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CHAP. and that, by the ruin of their policy, religion also should "be ruined with it." That the cities of Hamburg, Breme, Anno 1550. and Magdeburg defended religion with their minds, their pens, and their swords. That he saw the Magdeburg Confession. That the argument of the book was this, Si superior magistratus vim exercet in subditos contra jus aut naturale aut divinum, licet tum inferiori magistratui resistere; i. e. "That if the superior magistrate exerciseth "force upon his subjects contrary to the law, either natural or divine, in that case it is lawful for the inferior magistrate "to resist." That for the city of Magdeburg, and their spirit, he could not but praise both, but this thesis he liked not; for that hence might great commotions and disturbances easily arise. This book, very scarce to be got, he sent to Cheke for a present; and would, as he wrote to him, have sent him many other tracts concerning the interim and the adiaphorists, but that Gipkin (who was a Dutch bookseller in London) had taken care of procuring them for him. That the city of Wittenburg with Melancthon, and Leipsic with Camerarius, the chief Doctors in those cities, were blamed by many good men, that they admitted the interimistical and adiaphorical doctrine. That Joachim Camerarius, in an oration delivered at Leipsic the last year, had disturbed the minds of a great many at that time in matters of religion. Finally, that as soon as any thing of certainty, either relating to religion or the civil state, came to his hand, he would write all at large; but that now, upon their first coming, he had not much, nor of much consequence, to impart.

Cheke put In this correspondence Ascham descended from public upon transto more private matters. He took occasion now to relating Demosthenes member Cheke of that admirable discourse that he enterinto Latin, tained him with at their parting at London, and how

much he spake concerning Demosthenes, declaring how it rejoiced him to perceive that noble Greek orator was so familiar with him, who was also the great subject of Ascham's delight and study. And here he took occasions (knowing the excellent Latin style of Cheke) to put him

upon translating the oration of Demosthenes, and of his SECT. antagonist Æschines, into Latin: which would he take


the Greek

in hand, he should, he said, undertake a thing most proper Anno 1550.
and agreeable to his place, his study, his wit, his judg-
ment, and his ability: and that thereby he would hold
forth a great light to the commendable imitation of De-
mosthenes and Tully, the princes of the Greek and Latin
speech. He now also propounded to him to disperse and
communicate his pronunciation of Greek abroad in the And upon
world, that other nations might be acquainted with it: his pronun-
adding, that if he would but send him the copy, he would ciation of
soon offer it to the view of mankind; and that he doubted language.
not but to obtain the assistance of Johannes Sturmius (the
most learned Professor of Strasburgh) to give some illus-
trations to it. Pity it was, that this suggestion prevailed
not with Cheke to set forth his learned exercitations upon
the Greek tongue, and the correct way of sounding it,
having this convenience of printing the book well, in some
printing-house abroad, and whilst Ascham, or some of his
friends, might have had the supervising of it; whether it
were our learned man's modesty, or his other cares and
business hindered. Yet the sum of his thoughts upon this
subject came to light soon after his death, in his exquisite
Latin letters to Bishop Gardiner, printed at Basil, as we
have told already. And as to the other motion made by
Ascham, of translating something of that prince of Greek
orators, that he did, either upon this advice or before. And
beside these, many other of that orator's works, as his
Philippics and Olynthiacs, he translated, and left behind
him, (though I fear now utterly perished,) as we shall be
told hereafter, when we come to mention his writings.


Cheke translates the Communion Book. His friendship with Martyr and Bucer. Hath a son.

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BUT now to look at home. It was not far from this time that the Archbishop of Canterbury thought it neces

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CHAP. sȧry that the first Communion Book should be carefully re


III. vised and corrected; and that in this work foreign Divines Anno 1550. of the greatest learning in divinity, and best acquainted The Com- with the ancient ecclesiastical writers, should be consulted. There were many in England at that time, the chief whereof were Bucer and Peter Martyr: both whose judgments the said Archbishop required, and willed them to set down their censures in writing for his use. In this matter our Cheke was concerned: he translated into Latin the substance of the said Communion Book for P. Martyr, (not understanding English,) now being at Lambeth with the Archbishop: and from this translation Martyr made his censures by way of annotation. And, moreover, Cheke had conference with that learned man concerning the amendments to be made, and concerning a meeting of the Bishops that were to consult and deliberate about it; many of which secretly bearing a good-will to Popery, Martyr confessed his fears to Cheke, that the reformation of the book would stick with them. But Cheke hinted to him, "bthat if the Bishops would not alter what was fit to be "altered, the King would do it by himself, and when the "Parliament met, he would interpose his own authority."

Cheke was a fast friend and patron to these outlandish learned Confessors. And as we have seen something between Peter Martyr and him this year 1550, so in the same year there was a kind correspondence between him and Bucer. Upon his first coming to Cambridge to be the King's Professor there, he had been dangerously sick : and as the fear of losing so useful a man in that public station caused no small trouble to Cheke, and such friends of the Reformation as he, so his recovery gave them no small And Cheke, by way of congratulation and counsel, wrote thus from the Court at Greenwich to him in Asch. Ep. May: Audio te firmiorem, &c. i. e. "I hear you are

p. 433.

Book put

into Latin by Cheke.

Congratulates Bu

cer's recovery.

b Hoc non me parum recreat, quod mihi D. Cheekus indicavit, si noluerint ipsi, ait, efficere, ut quæ mutanda sint, mutentur, Rex per seipsum id faciet, et cum ad Parliamentum ventum fuerit, ipse suæ majestatis authoritatem interponeret. Mat. Parker's Lett. C. C. C. C. et v. Asch. p. 438.


grown stronger, and that all your weakness and sickness SECT. "which had afflicted you is gone: for which I do ear"nestly, as I ought, give thanks to God, the Father of all Anno 1550. "comfort, who hath delivered you from so great a disease, "and strengthened you to take in hand and undergo such "an office in the Church. But pray take heed you be not



too earnest in your beginning, and undertake more than "the measure of your health will bear. We must so labour, 66 as to think, not how soon, but how long we shall be able "to perform our work. You know how far that of St. Paul reaches, Use a little wine; and how it may diffuse itself “to all the actions of life. I do that to you which I could "never induce myself to do to any else; that is, to advise "that you be more remiss and moderate in this your al"most intolerable labour of mind: for the greatness of it "stretched beyond one's strength distresses the body, and "disables it to take care for meaner things." This was the advice of a true friend.

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cits Cheke

Bucer had solicited Cheke in behalf of his friend and coun- Bucer solitryman Sleidan the historian, who had a yearly honorary for Sleidan. pension assigned him by King Edward the VIth, for his excellent learning and abilities. This pension, behind and unpaid, (for money was not very plentiful with this King,) it was Bucer's request to Cheke to use his interest for it, signifying what address had been made to the Archbishop of Canterbury in this behalf. To this Cheke's answer was, "That the Archbishop was of a benevolent disposition, "but a slow patron of causes; and that in this business “there was need of a Privy Counsellor, and likewise of a greatness of spirit, that might be fit to undertake causes "with moderation and judgment; adding, that if the opportunity once slipped away, it would be more easily "sought than found. That, for his part, he did not cease "to put the Archbishop in mind, and that he would still "do further what he could."


Asch. Ep.

Bucer sends

In the same year, the xii. of the calends of November, P. 484. there passed another letter from Bucer to Cheke, styling Cheke his him therein his most honoured patron; herewith sending book De



CHAP. him up his famous book that he wrote for the use of the King in reforming religion, De Regno Christi constiAnno 1550. tuendo; signifying that he had shewn it to none but P. Martyr, who was, as he said, of the same opinion with him. He added, that this book should be read by none but such who should read it for their own and the Church's profit. And he desired him to recommend this his labour and pains to the King.



This year Cheke was about coming to Cambridge, as desired at we find him afterwards to do, in a considerable capacity. Cambridge. But when some doubted of his coming, Bucer entreats him Asch. Ep. p. 434. to come, because his presence would be so very necessary for that School; he meant that University. He lastly prayed the Lord to keep him, his most honoured wife, and his son, who might now be about two years old.


Cheke reads Aristotle's Ethics in Greek to the King.
Instructs him for government.

Cheke's course in

tion of the King's studies.

CHEKE still plied his duty close with the King, in folhis direc- lowing him in his studies. A Cambridge friend of his (who was wise and learned, and well understood the education of noble youth) took occasion now to tell Cheke his judgment concerning the instruction of his royal charge, who, being now about thirteen years of age, and endued with an understanding beyond his years, should be let into the reading of such books as might be proper to shew him his duty as a Prince. And a book of that nature having been composed by Xenophon the Grecian, for the institution of Cyrus, he thought the King might be a double gainer in reading of it, both by forwarding him in Greek, and also by the noble and wise instructions proper for a Prince's behaviour. But though Cheke approved well of this counsel, yet he thought fit first to enter him into Aristotle's Ethics in Greek: that so his royal mind might first be well principled in moral virtues; and when he understood well these precepts, and had imbibed the knowledge of all

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