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and thummim upon his heart before the LORD continually. This certainly seems a more reasonable and proper account than that of Gesenius and others, who imagine that the urim and thummim were small oracular images, like the teraphim, by which revelation and truth were personified, and which were placed in the inner cavity of the breastplate. Spencer and others, who had previously entertained a similar view, fancy that the ornament was derived from the Egyptians, whose chief priest, who was also their supreme civil judge, wore, suspended from a golden chain around his neck, an ornament of precious stones called “ Truth, and a cause was not opened till the judge had put on this ornament. We do not see much resemblance in this, except so far as any jewelled ornament worn about the neck may be said to resemble another. The jewel worn by the Egyptian judges was wholly judicial; whereas the urim and thummim were not only judicial but oraculous and sacerdotal.
There have been many fanciful conjectures as to the manner in which the Divine will was manifested to the priest. The most common of these imaginations is, that the letters engraved on the precious stones in the breastplate were affected in an extraordinary manner, so that the dimness or lustre, depression or elevation, of the successive letters composing the answer, enabled the high-priest to read the response in, or reflected from, his breastplate. The more received and probable opinion is, that ihe urim and ihummim merely put the high-priest in a condition to receive responses, which, when he applied in a proper manner, were given in an audible voice from between the cherubim. This seems supported by the fact that this method of obtaining the Divine response is described as “ asking at the mouth of the Lord.” Whatever was the precise medium through which the response was conveyed, the mode in which the priest acted is sufficiently plain. When any national emergency arose for which the law had made no provision, the high-priest arrayed himself in his breastplate and pontifical vestments, and went into the holy place, and standing close before the Fail, but not entering within it, stated the question or difficulty, and received an answer. Several instances will occur of this manner of consulting the Lord. It is an opinion which has at least the tacit sanction of Scripture, that the mode of consulting the Lord by urim and thummim only subsisted under the theocracy, and while the tabernacle still remained. Spencer strongly urges that the urim and thummim were essentially connected with the theocratic government of the Hebrews. While the Lord was their immediate governor and king, it was necessary that they should be enabled to consult him on important matters, and obtain his directions on occasions of difficulty. This method was also established for the purpose of consulting God in matters that concerned the common interest of the entire nation. On both these grounds the oracle might well cease when the theocracy terminated by the kingdom becoming hereditary in the person and family of Solomon; and still more, when the division of the nation into two kingdoms at his death rendered the interests of the nation no longer common. This is but an hypothesis: but it is certain that there are no traces in the Sacred books of consulting the Lord by urim and thummim from the time of the erection to the demolition of Solomon's Temple; and that it did not afterwards exist is on all hands allowed.
31. “ The robe of the ephod.”—This was a long linen gown of light blue, reaching to the middle of the leg, think, to the feet. It was all of one piece, with a hole at top for the head to pass through, which opening was strongly hemmed round, that it might not be rent. We do not know on what authority this robe is said to be woollen, unless we are at liberty to infer as much from the fact that it is not, like the rest, said to be of linen. It seems to have been without sleeves, there being only holes in the sides for the arms. On the skirt at the bottom of the robe there were figures of pomegranates, wrought with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn. These pomegranates, according to Jarchi, were hollow, and about the size and form of a hen's egg. If, however, they resembled hens' eggs, they could not be like pomegranates, which have a very different shape. Our version is no doubt right in saying that the bells were hung between the pomegranates, or that there was a bell and a pomegranate alternately; although some of the Rabbins have a conceit that the bells were inclosed within the pomegranates. The number of bells and pomegranates is not mentioned in Scripture ; and those who undertake to inform us differ much among themselves. Seventy-two is the number most commonly mentioned, but Clement of Alexandria says there were as many as days in the year. The object of these bells is not very clear: the reason given in verse 35—“ That his sound may be heard....that he die not"-would seem to intimate that the sound of the bells was to be considered to harbinger his approach to the Sacred Presence; which, without such announcement, would be regarded as an unceremonious and disrespectful intrusion : the sound also intimated that he was clothed in his proper robes, to minister without which was death (verse 43). They might serve also to admonish the people of the sacred offices in which their priest was engaged.
34. “ Pomegranate” (rimmon).—The Punica granatum, or pomegranate-tree, bears a leaf and a flower which resemble the myrtle. It was formerly ranked among the myrtaceous family. The flowers differ in different varieties, so that the writer, when at Macao, observed four several kinds about the wells and cultivated inclosures. The fruit is larger than the golden pippin, and filled with seeds, imbedded in a red pulp, which is the part eaten. The leaves, flowers, and fruit are remarkable for their beauty ; hence the last were selected as objects of skilful imitation.
36–38. “ Mitre.”—This mitre was a turban of fine linen (verse 39), furnished in front with a plate of pure gold, on which were inscribed the words 71,75 077 (HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or HOLY TO JEHOVAH), and which was attached to the turban by a blue lace. The word translated “plate” signifies a flower, and is rendered sicaisv, “ petal,” in the Septuagint, which seems to show that the plate was wrought with flowered work, or was itself in the form of a flower or petal. In chap. xxxix. 6, this ornament is called 772 (nezer), from a verb signifying “ to separate," and hence denoting a crown, as a mark of separation or distinction. The same word is applied to the diadem of kings. Indeed, such turbans of fine linen, with an encircling or front ornament of gold or precious stones, seem to have been the usual diadems of ancient kings. Thus we read, in Justin, that Alexander the Great took his diadem from his head to bind up the wounds of Lysimachus ; which shows clearly enough that it was of linen, probably with some distinguishing ornament on the same principle as this on the turban of the Hebrew pontiff.
39. “ The coat of fine linen.”—This was the inmost of the sacerdotal vestments, and it was a long robe with sleeves to the wrists. This was not peculiar to the high-priest, but was similar to that worn by the other priests while officiating. What became of the tunic of the high-priest we do not know; but that of the common priests was unravelled when old, and made into wicks for the lamps burnt in the feast of tabernacles.
"Girdle of needle-work.”—This was a piece of fine twined linen, embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet, and which went around the body. Josephus says it was embroidered with flowers; and also states that it was four fingers broad, and that, after being wound twice around the body, it was fastened in front, and the ends allowed to hang down to the feet, on common occasions; but that, when officiating at the altar, the priest threw them over his left shoulder. Maimonides says the girdle was three fingers broad, and thirty-two cubits long; being, as its length necessarily implies, wound many times around the body. As this girdle was so narrow, its length, if this statement be correct, will not seem extraordinary to those who are acquainted with the inordinate length of oriental girdles, and the number of times they are carried around the body. This girdle was worn over the embroidered coat by the common priests, to whom this formed the outer garment.
40. “Bonnets.”—These bonnets, or more properly turbans, seem to have been like those of the high-priest, except that they wanted the plate of gold. Josephus, however, says that the turban of the high-priest had a purple cover over it ; if so, this must have constituted another distinction between his “mitre" and the bonnets of his sons.
42. “ Linen breeches." - More properly “ drawers." The ancient Jews, like the modern Arabs and some other orientals, did not generally wear drawers or trowsers. Maimonides says that the drawers worn by the priests reached from above the navel to the knee, and had no opening before or behind, but were drawn up around the body by strings, like a purse. This resembles the linen drawers worn by the Turks and Persians at the present day, except that they reach rather below the knee. They are very wide altogether, and when drawn on are fastened very tight around the body by means of a string or girdle, which runs through a hem in the upper border.
In concluding this account of the priestly robes, it may be useful to repeat that the robes common to all were-the drawers, the embroidered coat, the girdle, and the turban; but, besides this, the high-priest wore the ephod, the robe of the ephod with its bells and pomegranates, the breastplate over the ephod, the shoulder-pieces of onyx-stone, and the engraved ornament of pure gold in front of his túrban. The Rabbins seem to have the sanction of the Scripture for their opinion, that the robes were so essential a part of the priestly character, that without them a priest had no more right than private persons, or even foreigners, to officiate at the altar. It seems that the old robes of the priests, as already mentioned in the note on verse 39, were unravelled, to be burnt as wicks for the lamps at the feast of tabernacles. What was done with those of the high-priest is not known; but analogy would seem to render it probable that they were similarly used for the lamps in the tabernacle.
14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his | The sacrifice and ceremonies of consecrating the
skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire priests. 38. The continual burnt offering. 45 without the camp: it is a sin offering: God's promise to dwell among the children of 15 | Thou shalt also take one ram; and Israel.
Aaron and his sons shall put their hands And this is the thing that thou shalt do upon the head of the ram. unto them to hallow them, to minister unto 16 And thou shalt slay the ram, and me in the priest's office: Take one young thou shalt take his blood, and sprinkle it bullock, and two rams without blemish, round about upon the altar.
2 And unleavened bread, and cakes un- 17 And thou shalt cut the ram in pieces, leavened tempered with oil, and wafers un- and wash the inwards of him, and his legs, leavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour and put them unto his pieces, and 'unto his shalt thou make them.
head. 3 And thou shalt put them into one 18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram basket, and bring them in the basket, with upon the altar : it is a burnt offering unto the bullock and the two rams.
the Lord: it is a sweet savour, an offering 4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt | made by fire unto the LORD. bring unto the door of the tabernacle of 19 | And thou shalt take the other ram; the congregation, and shalt wash them with and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands water.
the head of the ram. 5 And thou shalt take the garments, and 20 Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of of his blood, and put it upon the tip of the the ephod, and the ephod, and the breast- right ear of Aaron, and
right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the plate, and gird him with the curious girdle right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of the ephod:
of their right hand, and upon the great toc 6. And thou shalt put the mitre upon his of their right foot, and sprinkle the blood head, and put the holy crown upon the upon the altar round about. mitre.
21 And thou shalt take of the blood that 7 Then shalt thou take the anointing is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, 'oil, and
pour it upon his head, and anoint and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his him.
garments, and upon his sons, and upon the 8 And thou shalt bring his sons, and put garments of his sons with him: and he shall them.
be hallowed, and his garments, and his sons, 9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles, and his sons' garments with him. Aaron and his sons, and "put the bonnets 22 Also thou shalt take of the ram the on them: and the priest's office shall be fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth their's for a perpetual statute: and thou the inwards, and the caul above the liver, shalt *consecrates Aaron and his sons. and the two kidneys, and the fat that is
10 And thou shalt cause a bullock to be upon them, and the right shoulder; for it brought before the tabernacle of the con- is a ram of consecration : gregation: and Aaron and his sons shall 23 And one loaf of bread, and one cake of put their hands upon the head of the bul-oiled bread, and one wafer out of the basket lock.
of the unleavened bread that is before the 11 And thou shalt kill the bullock before LORD: the LORD, by the door of the tabernacle of 24 And thou shalt put all in the hands the congregation.
of Aaron, and in the hands of his sons; and 12 And thou shalt take of the blood of shalt wave them for a wave offering before the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the LORD. the altar with thy finger, and pour all the 25 And thou shalt receive them of their blood beside the bottom of the altar.
hands, and burn them upon the altar for a 13 And "thou shalt take all the fat that burnt offering, for a sweet savour before covereth the inwards, and the caul that is the LORD: it is an offering made by fire above the liver, and the two kidneys, and unto the Lord. the fat that is upon them, and burn them 26 And thou shalt take the breast of the upon the altar.
ram of Aaron's consecration, and wave it for * Chap 30. 25.
* Heb. fill the hand of. 8 It seemeth by anatomy and the Hebrew doctors to be the midriff:
10 Heb, shake to and fro.
1 Levit. 9. 2.
3 Heb. bind,
Chap. 28. 41.
6 Levit. 1. 4.
7 Levit. 3.3.
9 Or, upon.
a wave offering before the LORD: and it lock for a sin offering for atonement: and shall be thy part.
thou shalt cleanse the altar, when thou hast 27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast of made an atonement for it, and thou shalt the wave offering, and the shoulder of the anoint it, to sanctify it. heave offering, which is waved, and which 37 Seven days thou shalt make an atoneis heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, ment for the altar, and sanctify it; and it even of that which is for Aaron, and of that shall be an altar most holy: whatsoever which is for his sons :
toucheth the altar shall be holy. 28 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' 38 Now this is that which thou shalt by a statute for ever from the children of offer upon the altar; stwo lambs of the first Israel: for it is an heave offering: and it year day by day continually. shall be an heave offering from the children 39 The one lamb thou shalt offer in the of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offer morning; and the other lamb thou shalt ings, even their heave offering unto the offer at even: LORD.
40 And with the one lamb a tenth deal 29 | And the holy garments of Aaron of flour mingled with the fourth part of an shall be his sons' after him, to be anointed hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of an therein, and to be consecrated in them. hin of wine for a drink offering.
30 And "that son that is priest in his 41 And the other lamb thou shalt offer stead shall put them on seven days, when at even, and shalt do thereto according to he cometh into the tabernacle of the con- the meat offering of the morning, and acgregation to minister in the holy place. cording to the drink offering thereof, for a
31 | And thou shalt take the ram of the sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto consecration, and seethe his flesh in the the Lord, holy place.
42 This shall be a continual burnt offer32 And Aaron and his sons shall eat the ing throughout your generations at the door flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in of the tabernacle of the congregation before the basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the Lord: where I will meet you, to speak the congregation.
there unto thee. 33 And they shall eat those things where- 43 And there I will meet with the chilwith the atonement was made, to consecrate dren of Israel, and 'the tabernacle shall be and to sanctify them: but a stranger shall sanctified by my glory. not eat thereof, because they are holy.
44 And I will sanctify the tabernacle of 34 And if ought of the flesh of the conse- the congregation, and the altar : I will sanccrations, or of the bread, remain unto the tify also both Aaron and his sons, to minimorning, then thou shalt burn the remain-ster to me in the priest's office. der with fire: it shall not be eaten, because 45 | And 'I will dwell among the chilit is holy.
dren of Israel, and will be their God. 35 And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, 46 And they shall know that I am the and to his sons, according to all things LORD their God, that brought them which I have commanded thee: seven days forth out of the land of Egypt, that I shalt thou consecrate them.
may dwell among them: I am the LORD 36 And thou shalt offer every day a bul- | their God.
11 Heb. he of his sons.
12 Levit. 3. 31. Matth. 12. 4.
13 Num. 28.3.
14 Or, Israel
15 Levit. 26. 12. 2 Cor. 6. 16.
Verse 13. “ The fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver.”—“The fat that covereth the inwards” is the fat thin membrane extended over the intestines, and attached to the concave part of the liver, called the omentum, or caul. And by “the caul above the liver " is commonly understood, after the Septuagint, the great lobe of the liver (mujor lobus hepatis), which, although part of the liver itself, may very properly be rendered “the lobe over” or “ by the liver.” As to the caul, it was a common offering in the sacrifices of the ancient heathen; and Strabo remarks, that the Persians, in their sacrifices, offered nothing else upon the altar. Calmet, who gives these instances in his . Commentaire Littéral,' cites Athenæus in evidence that the ancients ate the liver covered with, or enfolded in, the caul; and he thinks it probable that the liver of the victim was, in the same manner, wrapped up in the caul before it was laid upon the altar; and that this is what Moses means by the “caul above” or upon the liver.
half a shekel after the shekel of the sanc
tuary: ('a shekel is twenty gerahs :) an half 1 The altar of incense. 11 The ransom of souls.
shekel shall be the offering of the LORD. 17 The brašen laver. 22 The holy anointing oil. 34 The composition of the perfume.
14 Every one that passeth among them
that are numbered, from twenty years old And thou shalt make an altar to burn in- and above, shall give an offering unto the cense upon : of shittim wood shalt thou LORD. make it.
15 The rich shall not "give more, and 2 A cubit shall be the length thereof, and the poor shall not "give less than half a a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shekel, when they give an offering unto the shall it be: and two cubits shall be the Lord, to make an atonement for your
souls. height thereof: the horns thereof shall be 16 And thou shalt take the atonement of the same.
money of the children of Israel, and shalt 3 And thou shalt overlay it with pure appoint it for the service of the tabernacle gold, the 'top thereof, and the 'sides thereof of the congregation; that it may be a meround about, and the horns thereof; and morial unto the children of Israel before the thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold Lord, to make an atonement for your
souls. round about.
17 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, 4 And two golden rings shalt thou make saying, to it under the crown of it, by the two Scor- 18 Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, ners thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt and his foot also of brass, to wash withal : thou make it; and they shall be for places and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle for the staves to bear it withal.
of the congregation and the altar, and thou 5 And thou shalt make the staves of shit- shalt put water therein. tim wood, and overlay them with gold.
19 For Aaron and his sons shall wash 6 And thou shalt put it before the vail their hands and their feet thereat : that is by the ark of the testimony, before 20 When they go into the tabernacle of the mercy seat that is over the testimony, the congregation, they shall wash with where I will meet with thee.
water, that they die not; or when they come 7 And Aaron shall burn thereon *sweet near to the altar to minister, to burn offerincense every morning: when he dresseth ing made by fire unto the LORD: the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it. 21 So they shall wash their hands and
8 And when Aaron 'lighteth the lamps their feet, that they die not: and it shall be at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a a statute for ever to them, even to him and perpetual incense before the Lord through to his seed throughout their generations. out your generations.
22 | Moreover the LORD spake unto 9 Ye shall offer no strange incense there- Moses, saying, on, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering; 23 Take thou also unto thee principal neither shall ye pour drink offering thereon. spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels,
10 And Aaron shall make an atonement and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even upon the horns of it once in a year with the two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet blood of the sin offering of atonements : calamus two hundred and fifty shekels, once in the year shall he make atonement 24 And of cassia five hundred shekels, upon it throughout your generations: it is after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil most holy unto the Lord.
olive an ahin: 11 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, 25 And thou shalt make it an oil of holy saying,
ointment, an ointment compound after the 12 When thou takest the sum of the art of the "apothecary: it shall be an holy children of Israel after otheir number, then anointing oil. shall they give every man a ransom for his 26 And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle soul unto the Lord, when thou numberest of the congregation therewith, and the ark them; that there be no plague among them, of the testimony. when thou numberest them.
27 And the table and all his vessels, and 13 This they shall give, every one that the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar passeth among them that are numbered, of incense,
4 Heb, incense of spices.
10 Levit. 27. 25. Num. 3. 47. Ezek. 45. 12. 1 Heb. multiply.
18 Chap 29, 40.
14 Or, perfumer.
6 Heb. causeth to ascend.
? Heb. roof
5 Or, setteth up. 2 Heb. walls. 3 Heb. ribs. 7 Heb. between the tuo erens, 8 Num. 1. 2. 5. 9 Heb. them that are to be numbered.
12 Heb. diminish,