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14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp: it is a sin offering.
15 ¶ Thou shalt also take one ram; and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the ram.
16 And thou shalt slay the ram, and thou shalt take his blood, and sprinkle it round about upon the altar.
13 And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar.
17 And thou shalt cut the ram in pieces, and wash the inwards of him, and his legs, and put them unto his pieces, and 'unto his
18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar: it is a burnt offering unto the LORD: it is a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
19 And thou shalt take the other ram; and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the ram.
20 Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take of his blood, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot, and sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about.
21 And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him: and he shall be hallowed, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him.
22 Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for it is a ram of consecration:
23 And one loaf of bread, and one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before the LORD:
24 And thou shalt put all in the hands of Aaron, and in the hands of his sons; and shalt wave them for a wave offering before the LORD.
25 And thou shalt receive them of their hands, and burn them upon the altar for a burnt offering, for a sweet savour before the LORD it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
26 And thou shalt take the breast of the ram of Aaron's consecration, and wave it for
1 Levit. 9. 2. 2 Chap. 30. 25. 3 Heb. bind. 4 Heb. fill the hand of 8 It seemeth by anatomy and the Hebrew doctors to be the midriff.
a wave offering before the LORD: and it shall be thy part.
27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons:
28 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it is an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, even their heave offering unto the LORD.
29 And the holy garments of Aaron shall be his sons' after him, to be anointed therein, and to be consecrated in them.
30 And "that son that is priest in his stead shall put them on seven days, when he cometh into the tabernacle of the congregation to minister in the holy place.
31 ¶ And thou shalt take the ram of the consecration, and seethe his flesh in the holy place.
32 And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the "bread that is in the basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
33 And they shall eat those things wherewith the atonement was made, to consecrate and to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not eat thereof, because they are holy.
34 And if ought of the flesh of the consecrations, or of the bread, remain unto the morning, then thou shalt burn the remainder with fire it shall not be eaten, because it is holy.
lock for a sin offering for atonement: and thou shalt cleanse the altar, when thou hast made an atonement for it, and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it.
37 Seven days thou shalt make an atonement for the altar, and sanctify it; and it shall be an altar most holy: whatsoever toucheth the altar shall be holy.
38 Now this is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two lambs of the first year day by day continually.
39 The one lamb thou shalt offer in the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer at even:
40 And with the one lamb a tenth deal of flour mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil; and the fourth part of an hin of wine for a drink offering.
41 And the other lamb thou shalt offer at even, and shalt do thereto according to the meat offering of the morning, and according to the drink offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
42 This shall be a continual burnt offering throughout your generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD: where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee.
43 And there I will meet with the children of Israel, and the tabernacle shall be sanctified by my glory.
44 And I will sanctify the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar: I will sanctify also both Aaron and his sons, to minister to me in the priest's office.
45 And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God.
35 And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, and to his sons, according to all things which I have commanded thee: seven days shalt thou consecrate them.
36 And thou shalt offer every day a bul
11 Heb. he of his sons. 12 Levit. 8. 31. Matth. 12. 4. 13 Num. 28.3. 14 Or, Israel. 15 Levit. 26. 12. 2 Cor. 6. 16.
46 And they shall know that I am the LORD their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among them: I am the LORD their God.
Verse 13. "The fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver.”—“ The fat that covereth the inwards” is the fat thin membrane extended over the intestines, and attached to the concave part of the liver, called the omentum, or caul. And by "the caul above the liver" is commonly understood, after the Septuagint, the great lobe of the liver (major lobus hepatis), which, although part of the liver itself, may very properly be rendered "the lobe over" or "by the liver." As to the caul, it was a common offering in the sacrifices of the ancient heathen; and Strabo remarks, that the Persians, in their sacrifices, offered nothing else upon the altar. Calmet, who gives these instances in his Commentaire Littéral,' cites Athenæus in evidence that the ancients ate the liver covered with, or enfolded in, the caul; and he thinks it probable that the liver of the victim was, in the same manner, wrapped up in the caul before it was laid upon the altar; and that this is what Moses means by the "caul above" or upon the liver.
1 The altar of incense. 11 The ransom of souls. 17 The brasen laver. 22 The holy anointing oil. 34 The composition of the perfume.
AND thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon of shittim wood shalt thou make it.
2 A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be and two cubits shall be the height thereof: the horns thereof shall be of the same.
3 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the 'top thereof, and the 'sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about.
4 And two golden rings shalt thou make to it under the crown of it, by the two corners thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make it; and they shall be for places for the staves to bear it withal.
5 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.
6 And thou shalt put it before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee.
7 And Aaron shall burn thereon 'sweet incense every morning: when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it.
8 And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations.
9 Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering; neither shall ye pour drink offering thereon.
10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin offering of atonements: once in the year shall he make atonement upon it throughout your generations: it is most holy unto the LORD.
11 ¶And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
12 When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel after 'their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them.
13 This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered,
half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is twenty gerahs :) an half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD.
14 Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and above, shall give an offering unto the LORD.
15 The rich shall not "give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls. 16 And thou shalt take the atonement money of the children of Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the congregation; that it may be a memorial unto the children of Israel before the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls. 17 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
18 Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein.
19 For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat:
20 When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire unto the LORD:
21 So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not: and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.
22 Moreover the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
23 Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels,
24 And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin:
1 Heb, roof. 2 Heb. walls. 3 Heb. ribs. 4 Heb. incense of spices.
9 Heb. them that are to be numbered.
7 Heb. between the two evens, 8 Num. 1. 2. 5. 11 Heb. multiply. 12 Heb. diminish, 13 Chap. 29. 40.
5 Or, setteth up.
10 Levit. 27. 25. 14 Or, perfumer.
Heb. causeth to ascend. Num. 3. 47. Ezek. 45. 12.
Verse 1. "An allar to burn incense upon."-This altar of shittim wood covered with pure gold, whence it is sometimes distinguished as "the golden altar," was very small, being little more than half a yard square, but it was higher in proportion than the other altars, being twice as high as broad. Like the altar of burnt offerings it had "horns," with an ornamental rim ("crown"), like the ark and table of shew-bread; it had also rings with staves by which it might be carried from place to place. The word rendered "top" in verse 2, has been variously understood: the Septuagint and Vulgate make it "a grate," others suppose it was a vessel containing the fire upon the altar; but as the word
gag) means in other places the flat roof of a house, we have little doubt that it here means merely the upper surface of the altar itself; and this reading best agrees with the context, the intention of which is to describe the whole altar as overlaid with gold. In verse 6, it is directed that the altar should be placed "before the vail," that is, the vail separating the most holy from the holy place. The Rabbins understand that the table of shew-bread stood at the
distance of two cubits and a half from the north wall of the holy place, and the eandlestick opposite to it at an equal distance from the south wall, the altar of incense being in the middle between them. Josephus seems to concur; and from comparing these statements with the text, we consider that it stood equidistant from the table and candlestick, but nearer to the vail than either. It would seem from verses 7 and 8, as if only the high-priest were allowed to offer incense on this altar; but this is not the only instance in which the functions allotted to Aaron imply those of the inferior priests. The high-priest certainly did perform this service on great occasions; but it was ordinarily executed during his week by the priest in waiting and appointed to the office by lot. Every morning and evening he filled his censer with fire from the brazen altar, and introducing the incense, the composition of which is particularly described at the end of the chapter, went into the holy place and set the censer upon the altar.
7. "Burn thereon sweet incense."-There is nothing more ancient on the subject of incense and perfume than what this chapter contains. Of incense there is no mention in the offerings and sacrifices of the patriarchs; and it is equally true that in the early history of most religions we find no mention of incense. Theophrastus says, that anciently men offered no incense or odours to the gods, but only herbs, which they plucked and presented upon the altar as an offering taken from the earth. Ovid also, speaking of the times of Janus, describes the sacrifices as being then without incense and without blood. This is all however with a reference to eastern Europe; and aromatic offerings were known to the Arabians, Egyptians, and Hebrews long before those times which were ancient to the Greeks and Romans. These have always thought themselves bound to offer to God part of that which was most precious among themselves, and hence incense was probably offered almost as soon as known. As Arabia was famous for its aromatics, which Egypt never produced, there is nothing improbable in the idea of Calmet, who, in his comment on this chapter, thinks that the custom of offering perfumes on the altar commenced in Arabia. The Israelites were at this time in that country, and it is not impossible that the Arabians themselves may have taken the idea from the Hebrews, of whose customs they must have obtained some knowledge. Offerings of incense were, however, very anciently in use among the Egyptians; but there is nothing to show whether the custom was in use among them at the period before us. We should rather think that it was, for the "art of the perfumer," according to which the incense was to be compounded, is not an art which any of the Israelites could have known, unless they had learnt it in Egypt. Plutarch says that the Egyptians offered incense to the sun-resin in the morning, myrrh at noon, and about sunset an aromatic compound which they called kypi. This statement is corroborated by the incense altars which appear in Egyptian paintings.
SUPPOSED FORM OF THE LAVER,
18. "A laver of brass."-No particulars are given as to the form of this utensil. De Dieu believes that it was round, because the analogous Arabic word is used to denote vessels of that form. The word rendered "foot" has perplexed the commentators; some, regarding the direction, that the foot should be of brass as well as the basin, as superfluous if the "foot" does not mean something separate and distinct from the basin, translate the word by "cover;" but we