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DISCUSSION ON PRO-COMMUNIST PRESS OUTLETS IN THE UNITED STATES
any of them.
Senator THURMOND. You would have to ask the Justice Department about that. You do not know whether segments of the press in this country respond to Soviet-inspired anti-United States military propaganda ?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I know of no responsible segments of the press that respond to Soviet propaganda, no.
Senator THURMOND. Mr. Secretary, can you tell us how many known pro-Communist press outlets there are in the United States ?
Mr. SYLVESTER. There is an assumption in your question which makes it very difficult for me to answer—known by whom?
Senator THURMOND. I asked you if you knew how many pro-Communist press
outlets there are in the United States and can you name Mr. SYLVESTER. The assumption is that there are some and I have already testified that I do not know of any responsible newspaper or publication that is a pro-Communist outlet.
Senator THURMOND. Then let me give you some. In your position, it seems you ought to have some knowledge of these: Mainstream, which is a monthly Communist cultural literary organ, published in New York.
Mr. SYLVESTER. Do you know what its circulation is?
Mr. SYLVESTER. It would have some bearing on the impact of the thing.
Senator THURMOND. I imagine you might be interested in getting the circulation of all of these when I am through.
Mr. SYLVESTER. I will.
Senator THURMOND. Political Affairs, provides a means to inform Communists on the correct party views and to provide policy guidance for Communist propaganda.
Nok Vilaga, Hungarian monthly periodical.
New York Beacon, organ of the New York Monthly for the Committee for the Protection of the Foreign-Born.
New World Review, which has continuously operated, for 22 years, as an educational media of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, Inc., which is a cited organization.
Vanguard, cited as official newspaper for the Marxist-LeninistCommunist Party.
Party Voice, an internal publication of the Communists distributed in New York State.
National Guardian, although denying affiliation with the Communist Party, consistently promotes official Communist propaganda as discussed by the Soviets.
National Lawyers Guild Quarterly, official publication of National Lawyers Guild.
You are not familiar with any of those publications?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I am not familiar with them. I recognize one or two names, but I am not familiar with them and I can assure you from knowledge that none of them are on the newsstands of any of the Armed Services.
Senator THURMOND. I could mention several dozen other publications that have direct links with the Communist propaganda and subversive apparatus, particularly in the New York metropolitan area.
Now, in your important position in dealing with public news media and its influence on the Armed Forces, have you had a study made of such publications since you undertook your present job?
Mr. SYLVESTER. No, I have not, Senator. "But I can assure you as I did before, because I know the list, that none of those are on sale on any Defense Establishment newsstand.
Senator THURMOND. How many press outlets are there which readily and sympathetically respond to Communist manipulations in the United States?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I know of no responsible press outlets.
HARM OF NON-COMMUNIST PUBLICATIONS FOLLOWING COMMUNIST LINE
Senator THURMOND. In the interest of time, let me tell you what we have found in our investigation of the past 8 months. I estimate there are approximately 150 front activities in the New York metropolitan area alone which promote the distribution of Communist periodicals, propaganda, handbills, posters, and other agitational materials. Some of these are genuinely motivated, pacifist and disarmament-type organizations, that have been partially influenced by Communist agitators to make them respond to the propaganda signals of the Kremlin. In testimony of several highly experienced military intelligence officers, it has been clearly demonstrated that the influence by Communist fronts on uninformed American youth is a common problem. The comment made by Lieutenant Colonel Burns, Security Office, at West Point, indicated that there was less antimilitary propaganda coming directly from the Communist Party and more from those loosely affiliated or even non-Communist organizations.
Is it not true that a non-Communist publication which would follow the Communist line unwittingly might do more harm than an identified Communist publication, because the public would be on guard against the latter?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I am not sure whether this is a statement of yours you want me to validate or a question.
Senator THURMOND. It is a question.
Senator THURMOND. Is it not true that a non-Communist publication which follows the Communist line unwittingly might do more harm than an identified Communist publication because the public would be on guard against the latter?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I can see that.
DOD ACTION ON PUBLICATIONS FOLLOWING COMMUNIST LINE
Senator THURMOND. The pattern established during these hearings reflects, in my opinion, the all-out campaign, started by the Communist Party in the United States approximately 112 years ago, to seek affiliation or alliance with non-Communist organizations that could be made to promote Communist propaganda objectives under the cloak of their apparent respectability. It has become increasingly difficult to expose in time identifiable Communist agitators and their specific programs in this massive anti-United States military propaganda. It makes it difficult for patriotic organizations, the press, the radio, and TV to cut through the haze of gray propaganda, which, as you know, is that type of propaganda which cannot be readily identified as to the source of origin.
Now, how have you, as the highest press and public relations man in the Defense Establishment, dealt with this problem?
Mr. SYLVESTER. My answer would be that none of the publications that you have mentioned or suggested are on sale at any newsstand in any of the establishments of the military Defense Establishment abroad or at home.
Senator THURMOND. I did not ask you that. I asked you how you dealt with this problem which I just described.
Mr. SYLVESTER. This is the field in which I have authority. Senator THURMOND. Have you taken any steps to deal with it?
Mr. SYLVESTER. That is what we have done. These publications and this sort of material you are talking about are not offered for sale and are not presented to the military establishments over which we have control. As I understand what you are saying, you are dealing with the body politic or civil, over which I do not have any control.
If I understood what you said through your statement there, I gathered you said within the last year and a half; is that what you said ?
Senator THURMOND. That is right.
Mr. SYLVESTER. Well, it seems to me that the Communist effort has gone
back many, many more years than a year and a half. I think anybody who lived through 1930 recalls that the wave of pacifism among younger people was much greater than it is today. I assume that in our history pacifism was never higher than it was in 1933. I see no reports from the campuses or otherwise that there is a great wave of pacifism today comparable with that or even in any way commensurate with it.
Senator THURMOND. This has been going on for some years. Mr. SYLVESTER. Much more than a year and a half, Senator.
Senator THURMOND. A new all-out campaign started by the Communist Party in the United States, approximately a year and a half ago, was designed to seek affiliation and alliance with non-Communist organizations to promote Communist objectives under the cloak of their respectability.
Mr. SYLVESTER. I think that has been their program for many years. If you have followed the program at all, you will know they have tried to do that over 25 years or more. They haven't been very successful, but they have been trying for years and years to do that very thing.
Senator THURMOND. There is, of course, the bulk of the press in the United States which is sensitive to anti-American agitation and influence and recognizes propaganda plants and manipulations, but unfortunately, even this thoroughly pro-American press is influenced at times by uninformed Americans who do not recognize the cold war techniques of the Communists. Some of these constantly attempt to negate the military know-how about Communist cold war propaganda and subversion by use and exploitation of our freedom of speech and of the press.
Mr. Secretary, does your office have the capability to distinguish between the uninformed, whom you have the duty to properly inform, and the ill intentioned ?
Mr. SYLVESTER. What we try to do is to put out to the American public all the information that we can about how their money is being spent and how their defense efforts are going on. That is aimed with the hope that it will penetrate all segments of the public.
ATTACKS ON GREAT LAKES SEMINARS
Senator THURMOND. Three case studies were made by this subcommittee on the manner in which knowledgeable military personnel were attacked for their efforts to convey information on communism to the military Reserve, National Guard, and the public. The first was the case of Lieutenant Commander Wadsworth and his team of lecturers stationed at the Great Lakes Naval Training Center. I do not know if you have had occasion to read any testimony of these hearings or not. Are you familiar with the documentation developed proving that this cold war lecturing effort was smeared and rendered ineffective by slanted editorial attacks on the Navy?
Mr. SYLVESTER. No, I am not.
Senator THURMOND. You would be interested in knowing about such a thing in your official position, would you not?
Mr. SYLVESTER. Very much, because it seems highly unlikely.
Senator THURMOND. You might like to review the testimony of Lieutenant Commander Wadsworth and that of Admiral Smith, which provided ample evidence of a malicious attempt to stop the effort of several Great Lakes naval petty officers and to prevent the flow of information on communism to organizations which had specifically requested to have these Navy men present this type of information. Did this case come to your attention at the time it occurred.
Mr. SYLVESTER. I have no recollection of it.
Senator THURMOND. The development of adverse publicity was documented in the hearings and I feel you should study it.
Do you think this has a bearing on your job?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I would be glad to study it, but the experience of having adverse publicity seems to me one of the concomitants of public service or service in any branch of the Government. That in itself doesn't seem to me a tremendously worrisome thing.
Senator THURMOND. Do you feel what I have just said has a bearing on your job?
Mr. SYLVESTER. It is something I should be interested in, yes; I quite agree with you.
DISCUSSION ON CRITICISMS OF SANGER SEMINAR ACTIVITIES
Senator THURMOND. Captain Sanger was another witness who provided thoroughly documented information on slanted articles and erroneous reporting on his educational efforts dealing with communism. Have you read his testimony !
Mr. SYLVESTER. No, I haven't.
Senator THURMOND. On page 4459 of Captain Sanger's transcript, we discussed the efforts of certain newspapers to compromise his excellent program centered in the adjoining communities of Sand Point
Naval Air Station in Washington. I asked Captain Sanger what steps he had taken to prevent controversy about his educational program on communism. He said:
I think many of the people who object to education on communism could be well-intentioned, misinformed people who honestly and intellectually differ from our view.
Captain Sanger then showed us several examples of how some of the less informed people who had heard of his program had been instrumental in creating unfavorable comments about this naval officer's activities. This eventually grew into an attack by Time magazine, December 8, 1961, which alleged, on page 24, that Captain Sanger was connected with "ultras and rightist movements.? Under the subtitle, "Current Hero," allegations were made of assumed contacts between Captain Sanger and the "Minutemen."
I had assumed you had taken steps, Mr. Sylvester, to apprise yourself of these situations and the manner in which unfavorable news was generated, primarily by uninformed people to downgrade and compromise these important cold war educational projects. What can you tell us about your research concerning news around Captain Sanger's program?
Mr. SYLVESTER. Senator, I think you are under a misconception of what my authority in my job is. This was a Navy operation. If his program was stopped, this must mean that the Navy itself decided to stop it. This would not be under my jurisdiction, would not come
I don't handle the cold war programs. In this particular case, this is handled by the Navy under their cold war office, I would come into it if the Defense Department and the Navy itself were involved in a way that they wanted help. But if that program was stopped, then the Navy itself decided it must be stopped.
Senator THURMOND. One of your duties is to provide the American people with maximum information about the Department of Defense consistent with national security.
Mr. SYLVESTER. Yes.
Senator THURMOND. If efforts were made here to harm our national security, which these efforts were made to do, do you not think you had a responsibility in connection with it?
Mr. SYLVESTER. Again, Senator, when you read from that paper and the translation of that down to an actual case, you, as an officer in the Reserve, having recently served, know how it operates. It operates, as you know, through chains of command and it operates under procedures. Some of these procedures I am in and some of these procedures I am not in. The operation of the cold war program of the Navy, the Army, or the Air Force, is not something that is my responsibility. I don't initiate them, I don't set them out, I don't have control over them.
Therefore, in the case of Captain Sanger, if there was any attack on him or the program, the Navy itself handled this. If they came to me, asked for help on it and for me to work with them, of course, my service, my office, is there. But if the program was stopped, it was stopped by the Navy. He obviously, if it was stopped, hadn't sold it to his own service.
Senator THURMOND. Here is a naval officer carrying on important work, who was smeared by false articles written about him calculated