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now exists in Egypt, and it is certainly not cultivated there. The existing state of agriculture in Egypt affords no data to assist our conclusions on the subject, as some important objects of ancient cultivation appear to have been abandoned for millet and maize. Whatever were the grain in question, it must, if really identical with the olyra, have occupied an important place among the cerealia of ancient Egypt, as Herodotus describes this as being that which the Egyptians principally used for bread.
5 And they shall cover the face of the 1 God threateneth to send locusts. 7 Pharaoh, moved earth, that one cannot be able to see the by his servants, inclineth to let the Israelites go earth: and they shall eat the residue of that 12 The plugue of the locusts. 16 Pharaoh sueth which is escaped, which remaineth unto you to Moses. 21 The plague of darkness. 24 Pha- from the hail, and shall eat every tree which raoh sueth unto Moses, 27 but yet is hardened.
groweth for you out of the field: AND the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto 6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the Pharaoh : 'for I have hardened his heart, houses of all thy servants, and the houses of and the heart of his servants, that I might all the Egyptians; which neither thy fathers, shew these my signs before him :
nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the 2 And that thou mayest tell in the ears day that they were upon the earth unto this of thy son, and of thy son's son, what things day. And he turned himself, and went out I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs from Pharaoh. which I have done among them; that ye 7 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, may know how that I am the Lord.
How long shall this man be a snare unto 3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that the Lord God of the Hebrews, How long Egypt is destroyed ? wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before 8 And Moses and Aaron were brought me ? let my people go, that they may serve again unto Pharaoh : and he said unto them, me.
Go, serve the LORD your God: but 'who are 4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, they that shall go? behold, to morrow will I bring the socusts And Moses said, We will go with our into thy coast :
young and with our old, with our sons and of Israel go.
* Chap. 4. 91.
% Wisd, 16. 9.
3 Heb, eye.
4 Heb, who and who, &c.
with our daughters, with our flocks and with your God, that he may take away from me our herds will we go; for we must hold a this death only. feast unto the LORD.
18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and 10 And he said unto them, Let the LORD intreated the LORD. be so with you, as I will let you go, and
19 And the LORD turned a mighty strong your
little ones: look to it; for evil is before west wind, which took away the locusts, and you.
& cast them into the Red sea ; there remained 11 Not so: go now ye that are men, and not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt. serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. 20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's And they were driven out from Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children presence.
12 | And the LORD said unto Moses, 21 | And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the land of Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that Egypt for the locusts, that they may come
be darkness over the land of up upon the land of Egypt, and eat every Egypt, 'even darkness which may be felt. herb of the land, even all that the hail hath 22 And Moses stretched forth his hand left.
toward heaven; and there was a thick dark13 And Moses stretched forth his rod ness in all the land of Egypt three days : over the land of Egypt, and the LORD 23 They saw not one another, neither brought an east wind upon the land all rose any from his place for three days: “but that day, and all that night; and when it all the children of Israel had light in their was morning, the east wind brought the dwellings. locusts.
24 | And Pharaoh called unto Moses, 14 And the_locusts went up over all and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let the land of Egypt, and rested in all your flocks and your herds be stayed : let the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were your
go with you. they ; before them there were
25 And Moses said, Thou must give ous locusts as they, neither after them shall be also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we such.
may sacrifice unto the Lord our God. 15 For they covered the face of the whole 26 Our cattle also shall
us; there earth, so that the land was darkened; and shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof they did eat every herb of the land, and all must we take to serve the LORD our God; the fruit of the trees which the hail had and we know not with what we must serve left: and there remained not any green the Lord, until we come thither. thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the 27 | But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's field, through all the land of Egypt. heart, and he would not let them go.
16 | Then Pharaoh "called for Moses 28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have from me, take heed to thyself, see my face sinned against the LORD your God, and no more; for in that day thou seest my face against you.
thou shalt die. 17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, 29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD well, I will see thy face again no more.
6 Heb. fastened. 7 Heb, that one may feel darkness. Verse 7. “ How long shall this man be a snare unto us!"-We agree with Dr. Boothroyd, in understanding this as applying rather to the conduct of Pharaoh than to that of Moses. The king's obstinacy had already nearly ruined Egypt, and he now learns that his courtiers were not at all satisfied with his continued refusal to yield to the demand of the Israelites. We see the influence of this discovery upon his mind, in his declared unwillingness to let them go on certain conditions. First, the men might have liberty to go, if they left their families and property behind (verse 11); and then all the people might go, but the flocks and herds must remain (verse 24). The answer of Moses, that not a hoof should be left behind (verse 26), is still a proverbial expression in the East to imply an entire removal. Mr. Roberts says, that the Hindoos say “not a tail," in the same sense. When the king began to relax a little from his first absolute refusal, his wish naturally was to detain some part of their families and property as a security for their return.
12. “ Locusts” (028 Arbeh).-The locust, Gryllus migratorius, belongs to the same family as the cricket and grasshopper. It is about two inches and a half in length, and is for the more part green with dark spots. The mandibles or jaws are black, and the wing coverts are of a bright brown spotted with black. It has an elevated ridge or crest upon the thorax, or that portion of the body to which the legs and wings are attached. The locusts here mentioned, are said to be unlike any that were seen before or after, in size and numbers. There is another species found in Egypt, Barbary, and the south of Europe, the Gryllus Ægyptius, which is somewhat larger than the migratorius. The voracity with which the Gryllus migratorius eats up every thing that is green and tender has rendered a visit from a
5 Heb. hastened to call.
8 Wisd. 18. 1.
9 Heb. into our hands.
swarm of these creatures one of the most terrible judgments that can overtake an eastern nation. A more particular account of their ravages will best occur in notes to the detailed and sublime description in Joel ii.
21. “ Darkness which may be felt.”—Some understand this to mean such a darkness as obliges people to feel about for what they want, or to guide their movements. The Hebrew will indeed bear to be rendered « darkness which causeth to feel ;” but we do not see any necessity for the alteration. The expression, as it stands, is a sufficiently intelligible, although strong, poetical indication of a darkness so thick and intense as to seem almost palpable. Hence the " palpable obscure” of Milton. It is often dangerous to inquire too nicely how the extraordinary manifestations of Almighty power were produced, lest the fulness of that power should seem to be called in question ; for while we discover that God does often see fit to employ natural agencies in effecting such dispensations, we are apt to forget too often that he does not need such agencies even when it is his pleasure to employ them. The partiality of this darkness, the Israelites having light in their domain, has been considered to render this miracle particularly unaccountable. We do not see much in this, however. In every partial darkness the limit between it and light must be drawn somehere, and it was the will of God that it should in this instance be so drawn, as to make a distinction between the Egyptians and the Hebrews. Some expositors are disposed to contend for the literal palpability of this darkness, by supposing that the agency employed was a wind densely filling the air with particles of dust and sand, and consequently creating a great darkness. Such winds are not unknown in the eastern deserts, and they are always very appalling, and sometimes destructive in their effects. Others however think that a dense fog was spread over the land; and, without venturing to speak so decidedly on the subject as some commentators do, we can easily conceive that such a fog would, in a climate like that of Egypt, fill the inhabitants with the greatest horror and apprehension ; and it would be unquestionably miraculous as it regards that country, because it is what nature never spontaneously produces there. Whether the darkness were exhibited in these or any other forms, the phenomenon must have been not only astounding but humiliating to the Egyptians, since their great deity, the sun, was for three days obscured of his glory, and darkness, another of their deities, was made the instrument of their punishment.
behind the mill; and all the firstborn of 1 God's message to the Israelites to borrow jewels of beasts.
their neighbours. 4 Moses threateneth Pharaoh 6 And there shall be a great cry throughwith the death of the firstborn.
out all the land of Egypt, such as there was And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I none like it, nor shall be like it any more. bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and 7 But against any of the children of upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, hence: when he shall let you go, he shall against man or beast: that ye may know surely thrust you out hence altogether. how that the LORD doth put a difference
2 Speak now in the ears of the people, between the Egyptians and Israel. and let every man borrow of his neighbour, 8 And all these thy servants shall come and every woman of her neighbour, jewels down unto me, and how down themselves of silver, and jewels of gold.
unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the 3 And the Lord gave the people favour people that follow thee: and after that I in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover will go out. And he went out from Phathe man Moses was very great in the land raoh in 'a great anger. of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, 9 And the Lord said unto Moses, Phaand in the sight of the people.
raoh shall not hearken unto you ; that my 4 And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, wonders may be multiplied in the land of *About midnight will I go out into the Egypt. midst of Egypt:
10 And Moses and Aaron did all these 5 And all the firstborn in the land of wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pha- hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would raoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto not let the children of Israel go out of his the firstborn of the maidservant that is land. 1 Chap. 3. 22, and 12. 35. 2 Ecclus. 45. 1. 8 Chap. 12. 29. * Heb. that is at thy feet.
5 Heb, heat of anger. Verse 2. " Let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jęwels of silver and jewels of gold.” - The word “ borrow" is an exceedingly unfortunate rendering of the Hebrew word gw shaal. But this unhappy rendering is quite peculiar to our version. The proper meaning of the term is to “ask,” or to “demand," and Horne states that it is so understood in every ancient version, and in every modern version except our own. The fact would seem to be, that the Hebrews were instructed to take advantage of the consternation of the Egyptians at the death of the firstborn (see ch. xii. 33), to demand compensation for having been so long obliged to labour without wages in their service. The Egyptians, in the anxiety they then felt to have the Israelites gone, were in no condition to refuse the demand. Perhaps they feared that there would be some new calamity if they did not comply; and the natural effect of the terrible infliction they had just sustained would be, for the time, to render the precious things which the Hebrews required, of small value in their sight. The word rendered "jewels” does not mean jewellery in precious stones, &c., but denotes in a general way any articles of superior value, whether for personal ornament or any other purpose. Dr. Boothroyd very properly translates: “ articles of gold and articles of silver," without specifying what articles. As“ raiment” is added in ch. xii. 35, personal ornaments were most probably included among the valuables which the Hebrews obtained on this occasion ; and as they almost certainly wore during their forty years' wanderings
the ornaments which they obtained now, and which they afterwards took from the Egyptians overthrown in the Red Sea, we have introduced in chap. iii. a cut, with figures wearing such ornaments as are known, from existing paintings and sculptures, to have been worn by the ancient Egyptians.
6. “ There shall be a great cry,” &c.-See the note on Gen. 1. 3. As the people went about the streets lamenting loudly when a death took place in their houses, we may form some conception of the awful outcry which arose concurrently when all the families had a dear and lost member to lament. We must recollect that the firstborn among their sacred animals died also, which must greatly have added to the intensity of their consternation. We are assured by Diodorus, that when a sacred animal died in a house, the affliction was greater and the lamentation louder than at the death of a child. Well then may the cry now have been such as had never before been heard in Egypt, and never would be again.
your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it
in haste: it is the Lord's passover. 1 The beginning of the year is changed. 3 The passover is instituted. 11 The rite of the pass
12 For I will pass through the land of 15 Unleavened bread. 29 The firstborn Egypt this night, and will smite all the are slain. 31 The Israelites are driven out of the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man land. 37 They come to Succoth. 43 The ordi
and beast; and against all the gods of nance of the passover.
Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron LORD. in the land of Egypt, saying,
13 And the blood shall be to you for a 2 This month shall be unto you the be- token upon the houses where ye are: and ginning of months: it shall be the first when I see the blood, I will pass over you, month of the
and the plague shall not be upon you 'to 3 Speak ye unto all the congregation destroy you, when I smite the land of of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this Egypt. month they shall take to them every man 14 And this day shall be unto you for a a 'lamb, according to the house of their memorial ; and ye shall keep it a feast to fathers, a lamb for an house:
the Lord throughout your generations; ye 4 And if the houshold be too little for shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. the lamb, let him and his neighbour next 15. Seven days shall ye eat unleavened unto his house take it according to the bread; even the first day ye shall put away number of the souls; every man according leaven out of your houses: for whosoever to his eating shall make your count for the cateth leavened bread from the first day lamb.
until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a off from Israel. male' of the first year: ye shall take it out 16 And in the first day there shall be an from the sheep, or from the goats:
holy convocation, and in the seventh day 6 And ye shall keep it up until the four- there shall be an holy convocation to you; teenth day of the same month: and the no manner of work shall be done in them, whole assembly of the congregation of save that which every man must eat, that Israel shall kill it in the evening.
only may be done of you. 7 And they shall take of the blood, and 17 And ye shall observe the feast of unleastrike it on the two side posts and on the vened bread; for in this selfsame day have upper door post of the houses, wherein they I brought your armies out of the land of shall eat it.
Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day 8 And they shall eat the flesh in that in your generations by an ordinance for night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; ever. and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
18 In the first month, on the four9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with teenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat water, but roast with fire; his head with unleavened bread, until the one and twenhis legs, and with the purtenance thereof. tieth day of the month at even.
10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain 19 Seven days shall there be no leaven until the morning; and that which remaineth found in your houses : for whosoever eateth of it until the morning ye shall burn with that which is leavened, even that soul shall fire.
be cut off from the congregation of Israel, 11 | And thus shall ye eat it; with your whether he be a stranger, or born in the loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and land.
8 Heb, bet u een the two evenings. 4 Or. princes. * Heb. for a destruction, 6 Heb, soul,
? Heb. son of a year,
7 Levit, 23. 5. Num. 28. 16.
20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me your habitations shall ye cat unleavened also. bread.
33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon 21 Then Moses called for all the elders the people, that they might send them out of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and of the land in haste; for they said, We be take you a ®lamb according to your families, all dead men. and kill the passover.
34 And the people took their dough be22 'And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, fore it was leavened, their " kneadingand dip it in the blood that is in the bason, troughs being bound up in their clothes and strike the lintel and the two side posts upon their shoulders. with the blood that is in the bason; and. 35. And the children of Israel did accordnone of you shall go out at the door of his ing to the word of Moses; and they borhouse until the morning.
rowed of the Egyptians "jewels of silver, 23 For the LORD will pass through to and jewels of gold, and raiment : smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth 36 And the Lord gave the people favour the blood upon the lintel, and on the two in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, lent unto them such things as they required. and will not suffer the destroyer to come in And they spoiled the Egyptians. unto your houses to smite you.
37 | And the children of Israel jour24 And ye shall observe this thing for neyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for hundred thousand on foot that were men,
beside children. 25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be 38 And "a mixed multitude went up also come to the land which the LORD will give with them; and flocks, and herds, even very you, according as he hath promised, that ye much cattle. shall keep this service.
39 And they baked unleavened cakes of 26 "And it shall come to pass, when your the dough which they brought forth out of children shall say unto you, What mean ye Egypt, for it was not leavened; because by this service?
they were thrust out of Egypt, and could 27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice not tarry, neither had they prepared for of the LORD's passover, who passed over the themselves any victual. houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, 40 | Now the sojourning of the children when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four our houses. And the people bowed the hundred and thirty years. head and worshipped.
41 And it came to pass at the end of the - 28 And the children of Israel went away, four hundred and thirty years, even the and did as the LORD had commanded Moses selfsame day it came to pass, that all the and Aaron, so did they.
hosts of the LORD went out from the land of 29 "And it came to pass, that at mid- Egypt. night the LORD smote all the firstborn in 42 It is "a night to be much observed the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of unto the Lord for bringing them out from Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the the land of Egypt: this is that night of the firstborn of the captive that was in the Lord to be observed of all the children of dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. Israel in their generations.
30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, 43 | And the LORD said unto Moses he, and all his servants, and all the Egyp- and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the tians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; passover: There shall no stranger eat for there was not a house where there was thereof: not one dead.
44 But every man's servant that is bought 31 | And he called for Moses and Aaron for money, when thou hast circumcised him, by night, and said, Rise up, and get you then shall he eat thereof. forth from among my people, both ye and 45 A foreigner and an hired servant shall the children of Israel, and go, serve the not eat thereof. LORD, as ye have said.
46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou 32 Also take your flocks and your herds, shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh
8 Or, kid. 9 Heb. 11. 28. 10 Josh. 4. 6. 1 Chap 11. 4. 15 Chap. 3. 22, and 11.2. 16 Num. 33. 3. 17 Heb, a great mixture.
12 Wisd. 18. 11. 13 Heb, house of the pit.
14 Or, dough. 18 Gen. 15. 13, Acts 7.6. Galat. 3. 17. 19 Heb, a night of observations.