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OBJECTIVE OF 1ST ARMY COLD WAR SEMINAR NOT BEING ACCOMPLISHED
BY NATIONAL GUARD
Senator THURMOND. The Department of the Army evaluation of the 1st U.S. Army cold war seminars stated in part:
The many favorable comments from participants at both the National Strategy Seminar and the seminar conducted in the 1st U.S. Army area indicate that these activities achieved the objective of bringing together highly responsible citizen-soldiers for a better understanding and appreciation of the Communist menace and strategems and for transmission of this information to hometown and professional associates. Major overseas and CONUS Army commanders are encouraged to conduct similar seminars in their respective areas, utilizing graduates of the National Strategy Seminary wherever possible.
General Williams, do you feel that the National Guard is currently accomplishing the objectives outlined in this Department of the Army evaluation?
General WILLIAMS. I think not. This encouragement that was given to commanders was not given to the Army National Guard, so far as I know. It was confined to the active services.
Senator THURMOND. Specifically, the objectives of the 1st Army cold war seminar were, and I quote:
a. Improve the recognition by military personnel of Communist Cold War techniques insofar as these effect the U.S. military forces.
b. Outline courses of actions for Active and Reserve Army personnel when agencies of 'fronts' working against the U.S. military.
C. Improve training of Active, National Guard and Reserve Army personnel in aggressive intelligence objectives, thereby improving security consciousness and the sense of urgency in attaining greater military mobilization readiness.
General Williams, there can be very little doubt that the current Communist anti-military propaganda generated in the United States demands a higher level of alertness and education. Later I will show you some samples of anti-military propaganda originating in the New York metropolitan area to obtain your reactions. Meanwhile, do you feel that these three specific objectives are being achieved in your division?
General WILLIAMS. I think they are not, sir.
NEW YORK NATIONAL GUARD CONTACTS WITH ARMY INTELLIGENCE
Senator THURMOND. I understand that Colonel Sidoti, the National Guard State Chaplain, and Colonel Joyce established contact with First U.S. Army G-2 to explore coordination between the Guard and the Army Intelligence. I believe that this phase of training on Communist subversion and propaganda was considered an important part of National Guard preparedness. Is that correct?
General WILLIAMS. Mr. Chairman, would you care to address that question to Colonel Joyce, who happens to be here?
Senator THURMOND. I will address it to Colonel Joyce.
Colonel JOYCE. You say we arranged coordination with the intelligence officer, First Army—is that correct?
Senator THURMOND. Would you like for me to repeat the question? Colonel Joyce. I heard the question. But I believe you said
Senator THURMOND. That you and Colonel Sidoti, the National Guard State chaplain, established contact with the 1st U.S. Army G-2 to explore coordination between the Guard and the Army intelligence. I believe that this phase of training on Communist subversion and propaganda was considered an important part of the National Guard's preparedness. I ask you if that is correct.
Colonel Joyce. Well, any contact we had with 1st Army intelligence was informal. As for instituting any of this type of training in the National Guard, it is out of the question anyway because of the training requirements placed on the units.
There is just not any time for such activity under the present programs.
DISCUSSION ON NATIONAL GUARD CADET TRAINING AT CAMP SMITH
Senator THURMOND. In the summer of 1960, a special cold war orientation was conducted for the New York National Guard cadet training program at Camp Smith, N.Y. Would you please outline for us the purpose of this additional training for cadets and tell us what the National Guard hoped to gain by it?
Colonel JOYCE. If I may--I am the director of instruction for the Empire State Military Academy at Camp Smith. During the 15 days there each summer we conduct an officer candidate course and a noncommissioned officer course. Last year we programed 2 hours of troop information during which subversive activities in this country were discussed, and a promotion of national purpose among guardsmen was instituted for the students at the Academy.
In addition, we conducted what we call a leaders reaction course during which the students were subjected to the effects of psychological warfare and brainwashing, so as to familiarize them with the soft and hard approach in this type of activity. However, of course, it was very condensed and not nearly as intensive as it might be if we had more time.
EXTRACTS OF LETTERS RECEIVED BY SUBCOMMITTEE CONCERNING COLD WAR
Senator THURMOND. I would like to read extracts of eight letters selected at random from approximately 100 replies which the subcommittee has received in response to inquiries concerning the importance and the reception of cold war education in Reserve National Guard and civilian organizations on the threat of communism.
1. Eugene R. Leach, 197 Garden Road, Pompton Lakes, N.J., states: With Communism becoming a major threat to democracy, we felt we should know more about it. We therefore contacted other organizations in town and they agreed to support us.
We contacted the Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Army at Camp Kilmer. All but the Army turned us down. They referred us to American Strategy, Incorporated.
2. Lt. Comdr. Evelyn H. Larson, U.S. Coast Guard Reserve, New York, said:
I attended a few seminars of the type you mention and found them very interesting and informative. In my opinion they were well presented, unbiased and factual. I think it is important that Americans, as well as other peoples in the free world, be aware of the Communist methods used in their attempt to take over the world. Did you
also have the feeling, General Williams, that the presentations given by American Strategy were “unbiased”
80752-62- pt. 6
General WILLIAMS. Yes, sir.
Regarding your current study, I am not aware of any active programs to inform persons on this vital matter in my particular area of north Jersey. If I may offer a few suggestions, you might want to consider the following:
Perhaps if key individuals in a community could be exposed to qualified speakers, they would be stimulated into course of action. In other words, I believe there is a need for leadership.
Teaching Communist subversive tactics in public secondary schools—a number of parochial schools already have these programs.
Regularly scheduled TV and radio programs to keep the public constantly aware of Red maneuvers against us immediately as they occur.
Dr. Michael F. Nealis, Mr. Vernon Public Schools, Mt. Vernon,
The program referred to in this letter very likely was the lecture and film we presented for some 300 or 400 police and fire officers in Westchester County during the early part of last year.
For a number of years we have been conducting up-grading courses for paid policemen and firemen attached to departments here in Westchester County.
A nasty experience encountered by these men some years ago at a disturbance in Peekskill has always made me feel that peace officers need solid grounding and training in problems of riot control. It was my feeling that the opportunity to view “Operation Abolition” would refresh their memories on this problem. I only hope that it served to alert commissioners and chief officers of the need for continuous vigilance, and clear, active lines of intelligence in order to maintain peace in our communities.
Mr. Harry R. Knox, civil defense director, Mount Vernon, N.Y., has this comment:
During the national civil defense alert—1961, a group of Davis High School students, calling themselves Youth for a Sane Nuclear Policy and, led by seyeral adults, picketed the Mount Vernon City Hall prior to the take-cover signal and after. I counter picketed these students with a group of our own Civil Defense. Our counter picketing was so effective that I received letters of protest from the Civil Liberty Committee which proved to me that I was on the right path. I may add that protest letters were also sent to General Farrell, New York State Civil Defense Director.
I have scheduled many showings of the picture, “Operation Abolition” for many organizations including PTA groups, service clubs and church groups.
Whenever I read a letter in the local Argus paper, which doesn't convey the true facts to the readers involving a Federal, State or local protective program, I either answered the letter ersonally or had someone else in Civil Defense send in a reply.
Now, I am in the midst of getting the true facts about strontium 90 in our milk and other foods. “Women for Peace” have been very active in this area, making house-to-house calls and using the mails to send pamphlets to the residents. The public has become confused and don't know where they stand. I have enclosed three of the pamphlets distributed by this group calling themselves “Women for Peace."
Mr. Jerome J. Haggerty, Long Island, N. Y., stated in his letter:
Turning to the educational field, I have in all classes, graduate and otherwise, incorporated the teaching of Communist methods of subversion. The impression I have received is that the people I have encountered were thirsting for such information.
The size of the seminars ranges from approximately 40 to 300 people. A seminar with several hundred in attendance was given at C. W. Post College, Greenvale, Long Island, N.Y., on Feb. 21, 1961. Speakers were Congressman August E. Johansen; Lt. Col. Gary Hartell, U.S. Army, retired; Father Janto, S.J., professor of history, Sienna College; and Dr. Frank Barnett, Director of Research, Richardson Foundation.
With the thought that the general public is completely unaware of the role of the military in American society, I have organized a year graduate course, “The Influence of the Military in American History," at C. W. Post College. A copy of this course is attached for your information.
Chaplain Ralph M. Reed, formerly chaplain of II Corps, U.S. Army, states:
I do not know who submitted my name to your committee. I am vitally concerned with maintaining our American heritage and that our concept of freedom is not lost amid the chaotic confusion which is created by Communist propaganda. My participation has been limited to the materials provided by the Army in its “Character Guidance Program" and has been entirely within the Army area. It is my opinion that many people fail to understand communism because they do not grasp the basic fact that it strikes at moral and spiritual truths. We Americans need to reexamine the moral and spiritual foundations on which our Nation was established. It is my conviction that we need to be more concerned about the moral and spiritual truths in this struggle than what we have been in the past. It is not enough to emphasize our economic growth and our educational opportunities, as important as these are in our idea of freedom. I believe we need to recognize that we must grow morally and spiritually in order to win the battle of freedom.
Mr. Edward J. Poulos, Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y., said in his letter:
My activity with respect to the fight against communism stems from my having attended the 1960 Defense Strategy Seminar conducted at the National War College, the details of which I assume you are aware.
Since that time I have been speaking to various groups and organizations throughout my county of Nassau and so far have addressed a total of 30 such groups with a total attendance of over 2,000 persons. My talk is primarily concerned with attempting to create an understanding of Communist philosophy, objectives, and methods, together with a comparison of Communist ideology and with the ideas of freedom. (The Communists come off second best.) I am not part of any group or organized effort, and have no films or printed material, although I have spoken to groups in conjunction with the film "Operation Abolition," which was supplied and shown by others.
I have been pleased in that my talks have been very well received and there seems to be general agreement that there should be more of the same. While there is, of course, no easy or simple solution to the problem, and I have none to propose, I do have a great deal of faith in the American people and their ability to make the right decisions once they truly appreciate the nature of their struggle and the fact, hard as it is for them to believe, that there does exist a conspiracy dedicated to the destruction of our way of life by any available means.
DISCUSSION ON GRASSROOTS REALIZATION OF NEED FOR FACTUAL EDUCATION
ON COLD WAR
General Williams, were you aware of the strong grassroots realization of the need for factual education on cold war issues ?
General WILLIAMS. Yes, sir. And we see that in New York State. For example, several months ago, I would say probably in March of 1962, a civilian group in the city of Buffalo, N.Y., put on a 2-day seminar for members of the public who attended by subscription, and paid a fee to cover their attendance, which was to take care of printed material and lunch to be served and so forth.
I did not personally attend this seminar, but I understand it was attended by a very large number of people representing industry and education and business. And the subject matter was entirely on Communist subversion, the facts and methods employed by the Communists in this country. They had a rather imposing list of qualified speakers at this seminar. We were asked, in the 27th Armored Division, to participate in this conference, and we did to the extent of sending three of our most knowledgeable officers on this subject to participate, as individuals, in organizing and conducting this seminar. They received no credit as members of the National Guard, nor as members of the Militia Association of New York. They participated strictly as knowledgeable individuals.
I would like to see much more of this done. But I think there are a great number now of knowledgeable individuals in New York State who are entirely willing to address groups on this subject. I think that more of this will be done in the future by individual initiative.
Senator THURMOND. And you definitely feel the need for it, don't
General WILLIAMS. Yes, sir.
SPECIAL SEMINARS PROVIDED BY G-2 SECTION OF CAMP DRUM
Senator THURMOND. During the summer of 1960, the G-2 section of Camp Drum, N.Y.—the New York National Guard summer training site-provided special seminars on Communist strategy, propaganda, and subversive techniques for selected division staff personnel of New York National Guard units. Would you please tell us if you felt this addition to summer training was of value and how it was included in the 2-week active duty program?
General WILLIAMS. I am not competent to answer that question.
Colonel JOYCE. I did not attend the seminar, and I was not with the division at the time. I am not familiar with it; no, sir.
EVALUATION OF SEMINAR AT C. W. POST COLLEGE
Senator THURMOND. On March 11, 1961, many New York State National Guard personnel attended a special cold war seminar at C. W. Post College, Long Island, N.Y. In this particular program, the U.S. Army 2d Corps had established cosponsorship under the direction of Dean Hoxie, a graduate of the national strategy seminar in 1959. Dean Hoxie was of the opinion that cold war training dealing with techniques of Communist subversion, propaganda, and agitation was of importance in educational institutions, especially in the New York metropolitan area. A program was organized with Dean Hoxie by Col. A. J. Fuge, who provided the speakers, reference materials, and student handouts for this Saturday seminar. The program included
lectures by nationally known speakers on communism, including Dr. F. G. A. Kramer; Father Stephen A. Janto, of Sienna College; and Congressman August E. Johansen, of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Could you give your impression of this program and an evaluation of the value of this type of education ?
General WILLIAMS. I have no knowledge of this particular meeting or results that were obtained from it.
Colonel Joyce. I was present at this seminar of which you speak, sir, merely as an observer.
Senator THURMOND. Can you give us your impression of this program and an evaluation of this type of education ?
Colonel Joyce. Well, I personally was very much impressed by it. I feel that it is a step in the right direction. However, as with most of these programs, it generates a considerable amount of interest and very little follow-up. I feel that this type of program should be expanded considerably and that more provision should be made for