the object of indicated controversies, by which he had reference to the unusual public attention given to military speakers in newspaper stories.

First, I always react strongly against any suggestion that communism is a "controversial” subject or for that matter when characterized as "partisan politics.” Communism is our self-announced enemy at all times and in all places. And there can be no doubt that it is the intention of Communists to "bury us,” when the opportunity presents itself.

Secondly, our national defense policies and objectives in this should not be left in a vulnerable and undefended position and at the mercy of irresponsible or unwarranted criticism. I have intended to request the Department of Defense for its views of this matter. Controversy may come about by reason of a military man speaking from a public platform, or just appearing there, when he exercises poor judgment as to the nature of his remarks, or even by reason of the personalities associated with him on the program, as speakers or sponsors. Such true "controversy" can be forestalled by"quality control," a prior review of the purposes of the requests, intelligence check on the parties of interest, other speakers, and so forth, by your staff and by the Director of Security and Law Enforcement.

Is this being done now by your office to insure the information officer is not left without intelligence guidance ?

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