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3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.

4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.

5 And he said, Draw not nigh hither: 'put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whercon thou standest is holy ground.

6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

7 ¶ And the LORD said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their


8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them.

10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt.

shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them?

14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

15 And God said morcover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.

16 Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, The LORD God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, appeared unto me, saying, I have surely visited you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt:

17 And I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, unto a land flowing with milk and honey.

18 And they shall hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him, The LORD God of the Hebrews hath met with us: and now let us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the LORD our God.

19¶ And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, 'no, not by a mighty hand.

20 And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go.

21 And I will give this people favour in the sight of the Egyptians: and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty:

11 And Moses said unto God, Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?

12 And he said, Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be a token unto thee, that I have sent thee: When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.

13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they

22 But every woman shall borrow of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment: and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.

3 Malt. 22. 32. Acts 7.32.

4 Or, but by strong hand. 5 Chap. 11. 2, and 12. 35.

6 Or, Egypt.

Josh. 5. 15. Acts 7.33. Verse 1. "Horeb."-We shall give some account of this mountain when tracing the course of the Israelites in their march from Egypt to the land of promise. We may here observe, that the sacred locality is under the guardianship of a body of Greek monks, who occupy an ancient convent at the foot of the mountain, called the "Convent of St. Catherine;" by whose name also the mountain, supposed to be Horeb, is now distinguished. The monks indicate, as the spot where Moses fed the flocks of Jethro, a valley at the back of the mount, between two ranges of mountains, in the centre of which is a solitary group of trees. They state that the original church, built here by the empress Helena, the mother of Constantine, was built over the spot were the Divine Presence was manifested to Moses; and where,

afterwards, the present fortified convent was include the same sacred spot. (See Carne's Sinai.')

erected under the direction of the emperor Justinian, it was made to Letters from the East;' and Burckhardt's 'Tour in the Peninsula of

5. Put off thy shoes from off thy feet."-The reverence indicated by putting off the covering of the feet is still prevalent in the East. The Orientals throw off their slippers on all those occasions when we should take off our hats. They never uncover their heads, any more than we our feet. It would every where, whether among Christians, Moslems or Pagans, be considered in the highest degree irreverent for a person to enter a church, a temple, or a mosque, with his feet covered; and we shall observe that the priests under the law officiated with bare feet. And not only is this form of showing respect exhibited in religious observances, but in the common intercourse of life. Few things inspire an Oriental with deeper disgust, than for a person to enter his room with shoes or boots on, regarding such conduct both as an insult to himself and a pollution to his apartment. These usages influence the costume of the head and feet. The former, being never uncovered, is in general shaven, and the head-dress generally is such that it could not be replaced without some degree of trouble; while for the feet they have loose and easy slippers, which may be thrown off and resumed with the least possible degree of inconvenience.




1 Moses's rod is turned into a serpent. 6 His hand
is leprous. 10 He is loth to be sent. 14 Aaron is
appointed to assist him. 18 Moses departeth from
Jethro. 21 God's message to Pharaoh. 24 Zip-
porah circumciseth her son. 27 Aaron is sent to
meet Moses. 31 The people believeth them.
AND Moses answered and said, But, behold,
they will not believe me, nor hearken unto
my voice: for they will say, The LORD hath
not appeared unto thee.

2 And the LORD said unto him, What is that in thine hand? And he said, A rod.

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3 And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before



4 And the LORD said unto Moses, Put

forth thine hand, and take it by the tail. And he put forth his hand, and caught it, and it became a rod in his hand:

5 That they may believe that the LORD God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared unto thee.

6 And the LORD said furthermore unto him, Put now thine hand into thy bosom. And he put his hand into his bosom : and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow.

7 And he said, Put thine hand into thy bosom again. And he put his hand into his bosom again; and plucked it out of his bosom, and, behold, it was turned again as his other flesh.

8 And it shall come to pass, if they will


not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign.

9 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land and the water which thou takest out of the river 'shall become blood upon the dry land.

10 And Moses said unto the LORD, O my Lord, I am not 'eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue.

11 And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the secing, or the blind? have not I the LORD?

12 Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say. 13 And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send.

14 And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee: and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart.

15 And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do.

16 And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people: and he shall be, even he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God.

17 And thou shalt take this rod in thine hand, wherewith thou shalt do signs.

18 ¶ And Moses went and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren which are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet alive.And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace.

19 And the LORD said unto Moses in

Midian, Go, return into Egypt: for all the men are dead which sought thy life.

20 And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt: and Moses took the rod of God in his hand.

21 And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.

22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel is my son, even my firstborn:

1 Heb. shall be and shall be. Heb. a man of words.

23 And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou_refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn.


24 And it came to pass by the way the inn, that the LORD met him, and sought to kill him.

25 Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and "cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband art thou to me.

26 So he let him go: then she said, A bloody husband thou art, because of the circumcision.

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3 Heb. since yesterday, nor since the third day. 4 Matt. 10. 19. Mark 13. 11. Luke 12. 11. 5 Or, shouldest. 6 Chap. 7. 1. 7 Ör, knife. 8 Heb. made it touch.

Verse 25. "Zipporah took a sharp stone."-Flints and other hard stones formed the tools and cutting instruments of almost all nations before the art of working iron was discovered. We find such instruments still in use among savages, and discover them cccasionally buried in different parts of Europe and Asia, showing the universality of their use when the people were ignorant of iron. They were no doubt formed, as savages form them at present; that is, they were shaped and sharpened on a kind of grindstone, until, at a great expense of time, labour and patience, they were brought to the desired figure. They were then fitted to a handle, and used nearly in the same way as we use our instruments and tools of iron. From the act of Zipporah, we are, however, not authorized to infer that instruments and tools of metal were not common at the time and in the neighbourhood before us. We shall soon have occasion to see the contrary. The fact seems to be, that Zipporah knew that sharp stones were exclusively used in Egypt and elsewhere, in making incisions on the human person; and she therefore either used such an instrument, or employed in its room one of the flints with which the region they were traversing is abundantly strewed.

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AND afterward Moses and Aaron went in, and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness.

2 And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.

3 And they said, 'The God of the He- officers, saying,

1 Chap. 3. 18.

4 And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the people from their works? get you unto your burdens.

5 And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many, and ye make them rest from their burdens.

6 And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people, and their

7 Ye shall no more give the people straw | Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy serto make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves.

8 And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof: for they be idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God.

9 Let there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labour therein; and let them not regard vain words.

10 And the taskmasters of the people ¶ went out, and their officers, and they spake to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw.

11 Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it yet not ought of your work shall be diminished.

12 So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw.

13 And the taskmasters hasted them, saying, Fulfil your works, your daily tasks, as when there was straw.


16 There is no straw given unto thy servants, and they say to us, Make brick and, behold, thy servants are beaten; but the fault is in thine own people.

17 But he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle: therefore ye say, Let us go and do sacrifice to the LORD.

18 Go therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks.

19 And the officers of the children of Israel did see that they were in evil case, after it was said, Ye shall not minish ought from your bricks of your daily task. 20

And they met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came forth from Pharaoh:

21 And they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us.

22 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people? why is it that thou hast sent me?

14 And the officers of the children of Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick both yesterday and to-day, as heretofore?

15 ¶ Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, Heb. let the work be heavy upon the men. 3 Ileb, a matter of a day in his day. 4 IIeb. to stink. 5 Heb. de'ivering, thou hast not delivered.

23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done evil to this people; neither hast thou delivered thy people at all.

Verse 7. "Straw to make brick.”—We are so much in the habit of associating the making of bricks with burning, that the common reader fails to discover that the straw could be for any other use than to burn the bricks. Without disputing that the Egyptians did sometimes burn their bricks, the evidence of ancient remains in their country and the existing customs of the East leave little room to doubt that the use of the straw was to mix with and compact the mass of clay used in making sun-dried bricks, such as we have noticed in the notes on Babylon and on the pyramids. Bricks of this sort are still commonly made in Egypt; and their ancient use in the same country is evinced by the brick pyramids at Dashoor and Faioum. That they were never in the fire is shown by the fact that the straw which enters into their composition has sustained no injury or discolouration. Such bricks are very durable in dry climates like Egypt, but would soon be ruined if exposed to much rain. Herodotus observed it as one of the customs in which the Egyptians were unlike other nations, that they kneaded their clay with their hands, and their dough with their feet.

14. "The officers of the children of Israel..........were beaten.”—This is quite oriental. We need only allude to China, which has aptly been said to be governed by the stick. In Persia also the stick is in continual action. Men of all ranks and ages are continually liable to be beaten. It is by no means a rare occurrence for the highest and most trusted persons in the state, in a moment of displeasure or caprice in their royal master, to be handed over to the beaters of carpets, who thrash them with their sticks as if they were dogs. The same practice descends through all ranks; and it has often made the writer's heart ache to see respectable, and even venerable white-bearded men chastised by the menials and messengers of great persons, on their own account, with a brutality which would in this country subject a man to judicial punishment if exercised upon his ass or horse. Thus, beating comes to be regarded by all as among the common evils to which life is incident. Instances are mentioned of persons who, being wealthy, and knowing that attempts would be made to extort money from them by beating, have inured themselves, by selfinflicted blows, to bear the worst without being shaken. The consequence of all this is, that personal chastisement is in those countries not considered a disgrace, but simply a misfortune, limited to the pain inflicted, or to the degree of displeasure on the part of a superior which it may be understood to indicate. A great minister of state, who was beaten yesterday, does not hold his head less erect, and is not less courted or respected to-day, if he still retains his place and influence at court; and if his great master condescends, on second thoughts, to invest his bruised person with a robe of honour, and to speak a few words of kindness or compliment, the former punishment is considered by all parties to be more than adequately compensated.

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