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do) he worships God in spirit and in truth. He keepeth the commandments of God, and doth those things that are pleasing in his sight: so exercising himself as to "have a conscience void of offence, toward God and toward man." And he has power both over outward and inward sin, even from the moment he is justified.

III. 1. But was he not then "freed from all sin," so that there is no sin in his heart? I cannot say this, I cannot believe it because St. Paul says the contrary. He is speaking to believers, and describing the state of believers in general, when he says, "The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: these are contrary the one to the other," Gal. v. 17. Nothing can be more express. The apostle here directly affirms that the flesh, evil nature, opposes the Spirit, even in believers; that even in the regenerate, there are two principles," contrary the one to the other."

2. Again. When he writes to the believers at Corinth, to those who were "sanctified in Christ Jesus, 1 Cor. i. 2, he says, "I brethren, could not speak unto you, as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, as unto babes in Christ: Ye are yet carnal for whereas there is among you envying and strife, are ye not carnal?" ch. iii. ver. 3. Now here the apostle speaks unto those who were unquestionably believers, whom in the same breath he stiles his brethren in Christ, as being still, in a measure, carnal. He affirms, there was envying, (an evil temper) occasioning strife among them, and yet does not give the least intimation, that they had lost their faith. Nay, he manifestly declares, they had not; for then they would not have been babes in Christ. And (what is most remarkable of all) he speaks of being carnal, and babes in Christ, as one and the same thing, plainly shewing that every believer is (in a degree) carnal, while he is only a babe in Christ.

3. Indeed this grand point, that there are two contrary principles in believers, nature and grace, the flesh and the Spirit, runs through all the epistles of St. Paul, yea, through all the Holy Scriptures: almost all the directions and exhortations therein, are founded on this supposition: pointing at

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wrong tempers in those, who were, notwithstanding, acknowledged by the inspired writers to be believers. And they are continually exhorted to fight and conquer these, by the power of the faith which was in them.


4. And who can doubt, but there was faith in the angel of the church of Ephesus, when our Lord said to him, "1 know thy works, and thy patience: thou hast patience, and for my name's sake hast laboured and hast not fainted,". Rev. ii. 2, 3, 4. But was there in the mean time no sin in his heart? Yea, or Christ would not have added, "Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love." This was a real sin which God saw in his heart, (of which accordingly he is exhorted to repent.) And yet we have no authority to say, that even then he had no faith.

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5. Nay, the angel of the church at Pergamos also, is exhorted to repent, which implies sin, though our Lord expressly says, "Thou hast not denied my faith," ver. 13, 16. And to the angel of the church in Sardis, he says, "Strengthen the things which remain that are ready to die." The good which remained was ready to die; but was not actually dead, chap. iii. 2. So there was still a spark of faith even in him; which he is accordingly commanded to hold fast, ver. 3.

6. Once more. When the Apostle exhorts believers to cleanse themselves from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, (2 Cor. vii. 1,) he plainly teaches, that these believers were not yet cleansed therefrom.

Will you answer, "He that abstains from all appearance of evil, does ipso facto cleanse himself from all filthiness." Not in any wise. For instance a man reviles me; I feel resentment, which is filthiness of spirit. Yet I say not a word. Here I abstain from all appearance of evil. But this does not cleanse me from that filthiness of spirit, as I experience to my sorrow.

7. And as this position, there is no sin in a believer, no carnal mind, no bent to backsliding, is thus contrary to the Word of God, so it is to the experience of his children. These continually feel a bent to backsliding, a natural tenVOL. VII. N

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dency to evil; a proneness to depart from God, and cleave to the things of earth. They are daily sensible of sin remaining in their heart, pride, self-will, unbelief: and of sin cleaving to all they speak or do, even their best actions and holiest duties. Yet at the same time they know they are of God; they cannot doubt of it for a moment. They feel his Spirit clearly "witnessing with their spirit, that they are the children of God." They " rejoice in God through Christ Jesus, by whom they have now received the atonement." So that they are equally assured, that sin is in them, and that "Christ is in them the hope of glory."

8. "But can Christ be in the same heart where sin is ?" Undoubtedly he can. Otherwise it never could be saved therefrom. Where the sickness is, there is the physician,

Carrying on his work within,
Striving till he cast out sin.

Christ indeed cannot reign, where sin reigns: neither will he dwell where any sin is allowed. But he is and dwells in the heart of every believer, who is fighting against all sin; although it be not yet purified, according to the purification of the sanctuary.

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9. It has been observed before, that the opposite doctrine, "That there is no sin in believers," is quite new in the church of Christ: that it was never heard of for seventeen hundred years, never till it was discovered by Count Zinzendorf. I do not remember to have seen the least intimation of it, either in any ancient or modern writers; unless perhaps in some of the wild, ranting Antinomians. And these likewise say and unsay, acknowledging there is sin in their flesh, although no sin in their heart. But whatever doctrine is new must be wrong: for the old religion is the only true one. And no doctrine can be right, unless it is the very same "which was from the beginning."

10. One argument more against this new, unscriptural doctrine, may be drawn from the dreadful consequences of it. One says, "I felt anger to-day." Must I reply, "Then you have no faith?" Another says, "I know what you ad

vise is good, but my will is quite averse to it." Must I tell him, "Then you are an unbeliever, under the wrath and curse of God?" What will be the natural consequence of this? Why, if he believes what I say, his soul will not only be grieved and wounded, but perhaps utterly destroyed: inasmuch as he will cast away that confidence which hath great recompence of reward. And having cast away his shield, how shall he "quench the fiery darts of the wicked one?" How shall he overcome the world? Seeing "this is the victory that overcometh the world even our faith." He stands disarmed in the midst of his enemies, open to all their assaults. What wonder then if he be utterly overthrown; if they take him captive at their will? Yea, if he fall from one wickedness to another, and never see good any more? I cannot therefore by any means receive this assertion, that there is no sin in a believer from the moment he is justified; First, because it is contrary to the whole tenor of Scripture. Secondly, because it is contrary to the experience of the children of God. Thirdly, because it is absolutely new, never heard of in the world till yesterday: and, Lastly, because it is naturally attended with the most fatal consequences; not only grieving those whom God hath not grieved; but perhaps dragging them into everlasting perdition.

IV. 1. However let us give a fair hearing to the chief ar guments of those who endeavour to support it. And it is, first, from Scripture they attempt to prove, that there is no sin in a believer. (They argue thus.) "The Scripture says, Every believer is born of God, is clean, is holy, is sanctified: is pure in heart, has a new heart, is a temple of the Holy Ghost. Now, as that which is born of the flesh is flesh, is altogether evil, so that which is born of the Spirit, is spirit, is altogether good. Again; a man cannot be clean, sanctified, holy, and at the same time unclean, unsanctified, unholy. He cannot be pure and impure, or have a new and an old heart together. Neither can his soul be unholy, while it is a temple of the Holy Ghost."

I have put this objection as strong as possible, that its full weight may appear. Let us now examine it, part by part.

And, 1, "That which is born of the Spirit, is spirit, is altogether good." I allow the text, but not the comment. For the text affirms this, and no more, That every man who is born of the Spirit, is a spiritual man. He is so. But so he may be, and yet not be altogether spiritual. The Christians at Corinth were spiritual men. Else they had been no Christians at all. And yet they were not altogether spiritual. They were still (in part) carnal. "But they were fallen from grace." St. Paul says no. They were even babes in Christ. 2, "But a man cannot be clean, sanctified, holy, and at the same time unclean, unsanctified, unholy." Indeed he may. So the Corinthians were. Ye are washed, says the apostle, ye are sanctified: namely cleansed from fornication, idolatry, drunkenness, and all other outward sin, 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10, 11. And yet at the same time, in another sense of the word, they were unsanctified: they were not washed, not inwardly cleansed from envy, evil-surmising, partiality. "But sure they had not a new heart and an old heart together." It is most sure, they had. For at that very time, their hearts were truly, yet not entirely renewed. Their carnal mind was nailed to the cross. Yet it was not wholly destroyed. "But could they be unholy, while they were temples of the Holy Ghost ?" Yes, that they were temples of the Holy Ghost, is certain, 1 Cor. vi. 19. And it is equally certain, they were, in some degree, carnal, that is, unholy.




2. "However, there is one scripture more which will put the matter out of question. If any man be [a believer] in Christ, he is a new creature. Old things are past away; behold all things are become new,' 2 Cor. v. 17. Now certainly a man cannot be a new creature and an old creature at once." Yes, he may. He may be partly renewed, which was the very case with those at Corinth. They were doubtless renewed in the spirit of their mind, or they could not have been so much as babes in Christ. Yet they had not the whole mind which was in Christ, for they envied one another. "But it is said expressly, Old things are past away: all things are become new." But we must not so in

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