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to secure a monopoly of their com- charge the debts which prodigal

This is the fundamental ancestors have left as a legacy to principle of the policy of Great posterity. They enter into the Britain. Obliged to draw the competition of trade, free of incummeans of supporting a government brances; with their resources unof boundless extravagance from developed, and a virgin and unexthe profits of her trade, she seekshausted soil to supply the materials a monopoly to counterbalance the of commerce. disadvantages under which she la- As the projector of this system, bors, from a ruinous system of so destructive to her interests, and taxation. Not that natural mono- as her most dangerous competitor poly which arises from cheap sup- on the ocean, the efforts of Great plies, but one created and protected Britain are more particularly directby treaties and municipal regula- ed against this republic. She feels tions. To effect this, her diplo- that the United States is her most matic agents visit every quarter of formidable rival, and her policy the globe, and are followed and seeks to circumscribe the comsupported by her wealth and her merce, and check the growth of arms. Every war has its preserva- that navigation which threatens, at tion for an object, and every nego- some future, but no very distant tiation tends to extend and per- period, to wrest from her hands the

sceptre of the sea. The American nations, on the The great change which has taother hand, seek no monopoly, but ken place in the condition of the endeavor to establish their mutual American continent, has, at length, intercourse upon the liberal footing brought the commercial systems of of entire reciprocity. They feel the two countries into direct and that this policy is better suited to hostile opposition. The object of their condition, and that by their each is the same—to secure to themresources, enterprize and industry, selves as much as practicable of the they can acquire and enjoy a due commerce of the new states : the share of the commerce of the means are diametrically opposite. world. The extravagance and am

The United States asks no favors, bition of goverments, founded upon but depends upon the industry and wrong principles, have not compel- enterprize of her citizens, unled them to burden their industry shackled by oppressive duties and by enormous duties and taxes. restrictions, and favored by local Their youthful energies are not re- advantages. pressed by impositions laid to dis- Great Britain depends upon the

petuate it.

great capital and skill of her manu- would be a stipulation in behalf of facturers, and with diplomatic dex- English subjects. In this light, it terity endeavors to secure a partial was viewed by the government of monopoly of their navigation, by ad- the United States, whose policy is mitting the right of Spain over her altogether opposed to any prefercolonies, and the propriety of their ences, either in its own behalf, or purchasing the relinquishment of in behalf of other nations. This that right, by a grant of peculiar fair and liberal policy has hitherto favors to the vessels of the mother triumphed, and an insurmountable country in their ports. This mono- obstacle has been now interposed poly in favor of Spain, a kingdom by the treaties concluded this year destitute of navigation and manu- with the United States, by Colomfactures, she would soon make her bia, Mexico and Central Ameriown by means of her capital, and ca, to the introduction of any preit would, in fact, be the trade offerences in behalf of European English subjects through Spanish trade. factors. This policy of Great Bri- In her intercourse with the Spatain has been manifested in every nish American states, Great Bristep taken by her government, with tain cannot avail herself of any regard to the Spanish republics. In influence, either direct from the all her diplomatic notes respecting countenance afforded them in their them, to the government of the struggle for independence; or inUnited States, France and Spain, direct through the mother counshe has advanced the principle, that try. She has no claim upon them, Spain should be permitted to lead either as colonies or independent the way in recognizing their inde- states. Their freedom was achieved pendence, and that no objection by their own unaided efforts, and would be made to an agreement, the only countenance afforded securing for a limited time, a pre- them, during the continuance of ference to the navigation and com- the contest, was from the United merce of Spain in their ports. States. They viewed the struggle

The earnestness with which she with a deep interest, excited by its has inculcated the propriety of this resemblance to their own revolucourse, can scarcely be accounted tionary war, and were the first to for, except by a reference to her acknowledge their independence, strong attachment to the colonial and to welcome their admission system, and her full conviction, into the family of nations. Even that a preference by treaty, to a more, by a prompt and decisive trade from the ports of Spain, expression of the determination of the government, to support them West India colonies, had been subagainst foreign aggression, (a de-jected to various regulations by the termination received with the two governments, which rendered unanimous approbation of the the continuance of that trade very American 'people,) they consti- uncertain. tuted themselves the guardians of The British government dethe field of battle, and prevented clined, in 1815 and 1818, proposiany assistance from the Holy Al- tions to regulate that trade, by the liance. This conduct has given same convention which established to the United States, a powerful the terms of intercourse between influence in the councils of the the United States and the Euronew republics, which has been uni- pean ports of England. From an formly exerted in behalf of the attachment to the colonial system, principles of free trade. The fair- it did not think proper to allow a ness and justness manifested by commercial intercourse so benefithis government, in its intercourse cial to both parties; but continued with them, and the conviction that to keep her colonies in a state of it had a common interest with them thraldrom, and to subject their in the emancipation of the conti- trade with the United States to disnent, induced them to invite the advantageous restrictions, so as to United States to participate in the exclude American vessels from pardeliberations of the Panama con- ticipating in it. gress. This year the invitation To prevent a monopoly so injuwas accepted, and ministers ap- rious to our maritime interests, pointed to represent the United laws were enacted by congress, States in that assembly.

which had the effect of putting an Since that invitation was given, end to the direct, and afterwards new questions have arisen between to the indirect intercourse between the United States and Great Bri- the United States and the British tain, respecting the colonial trade, West Indies, so long as American which place the commercial sys- vessels were excluded from their tems of the two countries more ports. directly at issue, and render the As those islands depend upon only badges of colonial subjection the United States for the supwhich the western hemisphere still plies of many productions necesbears, dependent on the result. sary to their existence, this prohi

For several years previous to bition induced the British governthat period, the intercourse between ment, in 1822, to open some of its the United States and the British colonial ports to American vessels,

which were permitted to import its part, for the regulation of that certain enumerated articles, that trade, but which, not being equal in could not be obtained elsewhere its terms, was not agreed to by the upon such good terms. To favor government of the United States. their colonies, these articles were While this question was still pendalso subjected to a duty, which ing, the British government dewas not imposed on the same pro termined upon recognizing the ductions imported from the British Spanish American states as indeNorth American possessions. This pendent. intercourse, limited as it was, was Shortly after that determinastill more restricted by the local tion, by an act of parliament, regulations of the islands; and the passed July 5th, 1825, the West American vessels engaged in it, India colonies were opened to the were subjected to so many incon- vessels of other nations, and, about veniences and burdens, imposed to the same time, entrepots were essecure a preference to British navi- tablished there upon the warehouse gation, that congress was compel- systern. The principle upon which led to meet these regulations by a the ports of these islands were discriminating duty, laid on British opened, was, that nations having vessels from the colonies. The colonies, were to be admitted upon government of the United States, the same terms upon which British however, was sensible of the inju- vessels were admitted to their corious effects of this commercial lonies; and those without colonies, warfare, and sought to remove the were not to be admitted, unless difficulties by negotiation. It of- they placed the shipping of Great fered to settle the terms of this in- Britain, and of its possessions tercourse by treaty, so as to make abroad, upon the footing of the it completely reciprocal: either a most favored nation. trade in all productions, and free These laws were set forth, as infrom all restraints, or limited, and dicating a change in the commerwith reciprocal discriminating du- cial policy of that kingdom, and ties. The British government de- an adoption of more liberal maxclined this offer, on the ground, ims of trade ; but when viewed in that the colonial trade was pecu- connection with the condition of liar in its character, and that it was the American continent, they apthe policy of Great Britain to re- pear to be strictly conformable to gulate it by legislation, and not by the system of monopoly to which treaty; it finally, however, so far she has always adhered. yielded, as to offer a convention on The South American states were

a re

destitute of navigation, and offered cumscribing the trade of this reextensive markets for British manu- public. factures, which they were obliged Having, it is to be presumed, asto pay for in raw materials. They certained that supplies could be possessed no colonies, and there obtained from those states, an orfore, if they accepted the offer of der of council was issued July trading with the British West In- 27th, 1826, closing the American dies, it had the effect of placing colonial ports, excepting in Nova English vessels upon the most fa- Scotia and Canada, to vessels bevored footing in their ports—in longing to the United States, after fact, upon the footing of free trade, the 1st of December, 1826. To while the equivalent was the offer made by the American stricted trade with the British co- minister, (Mr. Gallatin, who had lonies. The same effect would just arrived at his post,) to renew have taken place if the United the negotiation on this subject, the States had accepted of that offer. following pointed remark was made When properly considered, there- in answer, accompanied by a refore, these laws seem to be only fusal to discuss the matter by Mr. another mode of maintaining and Canning; a remark which fully experpetuating the colonial mono- plains the policy and design of his poly.

66 It is not made matTheir objects were twofold: 1st, ter of complaint,” said he,“ by to lay the foundation for a claim the British government, that the of favors in the ports of the South United States have declined conAmerican republics, by throwing ditions which other nations have open her West India ports to their thought worthy of their acceptnavigation, sensible that nothing ance. It is, on the other hand, could be apprehended from their not the fault of the British governcompetition; and 2dly, to ascer- ment, if the United States have tain their capability of supplying suffered the time to pass, at which her islands with those staple com- it might have been an object of modities, which she before had re- greater importance to this country luctantly permitted to be brought to induce the United States to come from the United States.

into their (Anglice its) proposals.” By this apparent departure from The further prosecution of this her colonial system, she offered to negotiation, and the final decision the new republics a specious equi- of the question, form a part of the valent for commercial favors, and occurrences of the next year ; but laid the foundation for further cir- the agitation of the controversy,


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