« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
c. The need exists for a professional, military approach to subversive propaganda. The reinstitution of the propaganda Analysis Course (expanded to include aspects of social subversion) in this USAINTS curriculum would aid greatly in speeding educational efforts in this field.
d. Guidance of lower echelon units is essential to maintain momentum and cautious but persistent followup to the National Strategy Seminar and the First United States Army Cold War Seminar.
ARMY REGULATION 515-1 DEALING WITH COLD WAR ACTIVITIES
Senator THURMOND. Army Regulation 515–1 is the basic regulation as to what an Army commander can and cannot do in cold war activities. They can act on the Army regulation independently, but Continental Army Command elaboration of these instructions certainly would have aided commands like the 4th Army staff in their cold war seminar programs. Do you not think so, Mr. Secretary?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I do not think I get the import of your question.
Senator THURMOND. Army Regulation 515–1 is the basic regulation as to what an Army commander can and cannot do in cold war activities. They can act on the Army regulation independently, but Continental Army Command elaboration of these instructions certainly would have aided the commands like the 4th Army staff in their cold war seminar programs. I asked
I asked you if you did not think that is correct.
Mr. SYLVESTER. This is completely outside the field of my competence. This goes to the regulations of the Army in the operation of the cold war, which I have no competency in and no responsibility for. This may well be true; I do not know.
Senator THURMOND. The U.S. 1st Army, since 1959, has asked the Continental Army Command several times for clarification of the continental United States application of Army Regulation 515–1. It seems they have not gotten a response. You are not familiar with that?
Mr. SYLVESTER. No, sir.
DISCUSSION ON 4TH ARMY'S SEMINAR IN SAN ANTONIO
I am wondering if you have seen this?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I take this to be the release by the San Antonio Junior Chamber of Commerce which sponsored the seminar, and the release lists all those who thought it was a very fine affair.
I might add, Senator, I think, with a little greater skill the 4th Army might have avoided some of the difficulty it got into. With a little more skill in public affairs and a little more sensitivity in this area, they might have avoided many of the problems they ran into.
FIGURES ON MILITARY PARTICIPATION IN COLD WAR SEMINARS
Senator THURMOND. Now, again, I want to refer back to this chart which I brought out in question No. 61. It shows, from July to December 1960, 86 seminars were conducted, sponsored, or promoted by the active services, Reserves, and National Guard in the continental United States.
Now, January to June 1961, 173 seminars were conducted, sponsored, or promoted. These seminars were getting underway, they were increasing
In the last half of the year, from July to December 1961—and your memorandum was issued August 5, 1961-only 12 seminars were held. So you can see the devastating effect your memorandum had.
Mr. SYLVESTER. I see no relationship, Senator, whatsoever. I think if there was any relationship, it was to the Secretary's memorandum as to how seminars should be conducted when we are connected with them. But this memorandum had no effect on them, I am sure.
Senator THURMOND. The last half of last year they fell down to 12; 173 the first half of the year and 12 the last half. The first half of this year, January to June, only three were reported. Now, how do you account for that if your memorandum did not do it?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I am, first off, at a great disadvantage, because you refer to question 55. Is there some list of questions I should know about? Because this does not mean much to me.
The second point, I do not know whose figures these are. They are just figures picked out of the air, apparently. How they were compiled and from what basis and who compiled them, I have no idea. I do not know how to comment on figures that do not break down into seminars supported by the Reserves, by the National Guard, and by the Regular Army organization. I see no comparison between the three branches here and what they did before and what they do now.
Senator THURMOND. I assure you, that they have a basis.
Mr. SYLVESTER. I have no idea where they came from or whether they represent anything.
Senator THURMOND. I can assure you they came from an official source.
Mr. SYLVESTER. I would know of no official source that would keep a tabulation
Senator THURMOND. If you have any figures, I ask you to put your figure in to contradict them.
Mr. SYLVESTER. I would say there is no official source that would keep figures on Reserve, National Guard, and Regular Army, because there is not any focal point on that. If there is, I do not know what they use, so I am not at-I am not able to reply.
Senator THURMOND. I am not at liberty to disclose our sources.
ARTICLE FROM SAN ANTONIO LIGHT
Did you look over this article from the San Antonio Light?
Senator THURMOND. Do you have any comment on that?
Mr. SYLVESTER. Nothing, Senator, other than that it was compiled, as I understand it, by the junior chamber of commerce, which was the sponsor of the seminar, and obviously, they put together, as I would if I were running it for them, all the favorable comments. So of course, it is an ex parte statement, although an interesting one.
Senator THURMOND. I think I can save time by placing this clipping in the record.
Senator STENNIS. All right, Senator.
[From the San Antonio Light, Sept. 17, 1961)
JCS RELEASE LIST: SEMINAR SUPPORTED
San Antonio Jaycees Saturday released a long list of supporters for their 2-day seminar aimed at combatting communism in the U.S.
The seminar will be next Friday and Saturday at municipal auditorium.
W. Guy Shown, jr., chairman, said the South Texas Chamber of Commerce, through its executive vice president, H.E. Nix, has commended the jaycees and will support the meetings.
Also, he said, La Societe des 40 Hommes et Chevaux Voiture No. 542 is endorsing the series as is the San Antonio Chapter No. 4, Texas Society, Sons of the American Revolution.
ZACHRY BACKING Shown said H. B. Zachry has pledged the support of H. B. Zachry Properties inc., and the board of directors of the San Antonio Association of Life Underwriters voted to support the meetings.
He quoted David Lee "Tex” Hill, World War II Flying Tiger, as saying:
"It is gratifying that the young men of San Antonio realize how much their loved ones have to lose under communism and are willing to take a real stand to meet the threat that currently faces us.
“Our fight now is not one of armed aggression but of words * * * the challenge of a free nation wishing to preserve its freedom of speech, life, love, and the pursuit of happiness under no flag or doctrine other than that of our own republic.”
Shown said the meetings have the full support of Mayor McAllister and the city council.
He quoted Dr. Robert W. B. Terrell as saying:
“While some elements of our society have succumbed to the Pavlovian conditioning processes which have been pouring across the land attempting to equate Americanism' with hate groups * * patriotism with right extremists' philosophy and have been largely successful in creating these scare words, I find that my reaction has been more like the reaction of Dr. Pavlov's laboratory assistant which is rumored to have said 'I can't explain it, but everytime one of these dogs salivates, I have an uncontrolable urge to ring this little bell.'”
“In my opinion, the Jaycees are performing a real service in bringing the Americanism seminar to the area," Terrell said. “It is hoped that a large number of the people will take advantage of the opportunity to hear these speakers."
“I feel San Antonio is to be congratulated on having one of our stanchest Americans, Sen. Thurmond, with us for the Jaycees' 'Let's Look at America' seminars,” E. S. Emerson said.
FAVORS SEMINAR Shown pointed out that Thurmond's appearance depends on the adjournment of the senate.
Other comments listed by Shown include:
“I feel that the Jaycee seminar is greatly needed in the San Antonio area at this time,” Mrs. Charles J. Noble, jr., said.
Mrs. J. W. Nixon, in making her endorsement, said, “I am strongly in favor of the seminar. I definitely feel this type of movement is necessary to awaken the American people to the danger of communism."
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Seeligson, jr., jointly said : “Our forefathers came to this country to avoid the excess of government.
“The Jaycee seminar gives us the opportunity to rededicate ourselves to the principle of individual freedom and reevaluate ourselves to Americanism.”
Mr. and Mrs. John Gaddis said American patriotism only can be controversial with America's enemies. They said all true Americans must support and participate in the Jaycee seminar and in every other legitimate movement which supports individual freedom and therefore opposes international communism.
"I consider it an honor and privilege to offer my wholehearted support to the Jaycees" Louis Michael said. “Equipped with a better knowledge and understanding of the conspiracy, we will be in a position to oppress and conquer this vicious adversary."
Lt. Gen. John H. Collier (ret.) said:
“I heartily commend the jaycees for their efforts in behalf of Americanism. The internal danger is very real and not recognized by great segments of our society."
“I fully support the jaycees and hope all of San Antonio will be there to hear your wonderful speakers,” Mrs. Wilma Brewer said.
Mr. and Mrs. George M. Dilworth offered their congratulations to the Jaycees for bringing outstanding anti-Communist speakers to San Antonio.
Judge Charles W. Barrow believes, “it is extremely important that all of us who enjoy and believe in freedom be alert to Communist aims and techniques.'
“This can be done very effectively in seminars such as those sponsored by the Jaycees," he added. “The only thing advocated should be Americanism and the only political policies attacked should be communism.
James Uptmore, president of the San Antonio A. & M. club said the club is proud of the privilege to stand up for the seminars.
"We are concerned that the effectiveness of subversive communism, nonmilitary, is taking hold,” Uptmore said. "But we have confidence that God will help us as we help ourselves to preserve our individual freedom and rid ourselves of this enemy.”
“HONEST" MANNER Barney Cox, president of the San Antonio Homebuilders assn., said that as a businessman he wants to know what to do to meet this problem in an honest, intelligent, and timely manner. He believes that the Jaycee program will answer his questions.
Paul Turnball said the danger of communism is grave and must be met with understanding by young and old alike.
"I strongly commend the Jaycees for being the first civilian group in south Texas to really face up to the Communist threat that face our state and nation," Turnball said.
“All thinking people should attend these seminars and learn just what great inroads insidious Communist organizations have made. We must learn the facts,” he added.
Senator THURMOND. Certainly such favorable and wholesome community relations as described in it are objectives of Army Regulation 515-1, is that not right!
Mr. SYLVESTER. I would agree that wholesome community relations are the objective. I would not agree with the word "such."
WHETHER INTELLIGENCE SERVICES HAVE PROVIDED EVALUATION OF
Senator THURMOND. Have the intelligence services provided for you evaluations of such controversies?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I am not clear what intelligence services you are referring to, Senator.
Senator THURMOND. The Intelligence Service in the Defense Establishment.
Mr. SYLVESTER. Well, each service has one, and also, we have the Defense Intelligence Agency. None of those has.
Senator THURMOND. Have you had any research made of the origin of controversy generated following the Glenview, Ill., seminar"Education for American Security ?
Mr. SYLVESTER. At no time since I have been in office have I made use or suggested at any time that the intelligence facilities of the Defense Department should be turned on the civilian public.
PROTEST OF GLENVIEW SEMINAR BY EMERGENCY CIVIL LIBERTIES
Senator THURMOND. Are you familiar with the seminar held at Glenview, Ill ?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I do not know which one, precisely, you are referring to. I know they have had them out there.
Senator THURMOND. I have here a copy of a letter from the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee to the Secretary of the Navy complaining of that seminar. This is what it says:
While this program attempted to present the picture of being a ‘school,' there is little doubt that in fact it was a propaganda platform for members of the rightest Christian anti-Communist crusade, the Birch Society and the National Education Association and other undemocratic groups. We trust that you will give this matter immediate attention and inform us of the actions you have taken to prevent reoccurrences of such Navy programs.
That letter was written to the Honorable William B. Franke, Secretary of the Navy, by Clark Forman, director of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee in New York.
Mr. SYLVESTER. That must have been prior to 1961.
Senator THURMOND. Of course, complaints were made of these seminars during the previous administration, just as they have been made during this administration. What would have been your response had you received this letter?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I have not any idea today, Senator. I think the first thing I would have done would be to try to establish the facts.
Senator THURMOND. What is the status of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee?
Mr. SYLVESTER. I might have to look into that and find what that is before I responded to them. I might want to know who they were.
Senator THURMOND. Is it a cited subversive organization?
Senator THURMOND. I can say to you it is thoroughly influenced by the Communists and is considered a subversive organization.
PROTEST OF AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION ON GLENVIEW SEMINAR
The Illinois Chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union also complained to the Secretary of the Navy. This complaint is a little more sophisticated, but it follows the typical socialist arguments that