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liquid state; but Belon, in his work on Rarities,' mentions a resine dure as the production also of this tree, which seems likely to have been the identical necoth before us. (See however the note on Exod. xxx. 23.) The Holy Land was remarkable for the excellence of its terebinth trees. There is a great diversity among resins in respect of the quality, as depending upon the nature, health, and situation of the trees which respectively afford them.

"Balm," Tseri, Heb., is the famous resin obtained from the Balsamodendron Gileadense, or balm of Gilead tree, which was a native of and almost peculiar to the land of Judæa. It is related to the terebinth and other trees, which are noted for the fragrant "gums" which they yield. A small piece of this resin is said by Theophrastus to be so odoriferous that it filled a large space with its perfume. The author just quoted informs us it was reported in his time that only two enclosures of small extent were known to produce this tree, which were in some part of Syria-rò di Baλoaμer giveTOLI μὲν ἐν τῷ αυλωνι τῷ περὶ Συρίαν. Bruce describes it, however, as growing in Azab, and all along the coast of Babelmandel. The balsam of Gilead is about fourteen feet high, with diverging branches that bear leaves at their extremities. These leaves are pennate or winged, like those of the terebinth, and evergreen in their duration. The fruit is a berry, or rather a drupe, of an egg-shape, marked with four seams, and with two cells. The kataf of the Arabians is afforded by a species of this genus, as is also the kafal. They are both of them odoriferous resins, very famous in the


"Myrrh," Lot, Heb.-It has been recently ascertained that the myrrh is obtained from a species of Balsamodendron which is very much allied to the Balsamodendron kataf, and its resin is now called Balsamodendron myrrha. It is a native of Arabia, where it forms stunted groves, which are intermingled with species of acacia, moringa, &c. The leaves are in threes, oval, blunt, and slightly toothed near the point. If this account be correct, and there seems to be no reason to question it, the kindred origin of the myrrh, balm, and "spicery," forms a subject of curiosity and interest, while the fact will greatly assist us in remembering the particulars of each. All three belong to the natural order Terebinthacea of Jussieu and Decandolle, and two of them appertain to one genus, Balsamodendron.

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3 Num. 26. 19. 4 Heb. was evil in the eyes of the LORD. Heb. the door of eyes, or, of Enajim, 7 Heb, a kid of the goats.

Heb. the days were multiplied.

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20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge from the woman's hand but he found her not.

21 Then he asked the men of that place, saying, Where is the harlot, that was openly by the way side? And they said, There was no harlot in this place.

22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I cannot find her; and also the men of the place said, that there was no harlot in this place.

23 And Judah said, Let her take it to her, lest we 'be shamed: behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.

24 ¶ And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter in law hath played the harlot; and also, behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.

25 When she was brought forth, she sent to her father in law, saying, By the man,

8 Or, in Enajim. 9 Heb. become a contempt.

whose these are, am I with child: and she said, Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and bracelets, and staff.

26 And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She hath been more righteous than I; because that I gave her not to Shelah my


And he knew her again no more. 27 ¶ And it came to pass, in the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb.

28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that the one put out his hand and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out


29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and she said, 10 How hast thou broken forth? this breach be upon thee: therefore his name was called "Pharez1o.


30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand: and his name was called Zaraĥ.

24. "Bring her forth, and let her be burnt."-There are two points that attract our attention in this text one is the power which Judah possessed to pronounce such a sentence on a member of his family; and the other, the punishment proposed to be inflicted. In the former we have an instance of the power which a father, in those primitive times, possessed in his own family. He was not only its chief, but its legislator and judge, with the power of life and death in his hands. The same usage may be traced in other countries and times. Homer and Plato equally bear witness to its existence in early Greece. Cæsar states, that among the Gauls the fathers were sovereigns in their own houses; having the power of life and death over their women, their children, and their slaves. In China, at the present day, fathers govern their families with despotic power; and in other countries of Asia, the paternal authority exists under various modifications and forms, which enable us to discover the extent to which it was formerly carried even in those parts in which its ancient absoluteness has in the course of time been mitigated. The careful observance of the institutions and practices of the East, including those of the Bible, will not fail to discover a great number, which, although they may not, in the first instance, appear to have much connexion with the subject, must have originated in times when the parent possessed the most unbounded power over his children. Goguet (Origine des Lois') well observes, that the monarchical form of government was formed on the model of the patriarchal authority which a father possessed over his own household; but with this difference, that the power of the first sovereigns was less despotic than that of a parent. The existence of such a form of power in the head of a family naturally suggested a símilar form of authority for the rule of a nation. Accordingly, we find that the original form of government was everywhere monarchical. This account of its origin is so undoubted as to need no support; but may we not consider it indicated in the combination of paternity and royalty in the titular denomination of the kings of Gerar? The name "Abimelech" (N) is easily resolved into its elements; Ab, with the affix i, means my father," and melech, "king;" so that the whole signifies "my father-king," or "my father the king;" and was probably the title by which the kings of Gerar were commonly accosted. The original form of this government may still perhaps be found in the East-in Persia, for instance-where the sovereign possesses the most unquestioned power of life and death over all those who, in a very large sense, may be considered to compose his household-that is, not only over his women, children, and slaves, but also over those who are in the service of government, from the first minister of state to the humblest beater of carpets. But beyond this limit his power over the lives of his subjects is more restricted: for persons not within it, can only legally be punished after a trial before the proper tribunals. It is true that this limit is not always distinctly observed by the kings; but this is the theory of their government, and those sovereigns who wish for the good opinion of their people are rather careful to observe it.


On the second point which the text brings under our notice, it is to be observed that the crime of Tamar was adultery, she being considered the wife of Shelah although the marriage had not yet taken full effect. The punishments for this crime will be illustrated in the note to Levit. xx. 10. The present text affords the earliest notice of the practice of burning certain criminals alive. This cruel punishment has prevailed more or less in all nations. The law of Moses assigns this form of punishment in two instances (Lev. xx. 14, and xxi. 9). Many ages after, we find this punishment inflicted by the Babylonians (Jer. xxix. 22, and Dan. iii. 6). In the instance of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego it was inflicted for alleged disrespect to the idols of the country: and, altogether, it is a punishment that seems to have been more peculiarly applied to offences of a religious character. In Europe, religious opinions considered erroneous were thus punished by all parties; as was also witchcraft. It was also in the list of Roman punishments. The ancient Gauls and Britons burnt criminals and others alive, in honour of the gods, in large numbers at a time. It seems now disused almost everywhere as an ordinary punishment.

10 Or, wherefore hast thou made this breach against thee? 11 That is, a breach. 12 1 Chron. 2. 4. Matth. 1. 3.


1 Joseph advanced in Potiphar's house. 7 He resisteth his mistress's temptation. 13 He is falsely accused. 20 He is cast in prison. 21 God is with

him there.

AND Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmeelites, which had brought him down thither.

2 And the LORD was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian.

3 And his master saw that the LORD was with him, and that the LORD made all that he did to prosper in his hand.

4 And Joseph found grace in his sight, and he served him: and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hand.

5 And it came to pass from the time that he had made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that the LORD blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and the blessing of the LORD was upon all that he had in the house, and in the field.

6 And he left all that he had in Joseph's hand; and he knew not ought he had, save the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was a goodly person, and well favoured.

7¶ And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said, Lie with me.

8 But he refused, and said unto his master's wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is with me in the house, and he hath committed all that he hath to my hand;

9 There is none greater in this house than I; neither hath he kept back any thing from me but thee, because thou art his wife: how then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?

10 And it came to pass, as she spake to Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her.

business; and there was none of the men of the house there within.

12 And she caught him by his garment, saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out.

11 And it came to pass about this time, that Joseph went into the house to do his

1 Heb. great.

13 And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth,

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20 And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound: and he was there in the prison.

21 But the LORD was with Joseph, and showed him mercy, and gave him favour in the sight of the keeper of the prison.

22 And the keeper of the prison committed to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he was the doer of it.

23 The keeper of the prison looked not to any thing that was under his hand; because the LORD was with him, and that which he did, the LORD made it to prosper.


2 Heb. extended kindness unto him.

Verse 20. "Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound.”Reynier (Economie Publique et Rurale des Egyptiens') very much doubts whether slavery existed in Egypt previously to the period when its ancient institutions came to be in a great degree changed. His doubts result from the difficulty of reconciling the existence of slaves with the organization of the Egyptians under their theocracy. The king and the sacerdotal caste were the only persons whose circumstances placed them in a condition to possess slaves; and it is known that they considered themselves polluted by the proximity of foreigners: whence he argues, that the idea of slaves bought from abroad, to be employed in domestic services, is excluded: and they did not need them for the cultivation of the ground, as that service was performed gratuitously by the labourers who held the lands in subordinate possession. The instance of Joseph's slavery he meets by observing, that the domination of the shepherdkings must have had some operation in modifying the peculiar usages of the Egyptians. But then, again, among the Egyptian laws cited by Diodorus, one inflicts the punishment of death on a person who kills his slave; and another

declares a severe punishment against one who violates a free woman, which indicates that there were some who were not free. On this Reynier remarks, that these laws appear to have been promulgated by the successors of Psammeticus, when new customs began to be introduced, and the communications of the Egyptians with foreigners became more open. These remarks are interesting for the illustrations of Egyptian usages which they convey; but we cannot admit their validity. This, of Joseph, is not the first or only instance of slavery in Egypt which the Bible mentions. Indeed, the very first notice of slaves occurs in connexion with that country. It was the king of Egypt who gave male and female slaves to Abraham; and what condition other than slavery was that into which the descendants of Israel ultimately fell in that country? Moreover, the very text before us indicates the remote antiquity of that most just law which protected the life of the slave from the anger of his master. Joseph's master appears to have been one of the principal lords of Pharaoh's court, and he believed that his slave had dealt most perfidiously and ungratefully with him, acting in a way which of all others was most calculated to provoke indignation and summary punishment. Yet we read of no violence that he committed upon his slave. He sent him to the royal prison, apparently with the intention that, after proper trial and conviction, he should receive the chastisement which the law adjudged to his offence. This is one of the instances in which we seem to perceive the advance which, in many respects, the Egyptians had made before other nations in civilization. It is evident also, from the case of the butler and baker, that culprits were committed to prison until their offences could be investigated, and not summarily punished in moments of heat and anger. The laws of Egypt indeed precluded even the king from the power of inflicting an unjust or hasty punishment. We read of nothing like this elsewhere in Genesis." When Judah believed that his daughter-in-law had "played the harlot," he did not deliberate a moment or propose investigation, but said at once, "Bring her forth, and let her be burnt:"


1 The butler and baker of Pharaoh in prison. Joseph hath charge of them. 5 He interpreteth their dreams. 20 They come to pass according to his interpretation. 23 The ingratitude of the


AND it came to pass after these things, that the butler of the king of Egypt and his baker had offended their lord the king of Egypt.

2 And Pharaoh was wroth against two of his officers, against the chief of the butlers, and against the chief of the bakers.

3 And he put them in ward in the house of the captain of the guard, into the prison, the place where Joseph was bound.

4 And the captain of the guard charged Joseph with them, and he served them: and they continued a season in ward.

5 And they dreamed a dream both of them, each man his dream in one night, each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, which were bound in the prison. 6 And Joseph came in unto them in the morning, and looked upon them, and, behold, they were sad.

7 And he asked Pharaoh's officers that were with him in the ward of his lord's house, saying, Wherefore 'look ye so sadly to day?

8 And they said unto him, We have dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter of it. And Joseph said unto them, Do not interpretations belong to God? tell me them, I pray you.

9 And the chief butler told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, behold, a vine was before me;

10 And in the vine were three branches: and it was as though it budded, and her blossoms shot forth; and the clusters thereof brought forth ripe grapes:

11 And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand: and I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand.

12 And Joseph said unto him, This is the interpretation of it: The three branches are three days:


13 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thine head, and restore thee unto thy place: and thou shalt deliver Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the former manner when thou wast his butler.

14 But think on me when it shall be well with thee, and shew kindness, I pray thee, unto me, and make mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house:

15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews: and here also have I done nothing that they should put me into the dungeon.

16 When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said unto Joseph, I also was in my dream, and, behold, I had three white baskets on my head:


17 And in the uppermost basket there was of all manner of bakemeats for Pharaoh; and the birds did eat them out of the basket upon my head.

18 And Joseph answered and said, This is the interpretation thereof: The three baskets are three days.

19 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee.

1 Heb. are your faces evil. 2 Or, reckon. 3 Heb. remember me with thee. 4 Or, full of loles.
a baker, or, cook. • Or, reckon thee, and take thy office from thee.

5 Heb. meat of Pharaoh, the work of

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Verse 9. "Behold, a vine was before me."-Herodotus says that the culture of the vine was unknown in Egypt. But he was certainly mistaken; for every kind of evidence concurs to confirm the statement of Scripture. Indeed, other ancient writers even say that the Egyptians claim for their Osiris the honour of being the first who cultivated the vine, and extracted wine from its fruit; and Athenæus, Strabo, Pliny, and Clement of Alexandria, specify districts in which it was grown. Modern travellers still find the vine cultivated in some places; and vine-branches, laden with ripe grapes, are among the ornaments of ancient Egyptian architecture. Egyptian paintings also have been found representing the vintage, with men occupied in pressing the ripe fruit. It is, nevertheless, true that the soil of Egypt is not generally favourable to the culture of the vine, and it does not appear that it throve well except in some more elevated spots. The quantity of wine afforded by the vines of Egypt was so small that wine was never, as in Greece, a common drink. Beer was the ordinary Egyptian beverage; not, indeed, what we call by that name, as the use of hops was not known in ancient times; but still, a fermented drink, prepared from barley. The Egyptians assigned the honour of this invention also to their Osiris, who, as they state, favoured those whose land would not produce the vine, by teaching them how to obtain from barley a liquor not very different from wine in odour and strength. It is certain that the use of beer is only less ancient than that of wine. The earlier origin of the latter is accounted for by the greater simplicity of its preparation, which is such that the discovery may (as the Persians taught) have been accidental; whilst it is difficult to imagine the circumstances which could have suggested to people of primitive times the idea of a drink prepared from barley. (See Reynier; Goguet; and Heeren, Politique et Commerce des Peuples de l'Antiquité,' &c.)

11. "I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup."-Wine could not be the result of this process; although, by a poetical licence, the expressed juice of the grape is often called "wine." The juice was no doubt mixed with water, forming a sherbet. The Orientals are still very fond of such drinks, formed by mixing the juices of fruits with water. Such beverages stand to them in the place of fermented or distilled drinks to Europeans. This drink could not be intoxicating; but the use of proper wine-that is, a fermented and intoxicating drink-was known long before, as we have seen in the respective histories of Noah and Lot. It has been asserted that wine was forbidden to the Egyptians by their religion; but this must be understood with some important limitations; for we learn from Herodotus, that the people were allowed to drink wine at certain festivals, and that the privileged class, the priesthood, were only interdicted from the use of it on the days of their service in the temples, and even on those days they were

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