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theirs of copper. We have thus one proof among many of the luxury and refinement to which the Egyptians had even at this early time attained. The vessels (translated "jewels") of gold and of silver which Abraham sent to Mesopotamia by Eliezer, probably formed part of the presents which he had received at a former period from the king of Egypt. There is considerable difficulty in what is said about divination by this cup. As the last clause of the sentence may fairly be rendered-" and for which he would carefully inquire," it is perhaps safest to accept this rendering, as most consistent with the 'general character of Joseph. It is however certain, that there was a sort of pretended divination by cups among the Egyptians and other eastern people; and there is and was a very ancient tradition of a famous cup, which exhibited all that was passing in the world. The possession of this cup, or else of the power of divination by cups, is still occasionally pretended to by great persons when they wish to alarm or to extort some discovery or compliance from others; and it is barely possible that Joseph may have intended to convey some intimation of this sort to his brethren.
1 Joseph maketh_himself known to his brethren. 5 He comforteth them in God's providence. 9 He sendeth for his father. 16 Pharaoh confirmeth it. 21 Joseph furnisheth them for their journey, and exhorteth them to concord. 25 Jacob is revived with the news.
THEN Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.
2 And he 'wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard.
3 And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence.
4 And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt.
5 Now therefore be not grieved, 'nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve life. 6 For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be caring nor harvest.
7 And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance.
8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.
9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not:
10 And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast :
1 Heb. gave forth his voice in weeping. e Heb. to put for you a remnant.
14 And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.
15 Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them and after that his brethren talked with him.
16 And the fame thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house, saying, Joseph's brethren are come: and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants.
17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Say unto thy brethren, This do ye; lade your beasts, and go, get you unto the land of Canaan;
18 And take your father and your housholds, and come unto me: and I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the
19 Now thou art commanded, this do ye; take you wagons out of the land of Egypt for your little ones, and for your wives, and bring your father, and come.
20 Also regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land of Egypt is your's.
21 And the children of Israel did so: and Joseph gave them wagons, according to the commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them provision for the way.
22 To all of them he gave each man changes of raiment; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment.
23 And to his father he sent after this
2 Acts 7. 13.
3 Or, terrified.
5 Chap. 50. 20.
9 Heb. mouth.
manner; ten asses 10 laden with the good things of Egypt, and ten she asses laden with corn and bread and meat for his father by the way.
24 So he sent his brethren away, and they departed: and he said unto them, See that ye fall not out by the way.
25 ¶ And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob their father,
alive, and he is governor over all the land of Egypt. And "Jacob's heart fainted, for he believed them not.
26 And told him, saying, Joseph is yet before I die.
10 Heb. carrying.
11 Heb. his.
Verse 10. "The land of Goshen."-" Concerning the situation of the land of Goshen," observes Michaelis, "authors have maintained very different opinions; but have withal made it impossible for themselves to ascertain the truth, by concurring in the representation of Goshen as the most beautiful and fertile part of Egypt. But is it at all probable that a king of Egypt would have taken the very best part of his territory from his own native subjects, to give it to strangers, and these too a wandering race of herdsmen, hitherto accustomed only to traverse with their cattle the deserts and uncultivated commons of the East?" (Commentaries,' vol. i. p. 64. Smith's translation.) Without entering into verbal criticism, we may observe that the expression rendered "best of the land" (xlvii. 6.) as applied to Goshen, has been satisfactorily proved to mean no more than that it was the best pasture ground of Lower Egypt, and therefore best adapted to the uses of the Hebrew shepherds. This land lay along the east side of the Pelusiac or most easterly branch of the Nile; for it is evident that the Hebrews did not cross the Nile in their exodus from Egypt, as they must otherwise have done. It must thus have included part at least of the nome or district of Heliopolis, of which the "On" of the Scriptures is supposed to have been the capital, and which lay on the eastern border of the Delta. To the east of the river the land of Goshen apparently stretched away into the desert, where the nomade shepherds might find sustenance for their flocks. In this direction it may in some places have extended to the Gulf of Suez. The land of Goshen thus defined, included a quantity of fertile land more extensive in length and breadth than at present. This arises from the general failure of the eastern branches of the Nile; the main body of that river verging more and more to the west continually and deepening the channels on that side. (On this subject see Bryant, Michaelis, Rennel, &c. See also note on ch. xlvi. 34.)
27 And they told him all the words of Joseph, which he had said unto them: and when he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father revived:
28 And Israel said, It is enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I will go and see him
There was another Goshen in the territory of the tribe of Judah; so called, probably, from being a district chiefly appropriated to pasture. (See Josh. x. 41; xi. 16.)
22. "To all of them he gave each man changes of raiment; but to Benjamin he gave... five changes of raiment.”—For the custom of bestowing honorary dresses, see note on ch. xli. 42. It is not customary in Persia to bestow more than one such dress, the distinction being constituted by the quality and class of the articles of which it consists. But in Turkey, where the dresses of honour are all of nearly the same description and quality, the distinction, as in the instance before us, is made by the number of the dresses bestowed on the person intended to be honoured, more or fewer being given according to the rank of the person, or the degree of favour intended to be indicated.
27. "When he saw the wagons," &c.-The Hebrew word seems to be fairly rendered by the word " gon." A wheel carriage of some kind or other is certainly intended; and as from other passages we learn that they were covered, at least sometimes, the best idea we can form of them is, that they bore some resemblance to our tilted waggons. With some small exception, it may be said that wheel carriages are not now employed in Africa or Western Asia; but that they were anciently used in Egypt, and in what is now Asiatic Turkey, is attested not only by history, but by existing sculptures and paintings. It would seem that they were not at this time used in Palestine, as when Jacob saw them he knew they must have come from Egypt. Perhaps, however, he knew this by their peculiar shape. The only wheel carriages in Western Asia with which we are acquainted are, first, a very rude cart, usually drawn by oxen, and employed in conveying agricultural produce in Armenia and Georgia; and then a vehicle called an Arabah, used at Constantinople and some other towns towards the Mediterranean. It is a light covered cart without springs, and being exclusively used by women, children, and aged or sick persons, (see v. 19.) would seem both in its use, and as nearly as we can discover, in its make, to be no bad representative of the waggons in the text. No wheel carriage is, however, now used in a journey.
1 Jacob is comforted by God at Beer-sheba. 5 Thence he with his company goeth into Egypt. 8 The number of his family that went into Egypt. 28 Joseph meeteth Jacob. 31 He instructeth his brethren how to answer to Pharaoh.
AND Israel took his journey with all that he had, and came to Beer-sheba, and offered sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac.
2 And God spake unto Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I.
3 And he said, I am God, the God of thy father: fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation:
4 I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes.
5 And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba: and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him.
7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought he with him into Egypt.
8 And these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacob's firstborn. 9 And the sons of Reuben; Hanoch, and Phallu, and Hezron, and Carmi.
10 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman. 11 And the sons of 'Levi; Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
12 And the sons of Judah; Er, and Onan, and Shelah, and Pharez, and Zarah: but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. And the sons of Pharez were Hezron and Hamul.
1 Josh. 24. 4. Psal. 105. 23. 1 Chrou. 2. 3, and 4. 21.
15 These be the sons of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob in Padan-aram, with his
Isa. 52. 4. 2 Exod. 1. 1, and 6. 14. Chap. 38. 3. 71 Chron. 7. 1.
13 'And the sons of Issachar; Tola, and Phuvah, and Job, and Shimron.
14 And the sons of Zebulun; Sered, teen. and Elon, and Jahleel.
daughter Dinah: all the souls of his sons. and his daughters were thirty and three.
16 And the sons of Gad; Ziphion, and Haggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli.
17 And the sons of Asher; Jimnah, and Ishuah, and Isui, and Beriah, and Serah their sister: and the sons of Beriah; Heber, and Malchiel.
18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter, and these she bare unto Jacob, even sixteen souls.
19 The sons of Rachel Jacob's wife; Joseph, and Benjamin.
20 And unto Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, 'which Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah priest of On bare unto him.
21 "And the sons of Benjamin were Belah, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard.
22 These are the sons of Rachel, which were born to Jacob: all the souls were four
23 ¶ And the sons of Dan; Hushim. 24 And the sons of Naphtali; Jahzeel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shillem.
3 Num. 26. 5. 1 Chron. 5. 1. 81 Chron. 7.30. 9 Chap. 41. 50.
4 Exod. 6. 15. 1 Chron. 4. 24. 51 Chron. 6. 1. 10 Or, prince. 111 Chron. 7. 6, and 8. 1.
25 These are the sons of Bilhah, which Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and she bare these unto Jacob: all the souls were seven.
26 All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins, besides Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were threescore and six;
me die, since I have seen thy face, because thou art yet alive.
31 And Joseph said unto his brethren, and unto his father's house, I will go up, and shew Pharaoh, and say unto him, My brethren, and my father's house, which were in the land of Canaan, are come unto me;
27 And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: "all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.
28 And he sent Judah before him unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen.
29 And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and presented himself unto him; and he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while.
30 And Israel said unto Joseph, Now let
32 And the men are shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle; and they have brought their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have.
33 And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation?
34 That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now, both we, and also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians.
Verse 34. " Every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians."-Various causes have been assigned to account for this aversion of the Egyptians towards shepherds. It has been sought for in the animal worship of that extraordinary people, which naturally rendered them averse to persons who fed on creatures which they considered sacred. But this cause must have been limited in its operation; for the Egyptians as a people by no means concurred in the objects of veneration. Almost every nome or district had a different usage. Thus the inhabitants of Mendes worshipped goats and ate sheep, while those of Thebes, on the contrary, fed on sheep and rendered homage to goats. In Thebes also, and all around the Lake Moris, crocodiles were venerated, whilst at Elephantine they were killed without mercy. In fact, the Egyptians were, as Goguet remarks, divided into a great number of societies distinguished from, and prejudiced against, one another, by their different objects and rites of worship. We believe that the influence of the animal worship of the Egyptians was much less considerable in its operation upon the rearing of cattle than is commonly imagined. Of the larger cattle, the cow alone was considered sacred; we doubt if any strong objection on its account could have arisen against the nomade shepherds, as they never kill cows for food, and rarely even oxen; and it does not appear that they often offered cows in sacrifice, for in all the Old Testament previously to the exodus from Egypt, we read of only one heifer sacrificed (Gen. xv. 9). The Egyptians did not worship bulls or oxen; the worship of the bull Apis being restricted to an individual animal: other bulls were used in sacrifices, and are so represented in sculptures. The priests themselves ate beef and veal without scruple. There was even a caste of herdsmen among the Egyptians, and herds of black cattle ar represented in sculptures and paintings, some of which are preserved in the British Museum. The ox was used as food, and in agricultural labour, and in the same ancient remains is continually represented as drawing the plough. Even Pharaoh himself was a proprietor of cattle (see ch. xlvii. 6), and wished to have men of ability to superintend them; and he would scarcely have offered this employment to the brothers of his chief minister, if the employment of rearing cattle had in itself been considered degrading. We conclude, however, that so far as the hatred of the Egyptians to shepherds arose from their religious prejudices, it was connected almost entirely with the cow-the only pastured animal which they generally considered sacred. Any objection connected with sheep and goats could only have operated locally, since the Egyptians themselves sacrificed or ate them
in different districts.
We are therefore inclined, following out a hint furnished by Heeren, to consider that the aversion of the Egyptians was not so exclusively to rearers of cattle as such, as to the class of pastors who associated the rearing of cattle with habits and pursuits which rendered them equally hated and feared by a settled and refined people like the Egyptians. We would therefore understand the text in the most intense sense, and say that "every nomade shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians;" for there is no evidence that this disgrace attached to those cultivators who, being proprietors of lands, made the rearing of cattle a principal part of their business. The nomade tribes, who pastured their flocks on the borders or within the limits of Egypt, did not in general belong to the Egyptian nation, but were of Arabian or Libyan descent; whence the prejudice against them as nomades was superadded to that against foreigners in general. The turbulent and aggressive disposition which usually forms part of the character of nomades-and their entire independence, or at least the imperfect and uncertain control which it is possible to exercise over their tribesare circumstances so replete with annoyance and danger to a carefully organized society like that of the Egyptians, as sufficiently to account for the hatred and scorn which the ruling priestly caste strove to keep up against them; and it was probably in order to discourage all intercourse that the regulation precluding Egyptians from eating with them was first established.
In further illustration of this subject we must not however omit an historical statement, the chronology of which, as settled by Dr. Hales, and confirmed by Mr. Faber, brings it to bear with remarkable force upon the prejudices of the Egyptian mind at the period now under our notice.
In the reign of Timaus, or Thamuz, (about the year 2159 B. c., according to Dr. Hales, in his New Analysis of Chronology, Egypt was invaded by a tribe of Cushite shepherds from Arabia (see note on chap. xxv. 16). The Egyptians submitted without trying the event of a battle, and were exposed, for a period of 260 years, to the most tyrannous and insulting conduct from their new masters; who made one of their own number king, and established their capital at Memphis; having in proper places strong garrisons, which kept both Upper and Lower Egypt under subjection and tribute. There were six kings of this dynasty, who were called Hycsos, or "king-shepherds ;" and they exercised a
degree of cruelty and oppression upon the natives which left an indelible sense of hatred upon the minds of the Egyptians, even in periods long subsequent. At last the national spirit was roused, and after a war of thirty years the princes of Upper Egypt succeeded in obliging them to withdraw from the country which had been so deeply injured by their invasion. They withdrew, as it seems, to Palestine, where they became the Philistines. This event, according to Dr. Hales, was about twenty-seven years before the commencement of Joseph's administration; and as the memory of the tyranny which they had suffered must still have been fresh in the minds of the Egyptians, this seems sufficiently to account for the fact that "every shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians," without recurring to the supposed dislike of the Egyptians to pastoral people on account of their pursuits and mode of life. Their dislike must have been the more intense, too, against persons who, like the Hebrews, came from the country to which their expelled enemies had withdrawn. They might not unreasonably have suspected that their Hebrew visitors were a party of the same people; and the harsh reception they met with from Joseph, the strict examination which they underwent, and the charge of being spies come to see the nakedness of the land, is probably just what would have happened if they had been personally unknown to the governor of Egypt.
It remains to be observed, that the country which we have noticed as "the land of Goshen" seems to have been the first which the Cushite shepherds occupied when they invaded Egypt, and the last from which they retired. The Egyptians were certainly not a pastoral people, and this being a district which had been employed for pasturage, it had probably not begun to be occupied by the Egyptians since the recent expulsion. If it had, it would not have been so readily assigned to the Hebrews; but now it was quite natural that they should be placed in Goshen, which a pastoral people had lately vacated. Thus Goshen occurs immediately to Joseph as a suitable domain for the family of his father: and that it remained unoccupied seems to be evinced by the readiness with which he promises his father, in his first message, that he should reside in the land of Goshen (chap. xlv. 9, 10); and the ground on which he made this promise seems to be explained in chap. xlvi. 34, where we perceive his conviction that Pharaoh would at once assign that territory to them when he knew that they were shepherds. Dr. Hales very properly directs attention to the no less wise and liberal policy of the Egyptian court in making this assignment of Goshen to the Hebrews. This country "formed the eastern barrier of Egypt towards Palestine and Arabia-the quarters from which they most dreaded invasion-whose nakedness' was now covered, in a short time, by a numerous, a brave, and an industrious people; amply repaying, by the additional security and resources which they gave to Egypt, their hospitable reception and naturalization."
1 Joseph presenteth five of his brethren, 7 and his father, before Pharaoh. 11 He giveth them habitation and maintenance. 13 He getteth all the Egyptians' money, 16 their cattle, 18 their lands to Pharaoh. 22 The Priests' land was not bought. 23 He letteth the land to them for a fifth part. 28 Jacob's age. 29 He sweareth Joseph to bury him with his fathers.
THEN Joseph came and told Pharaoh, and said, My father and my brethren, and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, are come out of the land of Canaan; and, behold, they are in the land of Goshen.
2 And he took some of his brethren, even five men, and presented them unto Pharaoh.
3 And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, What is your occupation? And they said unto Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, both we, and also our fathers.
7 And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh: and Jacob blessed Pharaoh.
8 And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, 'How old art thou?
9 And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, "The days of the years of my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty years: few and evil have the days of the years of my life been, and have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage.
10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh.
11 ¶ And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had com
12 And Joseph nourished his father, and his brethren, and all his father's houshold, with bread, according to their families.
13 And there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very sore, so that the land of Egypt and all the land of Canaan fainted by reason of the famine.
14 And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house.
15 And when money failed in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said, Give
1 Heb. How many are the days of the years of thy life? Heb. 11. 9, 13. Or, as a little child is nourished. Heb. according to the little ones.