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festation of their religion consisted in the worship of certain animals, which they carefully abstained from eating or injuring, and for whose wants they, as far as possible, provided. The usages of this worship differed in the various provinces, but there seems to be some animals which were pretty generally venerated in all or the greater part of them. Some seem to have been worshipped because they were feared, and others because they were esteemed. It seems very likely that, taking all the provinces collectively, the objects of worship comprehended nearly all the animal and some part of the vegetable creation as known in that country. But there appear to have been some that were treated with more general or more intense worship than the others. Among these the principal seem to have been the solitary bull Apis, the cow, the sheep, the goat, the cat, the dog, the ichneumon, the crocodile, and among the feathered tribe the hawk and the ibis. There were assigned lands whose profits were appropriated to providing food for the sacred animals according to their several habits. It necessarily happened sometimes that the people of one province fed their gods with the gods of another province, which was a fruitful source of strife between them. It seems that, while a general kindness and bounty to the animals left in their natural state was exercised, some individuals were kept up for more concentrated care and reverence, probably as representatives of their races. Some of the sacred animals were interred wherever they were found dead, but others were conveyed to particular places, and after undergoing an embalming process were buried with great ceremony and often at a heavy expense. Diodorus mentions that when the Egyptians went abroad in the wars, they brought home, with great lamentation, dead cats and hawks to be buried in Egypt. There was mourning in whatever house a cat or dog happened to die: for the former the inmates shaved their eyebrows, and for the la 'er their whole body. Whenever a fire happened, the great anxiety of the Egyptians was lest any cats should perish in the flames; and they took more care to prevent such a calamity than to save their houses. The punishment was death to kill a sacred animal designedly ; but if undesignedly, the punishment was referred to the discretion of the priests. But if a person killed a cat or an ibis, no distinction of intention was made; the enraged multitude hurried away the unfortunate person to his death, which was often inflicted without any formal process or trial. The just apprehensions of Moses will receive illustration from an anecdote related by Diodorus as having happened while he was in Egypt. Some Romans being in that country for the purpose of concluding a treaty with the king, the people, who were much interested in the result, and held the Roman power in great fear, treated the strangers with the utmost attention and civility. But one of them having happened undesignedly to kill a cat, the enraged mub hastened to his lodging, and neither the interference of the king nor the dread of the Romans could deter them from putting him to death. We are inclined to think that our text more especially refers to the cow. This the Hebrews would certainly sacrifice, but it does not appear that it was anywhere sacrificed in Egypt, although sheep and goats certainly were in some of the provinces. Herodotus expressly says that the Egyptians worshipped cows with more profound reverence than they did any other cattle. The ox was sacrificed, but not the cow, which was sacred to Isis. On this account, he says, no Egyptian, male or female, would kiss a Greek on the mouth, or use his cleaver, his spit, or his dish ; and they even carried their scruples so far as to abstain awful meat that had been cut with a Grecian knife. This is almost precisely the state of things in India at this very day. Nothing more seems necessary to account for the answer of Moses to a proposal which certainly savours more of a shepherd-king than a native Egyptian prince.


7 And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there 1 The murrain of beasts. 8 The plague of boils and

was not one of the cattle of the Israelites blains. 13 His message about the hail. 22 The dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardplague of hail. 27 Pharaoh sueth to Moses, cned, and he did not let the people go. 35 but yet is hardened.

8 | And the Lord said unto Moses and Then the Lord said unto Moses, Go in unto Aaron, Take too you handfuls of ashes unto Pharaoh, and tell him, Thus saith the of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toLord God of the Hebrews, Let my people ward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh. go, that they may serve me.

9 And it shall become small dust in all 2 For if thou refuse to let them go, and the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breakwilt hold them still,

ing forth with blains upon man, and upon 3 Behold, the hand of the Lord is upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt. thy cattle which is in the field, upon the 10 And they took ashes of the furnace, horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it beshall be a very grievous murrain.

came a boil breaking forth with blains upon 4 And the LORD shall sever between the man, and

man, and upon beast. cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and 11 And the magicians could not stand there shall nothing dic of all that is the before Moses because of the boils; for the children's of Israel.

boil was upon the magicians, and upon all 5 And the Lord appointed a set time, the Egyptians. saying, To morrow the LORD shall do this 12 And the LORD hardened the heart of thing in the land.

Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; 6 And the Lord did that thing on the 'as the Lord had spoken unto Moses. morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died : 13 | And the LORD said unto Moses, but of the cattle of the children of Israel Rise up early in the morning, and stand died not one.

before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let with the hail, very grievous, such as there my people go, that they may serve me. was none like it in all the land of Egypt

1 Chap. 4. 21.

14 For I will at this time send all my since it became a nation. plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy 25 And the hail smote throughout all servants, and upon thy people; that thou the land of Egypt all that was in the field, mayest know that there is none like me in both man and beast; and the hail smote all the earth.

every herb of the field, and brake every tree 15 For now I will stretch out my hand, of the field. that I may smite thee and thy people with 26 Only in the land of Goshen, where pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the children of Israel were, was there no the earth.

hail. 16 And in


deed for this cause have 27 | And Pharaoh sent, and called for I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I power; and that my name may be declared have sinned this time: the Lord is righteous, throughout all the earth.

and I and my people are wicked. 17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against 28 Intreat the Lord (for it is enough) my people, that thou wilt not let them go? that there be no more 'mighty thunderings

18 Behold, to morrow about this time I and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, stay no longer. such as hath not been in Egypt since the 29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as foundation thereof even until now.

I am gone out of the city, I will spread 19 Send therefore now, and gather thy abroad my hands unto the Lord; and the cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; thunder shall cease, neither shall there be for upon every man and beast which shall any more hail; that thou mayest know how be found in the field, and shall not be that the earth is the Lord's. brought home, the hail shall come down 30 But as for thee and thy servants, I upon them, and they shall die.

know that ye will not yet fear the LORD 20 He that feared the word of the Lord God. among the servants of Pharaoh made his 31 And the flax and the barley was servants and his cattle flee into the houses: smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and

21 And he that regarded not the word the flax was bolled. of the Lord left his servants and his cattle 32 But the wheat and the rie were not in the field.

smitten: for they were 'not grown up. 22 And the LORD said unto Moses, 33 And Moses went out

of the city from Stretch forth thine hand toward heaven, Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto that there may be hail in all the land of the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceased, Egypt, upon man, and upon beast, and and the rain was not poured upon the earth. upon every herb of the field, throughout the 34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain land of Egypt.

and the hail and the thunders were ceased, 23 And Moses stretched forth his rod he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder he and his servants. and hail, and the fire ran along upon thc 35 And the heart of Pharaoh was hardground; and the Lord rained hail upon the ened, neither would he let the children of land of Egypt.

Israel go; as the Lord had spoken by 24 So there was hail, and fire mingled | Moses.

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2 Rom, 9.17.

8 Heb. made thee stand. 4 Heb. set not his heart unto. 5 Heb. voices of God.

7 Heb. hidden, or, dark. 8 the hand of Moses.

0 Psal, 24. 1.

Verse 3. “ Camels.”—Here it is positively affirmed that the Egyptians had camels; and we see also in Gen. xii. 16, that camels were among the gifts of Pharaoh to Abraham. But the great French work on Egypt having stated that the figure of the camel never occurred in Egyptian sculptures and paintings, some learned persons conjectured that the camel was not known in Egypt, or even in Africa, until after the Arabian conquest. If it were true that the camel is not really figured on the Egyptian monuments, the inference against the existence of the camel in Egypt, at the time of the Mosaic history, would be exceedingly illogical and gratuitous. It would have been safer to infer,

with Reynier, that the camel, however useful, was too much associated with the idea of the nomade shepherds, whom the priests detested, to be allowed to appear in their sacred places. But the fact is, that the camel does occur in the Egyptian sculptures. The head and long necks of these animals are repeated several times, two by two, upon the obelisks at Luxor. This discovery, made by Minutoli, confirms the truth of the Scripture account, which however no one had a right to question on the ground of the alleged absence of the camel from the Egyptian sculptures, which we are not bound to take as

the manual of Egyptian zoology. This negative testimony could have no legitimate weight in showing that the camel was unknown in Egypt, when we recollect

that it was common among the nomade tribes which occupied the borders of Égypt, and which even found their way into the valley of the Nile: besides which, the caravans, like that of the Ishmaelites who purchased Joseph of his brethren, must often have brought under their notice the camel in a state of useful domestication.

6. “ All the cattle of Egypt died.”—This must be understood with some limitations, because subsequently, in the same chapter, there are cattle still threatened by the next plague of hail. We are probably to understand that all the cattle in the open fields were destroyed on this occasion; those Egyptians, who were convinced by the previous miracles, having probably, as we find them doing afterwards, taken such precautions as they judged necessary to protect them from the threatened calamity. If, however, we will take the text literally as saying that all the cattle of the Egyptians were killed by the murrain ; we may account for their afterwards having cattle liable to be destroyed by the plague of hail, by supposing that they had in the meantime replenished their stock, by obtaining, either by purchase or compulsion, cattle from the Israelites, whose flocks and herds had been unaffected by the plague.

10. A boil breaking forth with blains.”—The word 777V, shechin, occurs as one of the indications of leprosy in Lev. xiii. 18. 20; in 2 Kings xx. 7, it is characterized as the boil or botch of Egypt." It is also used to denote the grievous disease with which Job was afflicted. It would seem, from its root, to denote some inflamed swelling ending in an ulcer. Gesenius thinks it means the elephantiasis, which is endemic in Egypt: he understands the term elephantiasis of the thick leg to which that name is applied, whereas, if he is right in his first conjecture, we apprehend it should be rather understood to denote that tubercular affection of the whole body to which the term elephantiasis is also applied. Dr. J. M. Good (Study of Medicine) allows that the disease of Job was probably elephantiasis. This disease has generally been considered a stage or form of leprosy, and accordingly we find it forming one of the cutaneous disorders indicative of leprosy, of which the priest, under the law, was directed to take cognizance, as well as of the other indications which will require to be more particularly noticed in the notes to Lev. xii. ”It seems very likely that the word here used denotes in general a boil or swelling, without determining its class or character at all.

28. Mighty thunderings and hail.”—This terrible storm of thunder, lightning, and hail, would have been awful any where ; but a little consideration of the meteorology of Egypt will suffice to show how much more alarming it must have seemed in that, than in almost any other country, and will sufficiently explain why this plague brought more conviction, for the time, to the mind of the king than some others which we, in a different climate, should have thought more likely to make an impression upon his stubborn nature. Thunder and lightning are very unfrequent in Egypt, and are so completely divested, when they do occur, of the terrific qualities which they sometimes exhibit in other countries, that the Egyptians never associate the idea of destructive force with these phenomena, and are unable to comprehend how lightning can possibly inflict injury or give occasion of alarm. Thevenot indeed mentions a man who was killed by lightning at Cairo ; but adds, that such a circumstance had never before been heard of. Much the same may be said of hail. It does sometimes fall, but rarely and with slight effect.

31, 32. The flar and barley,&c.—It is interesting to observe, how exactly this agrees with the state of the crops in Egypt at the present day, at the time of the year indicated. We are thus also enabled to fix the season of the year at which these important transactions took place. Flax is ripe in March, when the plants are gathered; and it must therefore have been “bolled,” or risen in stalk in February, in which month we would understand this and several of the other miracles to have been effected. Barley is expressly stated in works on Egypt to be gathered before the wheat; and as the wheat harvest takes place in May, in Lower Egypt, and in April in Upper Egypt, the barley must have been in ear in February. At the same time the wheat would hardly be grown up; and as to the “rye,” it is not well determined what it denotes. These facts seem to concur in denoting the season in or about February; and accordingly we find that the month Abib, in which the Israelites de parted from Egypt, and which was directed thenceforward to be the first month in the year to the Hebrews (ch. xii. 2), corresponds nearly to our March. Dr. Richardson, whose observation applies to the early part of March, says, “the barley and flax are now far advanced; the former is in the ear and the latter is bolled, and it seems to be about this season of the year that God brought the plague of thunder and hail upon the Egyptians, to punish the guilty Pharaoh who had hardened his presumptuous heart against the miracles of Omnipotence.” (“Travels,' vol. ii. p. 163.)

Rie(JOD), kusemeth).- It is generally agreed that the Hebrew word does not mean rye; but it is not at all agreed what it does mean. The Septuagint renders the word by ônupce, but it is almost equally uncertain what this word denotes : it is, however, commonly rendered by spelt, although the claims of rye, oats, fitches, rice, maize,

Flax (Linum usitatissimum). and millet, have all been advocated. Spelt certainly has the majority of voices; but it does not appear that this grain


now exists in Egypt, and it is certainly not cultivated there. The existing state of agriculture in Egypt affords no data to assist our conclusions on the subject, as some important objects of ancient cultivation appear to have been abandoned for millet and maize. Whatever were the grain in question, it must, if really identical with the olyra, have occupied an important place among the cerealia of ancient Egypt, as Herodotus describes this as being that which the Egyptians principally used for bread.



5 And they shall cover the face of the 1 God threateneth to send locusts. 7 Pharaoh, moved earth, that one cannot be able to see the by his servants, inclineth to let the Israelites go earth: and they shall eat the residue of that 12 The plugue of the locusts. 16 Pharaoh sueth which is escaped, which remaineth unto you to Moses. 21 The plague of darkness. 24 Pha- from the hail, and shall eat every tree which raoh sueth unto Moses, 27 but yet is hardened.

groweth for you out of the field: AND the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto 6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the Pharaoh : 'for I have hardened his heart, houses of all thy servants, and the houses of and the heart of his servants, that I might all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, shew these my signs before him :

nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the 2 And that thou mayest tell in the ears day that they were upon the earth unto this of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things day. And he turned himself, and went out I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs from Pharaoh. which I have done among them; that ye 7 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, may know how that I am the Lord.

How long shall this man be a snare unto 3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that the Lord God of the Hebrews, How long Egypt is destroyed ? wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before 8 And Moses and Aaron were brought me ? let my people go, that they may serve again unto Pharaoh : and he said unto them, me.

Go, serve the LORD your God: but 'who are 4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, they that shall go? behold, to morrow will I bring the socusts And Moses said, We will go with our into thy coast :

young and with our old, with our sons and

* Chap. 4. 91.

% Wisd, 16. 9.

3 Heb, eye.

4 Heb, who and who, &c.

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from me

your God, that he may take away
this death only.

18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.

19 And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.


20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.

21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, 'even darkness which may be felt.

22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:

23 They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

24 And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed let your little ones also go with you.

25 And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.

15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did cat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.

16 Then Pharaoh 'called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.

17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD

29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more.

Heb. hastened to call. 6 Heb. fastened. 7 Heb. that one may feel darkness. 8 Wisd. 18. 1. 9 Heb. into our hands.

26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.

27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in that day thou seest my face thou shalt die.

Verse 7. "How long shall this man be a snare unto us?"-We agree with Dr. Boothroyd, in understanding this as applying rather to the conduct of Pharaoh than to that of Moses. The king's obstinacy had already nearly ruined Egypt, and he now learns that his courtiers were not at all satisfied with his continued refusal to yield to the demand of the Israelites. We see the influence of this discovery upon his mind, in his declared unwillingness to let them go on certain conditions. First, the men might have liberty to go, if they left their families and property behind (verse 11); and then all the people might go, but the flocks and herds must remain (verse 24). The answer of Moses, that not a hoof should be left behind (verse 26), is still a proverbial expression in the East to imply an entire removal. Mr. Roberts says, that the Hindoos say "not a tail," in the same sense. When the king began to relax a little from his first absolute refusal, his wish naturally was to detain some part of their families and property as a security for their return.

12. "Locusts" (8 Arbeh).—The locust, Gryllus migratorius, belongs to the same family as the cricket and grasshopper. It is about two inches and a half in length, and is for the more part green with dark spots. The mandibles or jaws are black, and the wing coverts are of a bright brown spotted with black. It has an elevated ridge or crest upon the thorax, or that portion of the body to which the legs and wings are attached. The locusts here mentioned, are said to be unlike any that were seen before or after, in size and numbers. There is another species found in Egypt, Barbary, and the south of Europe, the Gryllus Ægyptius, which is somewhat larger than the migratorius. The voracity with which the Gryllus migratorius eats up every thing that is green and tender has rendered a visit from a

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