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brews hath met with us : let us go, we pray 1 Pharaoh chideth Moses and Aaron for their mes. thee, three days' journey into the desert,

sage. 5 He increuseth the Israelites' tusk. 15 and sacrifice unto the LORD our God; lest He checketh their complaints. 19 They cry out he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the upon Moses und Aaron.

22 Moses compluineth sword. to God.

4 And the king of Egypt said unto them, And afterward Moses and Aaron went in, Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, let the and told Pharaoh, Thus saith the Lord people from their works ? get you unto your God of Israel, Let my people go, that they burdens, may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness. 5 And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people

2 And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, of the land now are many, and ye mako that I should obey his voice to let Israel them rest from their burdens. go? I know not the LORD, neither will I 6 And Pharaoh commanded the same let Israel go.

day the taskmasters of the people, and their 3 And they said, 'The God of the He- officers, saying,

1 Clap. 3. 18.

Let us

Let us

7 Ye shall no more give the people straw | Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy serto make brick, as heretoforc: let them go vants? and gather straw for themselves.

16 There is no straw given unto thy ser8 And the tale of the bricks, which they vants, and they say to us, Make brick: and, did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon behold, thy servants are beaten; but the them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof: fault is in thine own people. for they be idle; therefore they cry, saying, 17 But he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle:

and sacrifice to our God.

ye say,


and do sacrifice 9 'Let there more work be laid upon the to the LORD. men, that they may labour therein ; and let 18 Go therefore now, and work; for there them not regard vain words.

shall no straw be given you, yet shall yo 10 And the taskmasters of the people deliver the tale of bricks. went out, and their officers, and they spake 19 And the officers of the children of to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, Israel did see that they were in evil case, I will not give you straw.

after it was said, Ye shall not minish ought 11 Go ye, get you straw where ye can from your bricks of your daily task. find it : yet not ought of your work shall be 20 | And they met Moses and Aaron, diminished.

who stood in the way, as they came forth 12 So the people were scattered abroad from Pharaoh : throughout all the land of Egypt to gather 21 And they said unto them, The LORD stubble instead of straw.


upon you, and judge ; because ye have 13 And the taskmasters hasted them, made our savour to be abhorred in the saying, Fulfil your works, your daily tasks, eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his seras when there was straw.

vants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us. 14 And the officers of the children of 22 And Moses returned unto the LORD, Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set and said, Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil over them, were beaten, and demanded, entreated this people? why is it that thou Wherefore have

not fulfilled


task in hast sent me? making brick both yesterday and to-day, as 23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak heretofore?

in thy name, he hath done evil to this peo15 | Then the officers of the children of ple; neither hast thou delivered thy people Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, at all. lleb, let the work te hervy upon the men. 3 Ilub, a matter of a day in his day.

o Heb. de'irering, thou hast not delivered. Verse 7. Straw to make brick.—We are so much in the habit of associating the making of bricks with burning, that the common reader fails to discover that the straw could be for any other use t’an to burn the bricks. Without disputing that the Egyptians did sometimes burn their bricks, the evidence of ancievt remains in their country and the existing customs of the East leave little room to doubt that the use of the straw was to mix with and compact the mass of clay used in making sun-dried bricks, such as we have noticed in the notes on Babylon and on the pyramids. Bricks of this sort are still commorly made in Egypt; and their ancient use in the same country is evinced by the brick pyramids at Dashoor and Faioum. That they were never in the fire is shown by the fact that the straw which enters irto their composition has sustained no injury or discolouration. Such bricks are very durable in dry climates like Egypt, but would soon be ruined if exposed to much rain. Herolotus observed it as one of the customs in which the Egyptians were unlike other nations, that they kneaded their clay with their hands, and their dough with their feet.

14. The officers of the children of Israel....were beaten."— This is quite oriental. We need only allude to China, which has aptly been said to be governed by the stick. In Persia also the stick is in continual action. Men of all ranks and ages are continually liable to be beaten. It is by no means a rare occurrence for the highest and most trusted persons in the state, in a moment of displeasure or caprice in their royal master, to be handed over to the beaters of carpets, who thrash them with their sticks as if they were dogs. The same practice descends through all ranks; and it has often made the writer's heart ache to see respectable, and even venerable white-bearded men chastised by the menials and messengers of great persons, on their own account, with a brutality which would in this country subject a man to judicial punishment if exercised upon his ass or horse. Thus, beating comes to be regarded by all as among the common evils to which life is incident." Instances are mentioned of persons who, being wealthy, and knowing that attempts would be made to extort money from them by beating, have inured themselves, by selfinflicted blows, to bear the worst without being shaken. The consequence of all this is, that personal chastisement is in those countries not considered a disgrace, but simply a misfortune, limited to the pain inflicted, or to the degree of displeasure on the part of a superior which it may be understood to indicate. A great minister of state, who was beaten yesterday, does not hold his head less erect, and is not less courted or respected to-day, if he still retains his place and influence at court; and if his great master condescends, on second thoughts, to invest his bruised person with a robe of honour, and to speak a few words of kindness or compliment, the former punishment is considered by all parties to be more than adequately compensated.

4 IIel, to stink.


the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh 1 God reneweth his promise by his name JEHOVAH. king of Egypt, to bring the children of

14 The genealogy of Reuben, 15 of Simeon, 16 of Israel out of the land of Egypt. Leri, of whom cume Moses and Aaron.

14 | These be the heads of their fathers' Then the LORD said unto Moses, Now shalt houses : The son's of Reuben the first. thou see what I will do to Pharaoh: for born of Israel; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezwith a strong hand shall he let them go, ron, and Carmi: these be the families of and with a strong hand shall he drive them Reuben. out of his land.

15 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, 2 And God spake unto Moses, and said and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and unto him, I am the Lord:

Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish 3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto woman: these are the families of Simeon. Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God 16 | And these are the names of "the Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH sons of Levi according to their generations; was I not known to them.

Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari: and the 4 And I have also established my cove- years of the life of Levi were an hundred nant with them, to give them the land of thirty and seven years. Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein 17 The sons of Gershon; Libni, and they were strangers.

Shimi, according to their families. 5 And I have also heard the groaning of 18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel : and keep in bondage; and I have remembered the years of the life of Kohath were an hunmy covenant.

dred thirty and three years. 6 Wherefore say unto the children of 19 And the sons of Merari; Mahali and Israel, I am the Lord, and I will bring you Mushi : these are the families of Levi acout from under the burdens of the Egyp-cording to their generations. tians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, 20 And Amrain took him Jochebed his and I will redeem you with a stretched out father's sister to wife ; and she bare him arm, and with great judgments :

Aaron and Moses : and the years of the life 7 And I will take you to me for a people, of Amram were an hundred and thirty and and I will be to you a God : and ye shall seven years. know that I am the LORD your God, which 21 s And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and bringeth you out from under the burdens Nepheg, and Zithri. of the Egyptians.

2.2 And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and 8 And I will bring you in unto the land, Elzaphan, and Zithri. concerning the which I did 'swear to give it 23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daughto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I ter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; will give it you for an heritage: I am the and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, EleaLORD.

zar, and Ithamar. 9 | And Moses spake so unto the chil- 24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and dren of Israel : but they hearkened not unto Elkanah, and Abiasaph: these are the famiMoses for 'anguish' of spirit, and for cruel lies of the Korhites. bondage.

25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one 10 And the LORD spake unto Moses, of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and she saying,

bare him Phinehas: these are the heads of 11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of the fathers of the Levites according to their Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go families. out of his land.

26 These are that Aaron and Moses, to 12 And Moses spake before the LORD, whom the Lord said, Bring out the children saying, Behold, the children of Israel have of Israel from the land of Egypt according not hearkened unto me; how then shall to their armies. Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised 27 These are they which spake to Phalips?

raoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children 13 And the Lord spake unto Moses and of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto and Aaron. 1 Heb. lift up my hand.


2 Heb. shortness, or straitness. 3 Gen. 46.9 1 Chron. 5. 3. 41 Chron. 4. 24.

6 Num. 26.57. I Chron. 6. 2. 7 Chap. 2.2. Num. 26, 59. 8 Num. 25. 11,

5 Num. 3. 17. Chron. 6. I.

28 | And it came to pass on the day when Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto the LORD spake unto Moses in the land of thee. Egypt,

30 And Moses said before the LORD, Be29 That the LORD spake unto Moses, hold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how saying, I am the Lord: speak thou unto shall Pharaoh hearken unto me?

Verse 3. By my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them.”—There have been many different interpretations of this passage. The name frequently occurs in Geness; but Calmet and many others think that, as that book was written after God had revealed this name to Moses, it is used there by way of anticipation. Calmet's editor, Mr. Taylor, however, enters into an elaborate criticism of the Hebrew verb “to know,” showing that it implies in one sense “ appropriation ;” and he understands the passage to mean, that although God had before been known to the patriarchs, and to other persons, not of their family, in a general way, it now became the name by which he constituted himself the appropriate Deity of the Hebrew nation; and by that name he, on one part, and they, on the other, entered into covenant. This interpretation has much claim to attention;

and seems to be confirmed by many subsequent passages,

in which the name occurs as an “appropriate” name. Thus, “I am Jehovah ;” or “ I am Jehovah your God," are the expressions in which He indicates his claim to their allegiance and obedience. It would seem to have the emphasis which would result from the fact that He of whom other nations had no knowledge, or, at most, only some faint and trembling notions, had by express revelation made known to the descendants of Abraham a large measure of his glory and perfections, and took them under his more peculiar care.

It is to be observed that where, in our translation, the word LORD occurs in capital letters, it stands for the JEHOVAH of the original. This substitution has the sanction of the Septuagint, which commonly renders it by Kúpoos, or “Lord,” whence Calmet infers that the translators were not accustomed to pronounce the name ; to which we may add that they were probably unwilling to communicate what they knew of it to strangers. It is certain that the Jews came to associate much superstition and mystery with the name of Jehovah. Their respect for the name led them to abstain from pronouncing it after the captivity, until they ultimately forgot the true pronunciation. Jerome, Origen, Eusebius, and others mention, that in their time the Jews wrote the name in their copies of the Bible in Samaritan characters, instead of the common Chaldee or Hebrew, in order to veil it from the profane inspection of strangers. Josephus, in his account of the transaction in the text, manifests the same feeling. He says “ that Moses entreated God to tell him his name, that he might know how to invoke him properly when he offered sacrifice. Whereupon God declared to him his name, which had never before been revealed to man, and concerning which it is not lawful for me to say more."

20. " Father's sister.”—The Septuagint and the Syriac both read, "uncle's daughter."

30. “ I am of uncircumcised lips.”—Moses thus expresses figuratively, what he had said before more plainly, “ I am not eloquent," or rather, “not of ready utterance.". In consequence of uncircumcision being considered not only impure but dishonourable, the term “ uncircumcised” is frequently applied as a term of degradation and reproach to the Philistines and other neighbouring nations of the Jews; and we also find it often applied, as here, figuratively to imply any thing impure, useless, dangerous, or defective. Thus we read of “uncircumcised ears ” (Jer. vi. 10), that is, ears averse to instruction ; and of “uncircumcised hearts” (Lev. xxvi. 41), or hearts intractable and inattentive.


6 And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord 1 Moses is encouraged to go to Pharaoh. 7 His age.

commanded them, so did they. 8 His rod is turned into a serpent. 11 The sor- 7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and cerers do the like. 13 Pharaoh's heart is hardened. Aaron fourscore and three years old, when 14 God's message to Pharaoh. 19 The river is

they spake unto Pharaoh. turned into blood.

8 [ And the LORD spake unto Moses and And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I have unto Aaron, saying, made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron 9 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, thy brother shall be thy prophet.

saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou 2 Thou shalt speak all that I command shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of serpent. Israel out of his land.

TO | And Moses and Aaron went in unto 3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and Pharaoh, and they did so as the Lord had multiply my signs and my wonders in the commanded : and Aaron cast down his rod land of Egypt.

before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and 4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, it became a serpent. that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and 11 Then Pharaoh also called the wise bring forth mine armies, and my people the men and the sorcerers : now the magicians children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt of Egypt, they also did in like manner with by great judgments.

their enchantments. 5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am 12 For they cast down every man his rod, the Lord, when I stretch forth mine hand and they became serpents : but Aaron's rod upon Egypt, and bring out the children of swallowed up their rods. Israel from among them.

13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that

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he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD upon their ponds, and upon all their 'pools had said.

of water, that they may become blood; and 14 | And the LORD said unto Moses, that there may be blood throughout all the Pharaoh's heart is hardened, he refuseth to land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and let the people go.

in vessels of stone. 15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; 20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou LORD commanded ; and he olifted up the shalt stand by the river's brink against he rod, and smote the waters that were in the come; and the rod which was turned to a river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the serpent shalt thou take in thine hand. sight of his servants; and all the waters

16 And thou shalt say unto him, The LORD that were in the river were turned to blood. God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, 21 And the fish that was in the river saying, Let my people go, that they may died; and the river stank, and the Egypserve me in the wilderness : and, behold, hi- tians could not drink of the water of the therto thou wouldest not hear.

river; and there was blood throughout all 17 Thus saith the Lord, In this thou shalt the land of Egypt. know that I am the LORD: behold, I will 22 And the magicians of Egypt did so smite with the rod that is in mine hand upon with their enchantments : and Pharaoh's the waters which are in the river, and they heart was hardened, neither did he hearken shall be turned to blood.

unto them; as the Lord had said. 18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, 23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians house, neither did he set his heart to this also, shall lothe to drink of the water of the river. 24 And all the Egyptians digged round

19 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, about the river for water to drink; for they Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch could not drink of the water of the river. out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, 25 And seven days were fulfilled, after upon their streams, upon their rivers, and that the LORD had smitten the river.

1 Heb.gathering of their waters. * Chap 17.5. 3 Psal. 78. 44. 4 Wisd. 17. 7.

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