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1993

E ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION
BRIGHT, Arkansas, Chairman

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin
BOURKE B. HICKENLOOPER, Iowa
GEORGE D. AIKEN, Vermont
HOMER E. CAPEHART, Indiana
FRANK CARLSON, Kansas
JOHN J. WILLIAMS, Delaware

COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES

MARCY, Chief of Staff

87TH CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION

RICHARD B. RUSSELL, Georgia, Chairman HARRY FLOOD BYRD, Virginia

LEVERETT SALTONSTALL, Massachus JOHN STENNIS, Mississippi

MARGARET CHASE SMITH, Maine STUART SYMINGTON, Missouri

PRESCOTT BUSH, Connecticut HENRY M. JACKSON, Washington

J. GLENN BEALL, Maryland SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina

BARRY GOLDWATER, Arizona
STROM THURMOND, South Carolina

FRANCIS CASE, South Dakota
CLAIR ENGLE, California
E.L. (BOB) BARTLETT, Alaska
HOWARD W. CANNON, Nevada
ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia

HARRY L. WINGATE, Jr., Chief Clerk

ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

'ONGRESS, FIRST SESSION
. LUGAR, Indiana, Chairman

CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island land JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware

PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland
EDWARD ZORINSKY, Nebraska
ALAN CRANSTON, California
CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut
THOMAS F. EAGLETON, Missouri

JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusetts
BANNERMAN,

Staff Director
ITIANSON, Minority Staff Director

COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES

99TH CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION

BARRY GOLDWATER, Arizona, Chairman STROM THURMOND, South Carolina

SAM NUNN, Georgia JOHN W. WARNER, Virginia

JOHN C. STENNIS, Mississippi GORDON J. HUMPHREY, New Hampshire GARY HART, Colorado WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine

J. JAMES EXON, Nebraska DAN QUAYLE, Indiana

CARL LEVIN, Michigan JOHN P. EAST, North Carolina

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts PETE WILSON, California

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico JEREMIAH DENTON, Alabama

ALAN J. DIXON, Illinois
PHIL GRAMM, Texas

JOHN GLENN, Ohio
JAMES F. McGOVERN, Staff Director and Chief Counsel
ARNOLD L. PUNARO, Staff Director for the Minority

ALAN R. YUSPEH, General Counsel
CHRISTINE C. DAUTH, Chief Clerk

PREFACE

of a

The world came perilously close to nuclear confrontation in 196 as the United States imposed a naval quarantine to prevent insta lation of Soviet offensive missiles on Cuba. The resolve of t United States to stand firm during those tense 13 days in Octob led to a Soviet retreat, avoidance of a potentially annihilating co flict, and enhancement of the prestige of American foreign ar military policy.

Although Congress was not in session at the time of the Cuba missile crisis, it had devoted extensive attention to Cuba duri 1962. Senators from both parties stood in the forefront in warnir of the Soviet military build-up in Cuba and pressing the admin tration to take firm action. Included in this volume are the joi hearings of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and Arm Services Committee which led to passage

resolutio authorizing the President to take whatever means necessary prevent Cuba from threatening its neighbors in the Western Hem sphere.

The Cuban missile crisis cast a shadow over other concerns 1962 which ultimately would prove more perilous and inflict mo damage on the United States. Members of the Foreign Relatio Committee raised early warnings about the situation in South Vie nam, and pressed administration officials on the growing U.S. i volvement in that conflict. Administration officials, however, we less than forthcoming with accurate information on Vietname policy, and attempted to conceal the fact that U.S. advisers we engaged in combat. On the related issue of the Geneva Agreeme on Laotian Neutrality, the administration attempted to avoid Co gressional involvement by treating it as an executive agreeme rather than submitting it to the Senate for ratification as a trea Despite a few private and public objections, members of the co mittee and the Senate gave broad bipartisan support to the admi istration's programs in Southeast Asia.

Enactment of the Cuba and Berlin resolutions at the end of t 87th Congress contributed indirectly to developments in Vietna In both cases, Congress used resolutions to demonstrate “unifi national will” to resist Communist aggression, and gave advan open-ended approval to any Presidential decision to use the arm forces against a perceived threat. Both the Cuba and Berlin reso tions would serve as precedents for the Gulf of Tonkin Resoluti in 1964.

The wide scope of executive session hearings that the Foreign Relations Committee conducted during the second session of the 87th Congress give testament to the troubled and tumultuous world situation in 1962. In addition to Cuba and Vietnam, the committee heard closed-door testimony on the Congo, Yugoslavia, Thailand, Laos, the Soviet Union, India, Berlin, and the United Nations. Keeping pace with efforts to understand world troublespots and exert some influence, were the regular reports on the nuclear test ban and disarmament talks being conducted in Geneva. Both hope and fear pressed the committee and the Nation toward a resolution of these problems. These transcripts offer instruction on how the executive and legislative branches approached these hazardous issues, and give new evidence on which to judge the soundness of their decisions.

The selection of transcripts for these volumes represents the editor's choice of material possessing the most usefulness and interest for the widest audience. Subheads, editorial notes, and some documents discussed in the hearings, are added to bring the events into perspective. Any material deleted (other than “off the record” references for which no transcript was made) has been noted in the appropriate places, and transcripts not included are represented by minutes of those sessions, in chronological sequence. Unpublished transcripts and other records of the committee for 1962 are deposited at the National Archives, where they are available to scholars under the access rules of that agency. Some transcripts will require further declassification procedures.

In accordance with the general policy of this series, portions of the volume were submitted to the Departments of State and Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency, and participating Senators for review and comment.

The Foreign Relations Committee extends its appreciation to Senator Barry Goldwater, Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, for his cooperation in approving the release of those sessions which the two committees held jointly.

This volume was prepared for publication by Donald A. Ritchie of the Senate Historical Office.

RICHARD G. LUGAR

CONTENTS

fide scope of executive session hearings that the Foreign Re-
Committee conducted during the second session of the 87th
give testament to the troubled and tumultuous world situ-
1962. In addition to Cuba and Vietnam, the committee
þsed-door testimony on the Congo, Yugoslavia, Thailand,
b Soviet Union, India, Berlin, and the United Nations
pace with efforts to understand world troublespots and
be influence, were the regular reports on the nuclear test
Hisarmament talks being conducted in Geneva. Both hope
bressed the committee and the Nation toward a resolution
problems. These transcripts offer instruction on how the

and legislative branches approached these hazardous
H give new evidence on which to judge the soundness of
Jions.
Iction of transcripts for these volumes represents the edi-
e of material possessing the most usefulness and interest
Hest audience. Subheads, editorial notes, and some docu-
ussed in the hearings, are added to bring the events into

Pag

Preface .....
Minutes, January 11...........
The Situation in Yugoslavia, January 11......

Testimony of George F. Kennan, Ambassador to Yugoslavia.

The Situation in Vietnam, January 12

Testimony of Frederick E. Nolting, Jr., Ambassador to Vietnam.

Briefing on the World Situation, January 15

Testimony of Dean Rusk, Secretary of State.

Minutes, January 17.....

Briefing on the Congo Situation, January 18.

Testimony of Dean Rusk, Secretary of State.

Minutes, January 22..

Minutes, January 23..

Minutes, January 24..

Minutes, January 24..

Minutes, January 30..

Minutes, January 31.

Minutes, February 2..

World Military Situation and its Relation to United States Foreign Policy,

February 8....

Testimony of Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense.

Minutes, February 13.....

The Situation in Laos and Vietnam, February 20.

Testimony of Averell Harriman, Assistant Secretary of State for Far

Eastern Affairs.

Minutes, February 26.

Minutes, February 27.

The Situation in Thailand, February 27..

Testimony of Averell Harriman, Assistant Secretary of State for Far

Eastern Affairs.

Minutes, March 1.

Minutes, March 6...

Report on the U-2 Incident, March 6

Testimony of John A. McCone, Director, Central Intelligence Agency.

Minutes, March 7.

Minutes, March 8

Briefing on Forthcoming Geneva Disarmament Negotiations, March 9

Testimony of Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, and William Foster, Direc-

tor, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.

Minutes, March 13....

Briefing by Attorney General on His Recent World Trip, March 14. ..........

Testimony of Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General.

Minutes, March 19.

Minutes, March 22.

Minutes, March 28.

Briefing on Discussions in Geneva, March 29

Testimony of Dean Rusk, Secretary of State.

Briefing on the Soviet Union, April 3.....

Testimony of Llewellyn E. Thompson, Ambassador to the Soviet Union.

Minutes, April 10.

Treaty Outline on Arms Control, April 10...

Testimony of William Foster, Director, Arms Control and Disarmament

Agency

Minutes, April 11

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Historical Office.

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