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7 These are the families of the Reuben- | ites: and they that were numbered of them were forty and three thousand and seven hundred and thirty.
8 And the sons of Pallu; Eliab.
9 And the sons of Eliab; Nemuel, and Dathan, and Abiram. This is that Dathan and Abiram, which were 'famous in the congregation, who strove against Moses and against Aaron in the company of Korah, when they strove against the LORD:
10 And the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died, what time the fire devoured two hundred and fifty men: and they became a sign.
11 Notwithstanding the children of Korah died not.
12 The sons of Simeon after their families of Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites of Jamin, the family of the Jaminites of Jachin, the family of the Jachinites: 13 Of Zerah, the family of the Zarhites: of Shaul, the family of the Shaulites.
14 These are the families of the Simeonites, twenty and two thousand and two hundred.
15 The children of Gad after their families of Zephon; the family of the Zephonites of Haggi, the family of the Haggites of Shuni, the family of the Shunites: 16 Of Ozni, the family of the Oznites: of Eri, the family of the Erites:
17 Of Arod, the family of the Arodites: of Areli, the family of the Arelites.
18 These are the families of the children of Gad according to those that were numbered of them, forty thousand and five hundred.
19 The sons of Judah were Er and Onan and Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan.
20 And the sons of Judah after their families were; of Shelah, the family of the Shelanites of Pharez, the family of the Pharzites of Zerah, the family of the Zarhites.
28 The sons of Joseph after their families were Manasseh and Ephraim.
29 Of the sons of Manasseh: of "Machir, the. family of the Machirites: and Machir begat Gilead: of Gilead come the family of the Gileadites.
30 These are the sons of Gilead: of Jeezer, the family of the Jeezerites: of Helek, the family of the Helekites:
31 And of Asriel, the family of the Asrielites: and of Shechem, the family of the Shechemites:
32 And of Shemida, the family of the Shemidaites: and of Hepher, the family of the Hepherites.
33 ¶ And Zelophehad the son of Hepher had no sons, but daughters: and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, and Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah.
34 These are the families of Manasseh, and those that were numbered of them, fifty and two thousand and seven hundred.
35¶These are the sons of Ephraim after their families: of Shuthelah, the family of the Shuthalhites: of Becher, the family of the Bachrites: of Tahan, the family of the Tahanites.
36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran, the family of the Eranites.
37 These are the families of the sons of Ephraim according to those that were numbered of them, thirty and two thousand and five hundred. These are the sons of Joseph after their families.
21 And the sons of Pharez were; of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites: of Hamul, the family of the Hamulites.
22 These are the families of Judah according to those that were numbered of them, threescore and sixteen thousand and five hundred. 23 ¶ of the sons of Issachar after their
4 Chap. 16. 2. 5 Gen. 38. 2, &c, and 46. 12.
38 The sons of Benjamin after their families: of Bela, the family of the Belaites: of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites: of Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites:
6 Josh. 17. 1.
7 Chap. 27.1.
54 To many thou shalt 'give the more inheritance, and to few thou shalt give the less inheritance: to every one shall his inheritance be given according to those that were numbered of him.
55 Notwithstanding the land shall be "divided by lot: according to the names of the tribes of their fathers they shall inherit.
56 According to the lot shall the possession thereof be divided between many and few.
57 And these are they that were numbered of the Levites after their families: of Gershon, the family of the Gershonites: of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites: of Merari, the family of the Merarites.
58 These are the families of the Levites: the family of the Libnites, the family of the Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, the family of the Korathites. And Kohath begat Amram.
59 And the name of Amram's wife was "Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, whom her mother bare to Levi in Egypt: and she bare unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister.
60 And unto Aaron was born Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
61 And Nadab and Abihu died, when they offered strange fire before the LORD.
62 And those that were numbered of them were twenty and three thousand, all males from a month old and upward: for they were not numbered among the children of Israel, because there was no inheritance given them among the children of Israel.
63 These are they that were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who numbered the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho.
64 But among these there was not a man of them whom Moses and Aaron the priest numbered, when they numbered the children of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai.
65 For the LORD had said of them, They 15shall surely die in the wilderness. And there was not left a man of them, save Caleb the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the son of Nun.
10 Heb. diminish his inheritance. 11 Chap. 33. 54. Josh. 11. 23, and 14. 2.
Verse 2. "Take the sum of all the congregation.”—The following table furnishes a view of the results of this census as compared with that which was taken soon after the exodus, showing the increase or decrease which took place in each tribe during the intervening period:
Decrease on the whole
That there should have been a decrease may at the first view seem surprising when we recollect the great rapidity with which the Israelites had previously increased. But there is not the least difficulty in accounting for it. The difference between the plenty of Egypt and the sterility and privations of the desert may be taken into the account; but still we can see that there actually would have been a large increase if the frequent perversity and rebellion of the people had not from time to time occasioned vast numbers of them to be destroyed. Perhaps we should not be far wide of the mark in estimating at about 100,000 the loss thus occasioned to the population; and the probability of this conjecture may be seen by considering the different circumstances which operated in causing this reduction.
1. (Num. xi. 1.) Murmuring; in consequence of which "the fire of the Lord burnt among them, and consumed them that were in the uttermost parts of the camp." 2. (xi. 35.) "Very great plague" for loathing manna. 3. (xiv. 45.) Smitten by the Amalekites. 4. (xvi. 32. 35. 49.) Korah's rebellion and its consequences caused the destruction of about 15,000. 5. (xxi. 1.) Smitten by the king of Arad. 6. (xxi. 6.) Plague of fiery serpents: “much people died." 7. (xxv. 5. 9.) 24,000 destroyed by plague for their sin in the matter of Baal-peor, besides those previously slain with the sword.
The remarkable difference of the rate of increase and decrease in the several tribes, might give occasion for much curious investigation. The most striking points are the astonishing increase in Manasseh, and the still more astonishing decrease in Simeon. The former, from being numerically the lowest of the tribes at the former census, is at this become the sixth; and the latter, from being the third, has become the lowest of all, having lost not very much less than two-thirds of its former numbers. For the increase in Manasseh it is difficult to discover any other cause than the Lord's blessing upon the house of Joseph; but as to the decrease in Simeon it is not without reason conceived that this tribe sustained the principal loss in the matter of Baal-peor. We know that Zimri, one of the ringleaders, was a chief of this tribe, and nothing is more probable than that a large number of its members should have been induced to follow the example of so influential a person.
55. The land shall be divided by lot."-The numbers of the tribes being so different, there must necessarily be an inequality in the extent and importance of their respective territories. The country also which they were to inherit was of an unequal and diversified character. The distribution was probably therefore directed to be by lot, in order to prevent the charges of partiality or prejudice which the tribes might have been ready to make against those who, in the absence of the lot, would have had to direct the distribution. The people would not doubt that their inheritance was appointed by God when they saw that, being thus taken, each tribe received the portion that was suited to its wants. The manner in which the lot was taken is quite a matter of conjecture. Some of the Rabbins say that the limits were defined on scrolls of parchment, which the princes of the respective tribes drew in succession (beginning with Reuben), from the urn in which they were placed. But others have it that there were two urns, one containing the name of the tribe, and the other the definition of the limits of a province, and that a person who drew the lots took first a scroll containing the name of a tribe from one urn, and then took from the other another scroll, the district defined in which belonged to the tribe previously drawn. It will be recollected that only nine tribes and a half thus received their inheritance by lot, Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, having previously settled on the east of the Jordan.
64. "Among these there was not a man of them whom Moses and Aaron the priest numbered...in the wilderness of Sinai."-This shows that the census was not a mere counting of heads, but a regular registration of names and families, for else this fact could not well have been ascertained. It also forms one circumstance to account for the diminished population, it being ordained that all the males above twenty at the first enumeration should die before the second. This could not have happened according to the ordinary laws of mortality. It will of course be recollected that the effect of this must have been that in all the tribes (Levi excepted) there were only two men above sixty years of
age at the period of the second census. In ordinary circumstances a great number must have exceeded this age, particularly as at this early period of the world the average duration of human life seems not to have been quite reduced to its present standard. It has been stated as an objection to the account in the text, that Caleb and Joshua were not the only persons numbered in Sinai who entered Canaan, as Eleazar and Phinehas are mentioned (Josh. xiv. 1, and xxii. 13) among those who did so. The answer is easy-The Levites were not included in the general enumeration at Sinai, but were numbered distinctly and on a different principle (from a month old, not from twenty years old). Neither had they any share in the transaction which brought the sentence of death on the mass of the people. tribe did not, like the others, send a spy into Canaan, nor does it appear that it concurred in the general murmuring which the report of the spies occasioned.
1 The daughters of Zelophehad sue for an inheritance. 6 The law of inheritances. 12 Moses, being told of his death, sueth for a successor. Joshua is appointed to succeed him. THEN came the daughters of 'Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh the son of Joseph: and these are the names of his daughters; Mahlah, Noah, and Hoglan, and Milcah, and Tirzah.
2 And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying,
3 Our father 'died in the wilderness, and he was not in the company of them that gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah; but died in his own sin, and had no sons.
4 Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he hath no son? Give unto us therefore a possession among the brethren of our father.
5 And Moses brought their cause before the LORD. 6 saying,
And the LORD spake unto Moses,
7 The daughters of Zelophehad speak right thou shalt surely give them a possession of an inheritance among their father's brethren; and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their father to pass unto them.
8 And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter.
9 And if he have no daughter, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his brethren. 10 And if he have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his father's brethren.
the children of Israel a statute of judgment, as the LORD commanded Moses.
12 And the LORD said unto Moses, 'Get thee up into this mount Abarim, and see the land which I have given unto the children of Israel.
13 And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as 'Aaron thy brother was gathered.
14 For ye 'rebelled against my commandment in the desert of Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify me at the water before their eyes: that is the 'water of Meribah in Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.
11 And if his father have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his kinsman that is next to him of his family, and he shall possess it: and it shall be unto
15 ¶ And Moses spake unto the LORD, saying,
16 Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation,
17 Which may go out before them, and which may go in before them, and which may lead them out, and which may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.
18 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him;
1 Chap. 26. 33. Josh. 17.3. Chap. 14. 35, and 26. 64, 65. 3 Heb. diminished.
Verse 7. "Thou shall surely give them a possession of an inheritance."-This application of Zelophehad's daughters, and the determination founded upon it, is replete with instruction in the Hebrew law of inheritance. It is evident that the women considered their claim as entirely new, and rather opposed to existing usages; and, certainly, cases must often have arisen before this, in which a man died leaving no male children, and some usage must have existed with which the daughters of Zelophehad were not satisfied, and which perhaps ceased to be applicable when the Israelites had exchanged or were about to exchange the character of a nomade for that of a settled people. In this view it is remarkable that the application immediately follows the census and the directions concerning the distribution of the
land. Further, it is observed that the daughters are careful to avoid stating the matter so as to convey the impression that they thought they had any right, as daughters, to inherit the property of their father, in preference to a male kinsman not his descendant, or that they had any claims individually; but they made it rest on the honour of their father, that his name might not be lost in Israel, and therefore that his land might become theirs and be possessed by their posterity in his name. Their request was complied with; and the law of succession was in other respects also settled with more precision. Turning to the last chapter of this book, we find a more particular account of the terms under which this concession was made to daughters: this was, that they should not marry out of their own tribe :- Let them marry to whom they think best; only to the family of the tribe of their father they shall marry. So shall not the inheritance of the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe." (xxxvi. 6, 7.) It is evident that this restriction was only in the comparatively rare case of daughters becoming heiresses; in ordinary circumstances there was nothing to prevent them from marrying into other tribes, although it is probable that usage, resulting from the principle of clanship, operated much in restricting marriages to members of the same tribe (see the note on Gen. xxiv. 4). However, the daughters of Zelophehad did more than was required of them, as they all married their cousins, whom, in virtue of the newly established right, they had superseded in the inheritance. Michaelis points out a remarkable similarity between this law and that of the Athenians on the same subject. At Athens, daughters, in like manner, inherited nothing when there was a son alive; and a daughter who had no brother, and consequently was herself heiress, was bound to marry her nearest relation. This was a closer limitation than in the law of Moses, which gave heiresses freedom of choice within their own tribe, notwithstanding which there is reason to conclude that they generally did, like Zelophehad's daughters, marry their nearest relations.
1 Offerings are to be observed. 3 The continual burnt offering. 9 The offering on the sabbath, 11 on the new moons, 16 at the passover, 26 in the day of firstfruits.
AND the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
2 Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, and my bread for my sacrifices made by fire, for 'a sweet savour unto me, shall ye observe to offer unto me in their due season.
3 And thou shalt say unto them, 'This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the LORD; two lambs of the first year without spot 'day by day, for a continual burnt offering.
4 The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other lamb shalt thou offer at even;
5 And a tenth part of an ephah of flour for a 'meat offering, mingled with the fourth part of an hin of beaten oil.
6 It is a continual burnt offering, which was ordained in mount Sinai for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
7 And the drink offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb : in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to be poured unto the LORD for a drink offering.
8 And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even as the meat offering of the morning, and as the drink offering thereof, thou shalt offer it, a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
9¶ And on the sabbath day two lambs of the first year without spot, and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, and the drink offering thereof:
1 Heb. a savour of my rest. Exod. 29. 38.
10 This is the burnt offering of every sabbath, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
11 ¶ And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot;
12 And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram;
13 And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat offering unto one lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
14 And their drink offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.
15 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the LORD shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
16 "And in the fourteenth day of-the first month is the passover of the LORD.
17 And in the fifteenth day of this month is the feast seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten.
18 In the first day shall be an holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work therein:
19 But ye shall offer a sacrifice made by fire for a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven lambs of the first year: they shall be unto you without blemish: