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NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 27, 1949
UNITED STATES SENATE,
Washington, D. C. The committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:30 a. m. in the Senate caucus room, 318 Senate Office Building, Senator Tom Connally, chairman of the committee, presiding.
Present: Senators Connally (chairman), George, Thomas of Utah, Tydings, Pepper, Green, McMahon, Fulbright, Vandenberg, Wiley, Smith of New Jersey, Hickenlooper, and Lodge.
Also present : Senators Tobey, Ferguson, Donnell, Knowland, Jenner, McGrath, and Watkins.
The CHAIRMAN. The committee will come to order.
This is a meeting of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, for the purpose of holding hearings on the North Atlantic Treaty. We are glad to have visitors, but we must enjoin upon them the duty of preserving quiet and not interrupting the committee on its deliberations.
The committee is glad to have Senators sit in these hearings. We want the widest possible information respecting the treaty to go to the people of the United States, and we will thank the press for carrying those reports to the people of the country. We would like to have the facts and the truth.
For the convenience and information of the committee and the Senate a copy of the North Atlantic Treaty will be printed in the record at this point. (The matter referred to is as follows:)
NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments,
They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilization of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.
They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area. They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defense and for the preservation of peace and security. They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty:
ARTICLE 1 The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered, and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations
The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them.
In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, the Parties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack.
ARTICLE 4 The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened.
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all; and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defense recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.
Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.
For the purpose of Article 5 an armed attack on one or more of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America, on the Algerian departments of France, on the occupation forces of any Party in Europe, on the islands under the jurisdiction of any Party in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer or on the vessels or aircraft in this area of any of the Parties.
This Treaty does not affect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting, in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.
Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third state is in conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty.
The Parties hereby establish a council, on which each of them shall be represented, to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The council shall be so organized as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defense committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5.
ARTICLE 10 The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European state in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this Treaty. Any state so invited may become a party to the Treaty by depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United States of America will inform each of the Parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession.
ARTICLE 11 This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by the Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as possible with the Government of the United States of America, which will notify all the other signatories of each deposit. The Treaty shall enter into force between the states which have ratified it as soon as the ratifications of the majority of the signatories, including the ratifications of Belgium, Canada, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, have been deposited and shall come into effect with respect to other states on the date of the deposit of their ratifications.
ARTICLE 12 After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time thereafter, the Parties shall, if any of them so requests, consult together for the purpose of reviewing the Treaty, having regard for the factors then affecting peace and security in the North Atlantic area, including the development of universal as well as regional arrangements under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security.
ARTICLE 13 After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years, any Party may cease to be a party one year after its notice of denunciation has been given to the Government of the United States of America, which will inform the Governments of the other Parties of the deposit of each notice of denunciation.
ARTICLE 14 This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies thereof will be transmitted by that Government to the Governments of the other signatories.
In witness whereof, the undersigned plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty.
P. H. SPAAK
SILVERCRUYS For Canada :
LESTER B PEARSON
H. H. WRONG
HENRIK KAUFFMANN For France:
H. BONNET For Iceland :
For the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg :
HUGUES LE GALLAIS
E. N. VAN KLEFFENS
HALVARD M. LANGE
WILHELM MUNTHE MORGENSTIERNE For Portugal :
JOSÉ CAEIRO DA MATTA
PEDRO THEOTÓNIO PEREIRA
DEAN ACHESON I CERTIFY THAT the foregoing is a true copy of the North Atlantic Treaty signed at Washington on April 4, 1949 in the English and French languages, the signed original of which is deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America.
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I, DEAN ACHESON, Secretary of State of the United States of America, have hereunto caused the seal of the Department of State to be affixed and my name subscribed by the Authentication Officer of the said Department, at the city of Washington, in the District of Columbia, this fourth day of April, 1949.
Secretary of State (SEAL]
By M. P. CHAUVIN
Department of State The CHAIRMAN. The committee is honored today by having present Secretary of State Acheson, who will be the first witness to be heard. Mr. Secretary, proceed in your own way. The questions of the committee and others will be deferred until you have finished reading your statement, if that is agreeable to you.
Secretary ACHESON. That is entirely agreeable, Mr. Chairman.
STATEMENT OF HON. DEAN ACHESON, SECRETARY OF STATE
Secretary ACHESON. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I welcome this opportunity to discuss with you the North Atlantic Treaty signed on April 4. That treaty is no new document to you. It has been developed, to an extent without parallel in my knowledge, as a cooperative enterprise between the executive and legislative branches of the Government and particularly between the Department of State and this committee. Without the vision and assistance of your chairman, of your former chairman, and the members of this committee, this treaty could never have been concluded. The text embodies many constructive suggestions from members of the committee.
The President has spoken on the treaty in recent weeks, and the Department of State has made available a considerable amount of source material regarding it. Since you already have in your possession some of what I shall say today, I shall make my statement as short as possible and will then be at your disposal for questions.
I should like very briefly to review with you the reason for this treaty, and its purposes.