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your sakes, and would not hear me and the LORD said unto me, Let it suffice thee; speak no more unto me of this matter.

27 Get thee up into the top of "Pisgah, and lift up thine eyes westward, and northward, and southward, and eastward, and behold it with thine eyes for thou shalt not go over this Jordan.

28 But charge Joshua, and encourage him, and strengthen him: for he shall go over before this people, and he shall cause them to inherit the land which thou shalt

see.

29 So we abode in the valley over against Beth-peor.

12 Or, the hill.

Verse 3. "From the river of Arnon unto Mount Hermon."-Mount Hermon is obviously here mentioned as the northern boundary of Palestine, and still more distinctly in Joshua xi. 17. It would therefore seem to be a name not of any mountain or range of mountains distinct from Lebanon, but to be applied in a particular designation to that part of the anti-Libanus which forms the northernmost frontier of the country, and also the eastern frontier of the northernmost portion of the country. The map will render this intelligible. It is there seen that the range of anti-Libanus, in descending (so to express it) from the north to the border of Palestine, divides into two branches, one of which inclines off towards the Mediterranean, while the other descends southward for about forty miles. This last branch is now called Djebel Esheikh, and the other Djebel Safat. It seems to be the whole of the southward prolongation, and the nearer part (not the whole) of the westward, to which the name of Mount Hermon was applied. Or perhaps it will be enough to say that it described particularly that lofty part of the range where the bifurcation commences, and was continued along a portion of each branch, if it did not include the whole of the southward branch, which is far more lofty than the other. Thus understood, it need not be particularly described, as it necessarily resolves itself into Mount Lebanon, of which a general description will be given. There seems to have been, however, another Hermon, consisting of a small range of isolated hills in the plain of Esdraelon; for which, see the note on Psl. cxxxiii. 3.

11. "Only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants.”—Instead of being translated "giants,” the original should perhaps be retained as a proper name, "Rephaim." Og was certainly a giant, but not the last of the giants, only the last of the gigantic race called the Rephaim. This verse has been quoted by sceptics as a proof that Moses was not the author of this book, and that it was written in times considerably posterior. The objection is, that Moses would scarcely have noticed the dimensions of Og's bedstead, obviously in evidence of his extraordinary size, since the Israelites, who had seen and fought with him, would have needed no evidence, or even information, on the subject. To this it is well answered by Bishop Patrick, that Moses did not write for the information of his own generation only, but of future generations also. The statement as to its being at Rabbath Ammon is also mentioned as an objection, first, because it was not likely to have found its way there so soon after Og's death; and next, because if so, it was not likely to have been known that it was at Rabbath till that city was taken by David. To this it is answered, that Og himself, fearing the event, may have entrusted his bedstead and other valuable effects to the Ammonites, as he might have known that the children of Lot were safe from the attacks of the Hebrews; or else that Moses himself sold it with other plunder to the Ammonites, who are not mentioned at this time as unfriendly to the Israelites. The verse is, however, generally given up as an interpolation, and we rather concur in that opinion, but would retain the first clause. The whole seems to have the air of a marginal remark, which had crept into the text. Og being mentioned as the last of the race of the gigantic Rephaim, it was natural for some person, after Rabbath had been taken by David, to affix the remark, in proof of his extraordinary size, that his iron bedstead, then at Rabbath, was no less than nine cubits long, and four cubits broad. In mentioning this and other passages which, even more obviously, seem to have been interpolated, it is important that no wrong inference should be drawn, as affecting the truth and accuracy of the sacred text. On this subject we may quote the following important observation, which Horne cites from Bishop Marsh:-" So far, however, is the insertion of such notes from impeaching the antiquity and genuineness of the original narrative, that, on the contrary, it rather confirms them. For, if this were a compilation long subsequent to the events it records, such additions would not have been plainly distinguishable, as they now are, from the main substance of the original: since the entire history would have been composed with the same ideas and views as these additions were; and such explanatory insertions would not have been made, if length of time had not rendered them

necessary.

"A bedstead."-It has been questioned whether this (eres) was a bedstead at all, as rendered in our version. Boothroyd, after Michaelis, renders it by "coffin;" but the word nowhere occurs with such a context as to show that a coffin must be one of its senses, and it generally does occur in the sense of a couch or bed. Some of the Rabbins hold an opinion antithetical to this, namely, that this eres was the cradle in which Og was nursed when a child, his fullgrown stature not being less than 120 feet. Taylor, the editor of Calmet, however, contends that Og's eres was nothing else than the duan or divan, which is a part of the room raised above the floor, and spread with carpets or fine mats, on which the Turks and other Orientals sit or recline, their backs being supported by cushions placed against the wall. Now this duan is not proportioned to the size of an individual, but, being intended for the accommodation of several persons, often extends the whole length or breadth of a room; and we have certainly ourselves seen them of greater length than this eres of the king of Bashan. This explanation, Taylor remarks, "takes off much of the wonderment of ignorance on the dimensions of this bedstead." It does indeed; but it gives occasion to other wonder that he should have read the text without perceiving that the measurement could be given for no other purpose than to afford an idea of the vastness of Og's person. It is true that these duans do very commonly serve for sleeping on; but while there are also bedsteads in the East (which Taylor seems not to have known), it appears perfectly absurd to prefer that which will not give any idea of stature to that which will. We therefore believe that the eres of Og was neither a coffin, nor a cradle, nor a duan-but a bedstead, as our version has rendered. An Oriental bedstead is, however, not like any in use among ourselves. It consists of a platform raised on posts and beams two or three feet above the ground. The platform for supporting the bedding is not of sacking, but of wood, or whatever else may be the general material of this heavy contrivance; and it is boarded up at the sides, head, and foot, to retain the bedding, as in a trough. Such bedsteads are generally of wood; but where the palm-tree is common, its strong leaf-stems are applied to this among many other purposes. These Oriental bedsteads are not longer, in proportion to the human figure, than our own; indeed we doubt if they are so long.

-" of iron."-Og's bedstead was probably of iron, for the purpose of better supporting the extraordinary weight of

his person. We, who have iron bedsteads ourselves, and find them in many respects preferable to those of wood, do not so much wonder at an iron bedstead, as did the early commentators. The desire to prevent the breeding of bugs and other vermin would, in the warm climates of the East, naturally induce a preference of metal for bedsteads; even in ordinary circumstances, we find such bedsteads mentioned in ancient writings. In Esther i. 6, we see beds or couches of gold and silver in use at the Persian court: this indeed would seem to have been a privilege of Persian royalty. Alexander found the coffin of the great Cyrus deposited on a golden bedstead; and a bedstead of the same metal we know to have been a regal distinction among the Parthians, who, in after-times, ruled Persia. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus mention the beds of silver and gold which they saw in temples. Thucydides says, that when the Thebans took Plateæ, they caused beds to be made of the brass and iron which they found there, and made them an offering to Juno: and lastly, not to multiply examples, Livy, and also St. Augustine, speak of the beds of gold and brass which the Romans brought from Asia, after their wars in that part of the world.

"Rabbath...Ammon."-See Jer. xlix. 2.

“— nine cubits....after the cubit of a man.”—The cubit of a man means the popular measure, being the length of the arm from the top of the middle finger to the elbow, or about eighteen inches. Og's bedstead was therefore thirteen feet six inches long, and six feet broad; or, if we take with some the larger measurement of the cubit, fifteen feet and a half long, by six feet ten inches broad. Therefore, taking Maimonides' reckoning, that a bed is usually a third part longer than a man, Og would be six cubits high, that is, either nine feet high, or at most ten feet and a half. The allowance of six cubits, or thereabout, is very probable; for the height of Goliah was six cubits and a span, and he also was of the race of the old giants of Palestine. We thus see that the Sacred books, in their highest statements concerning gigantic statures, speak with a moderation of which there is no example in the most ancient books of any nation, and particularly of no Oriental nation. The report which the spies brought back to Kadesh-barnea concerning the giants of Canaan, instructs us well as to the sort of account we should have had from the Jews if they had been left to themselves, as the profane historians and poets were; and the Rabbins, in their accounts of this very Og, more completely illustrate this. We have seen above that they declare the iron eres to have been his cradle when an infant; and they inform us that, in the battle in which he was defeated, he clutched up a mountain six miles in breadth, intending to throw it on the camp of the Israelites and crush them all to pieces. But his own head being caught in a cavity which the ants had made in this mountain, an opportunity was offered to Moses to slay him by a wound in his ancle. Even so high as his ancle, Moses, though himself more than twenty feet high, and armed with a battleaxe of the same length, could not reach without leaping another twenty feet high. This account is of course different from that which makes Og's stature only one hundred and twenty feet. We venture to think that we point out an important line of evidence for the truth and authority of the Sacred books, when we suggest, that thus, by comparing the simplicity of the Scripture narrative with the Talmudical stories and comments, it will be quite apparent that the ancient Jews, uninfluenced and unrestrained by Divine power, could never have left to the world such a book as the Bible. The Talmud and traditions bear the impress of the Jewish mind in all its Oriental tendencies to exaggeration and marvel; whereas the Bible gives us the impress of the mind of God, either as directly declared, or as transmitted through minds constrained to simplicity and truth.

13. "The land of giants,” or, “the land of the Rephaim."-It is, however, remarkable that the Arabians still retain a tradition that Bashan was formerly inhabited by giants, but whom, of course, they make far taller than this chapter makes Og. It will be recollected that the Arabians have considerable second-hand acquaintance with the Jewish history and traditions.

14. "Called them after his own name, Bashan-havoth-jair, unto this day."-The concluding clause, "unto this day," is obviously an interpolation, made long after the Jews originally settled in Palestine. Moses had said that Jair called his district after "his own name," to which some person, at a long subsequent period, finding the district still retained this name, thought proper to record the fact by adding, "unto this day." This also accounts for the same words appearing with similar impropriety elsewhere.

CHAPTER IV.

1 An exhortation to obedience. 41 Moses appointeth the three cities of refuge on that side Jordan. Now therefore hearken, O Israel, unto the statutes and unto the judgments, which I teach you, for to do them, that ye may live, and go in and possess the land which the LORD God of your fathers giveth you.

2 Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you.

3 Your eyes have seen what the LORD did because of 'Baal-peor: for all the men that followed Baal-peor, the LORD thy God hath destroyed them from among you.

4 But ye that did cleave unto the LORD your God are alive every one of you this day.

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1 Chap. 12. 32. Josh. 1.7. Prov. 30. 6. Revel. 22. 18. 2 Num. 25, 4, &c.

they depart from thy heart all the days of | thy life: but teach them thy sons, and thy

sons' sons;

10 Specially the day that thou stoodest before the LORD thy God in Horeb, when the LORD said unto me, Gather me the people together, and I will make them hear my words, that they may learn to fear me all the days that they shall live upon the earth, and that they may teach their children.

11 And ye came near and stood under the mountain; and the mountain burned with fire unto the midst of heaven, with darkness, clouds, and thick darkness.

12 And the LORD spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude; 'only ye heard a voice. 13 And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone.

14 And the LORD commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and judgments, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it.

15 Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the LORD spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire:

16 Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female,

22 But I must die in this land, I must not go over Jordan: but ye shall go over, possess that good land.

and

23 Take heed unto yourselves, lest ye forget the covenant of the LORD your God, which he made with you, and make you a graven image, or the likeness of any thing, which the LORD thy God hath forbidden thee.

24 For the LORD thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God.

25 ¶ When thou shalt beget children, and children's children, and ye shall have remained long in the land, and shall corrupt yourselves, and make a graven image, or the likeness of any thing, and shall do evil in the sight of the LORD thy God, to provoke him to anger:

26 I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that ye shall soon utterly perish from off the land whereunto ye go over Jordan to possess it; ye shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed.

27 And the LORD shall scatter you among the nations, and ye shall be left few in number among the heathen, whither the LORD shall lead

17 The likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the air,

18 The likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth: 19 And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath 'divided unto all nations under the whole heaven.

you.

28 And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men's hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell.

29 But if from thence thou shalt seek the LORD thy God, thou shalt find him, if thou seek him with all thy heart and with all thy soul.

30 When thou art in tribulation, and all these things are come upon thee, even in the latter days, if thou turn to the LORD thy God, and shalt be obedient unto his

voice;

31 (For the LORD thy God is a merciful God;) he will not forsake thee, neither destroy thee, nor forget the covenant of thy fathers which he sware unto them.

32 For ask now of the days that are past, which were before thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and ask from the one side of heaven unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like it?

20 But the LORD hath taken you, and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance, as ye are this day.

21 Furthermore the LORD was angry with me for your sakes, and sware that I should not go over Jordan, and that I should not go in unto that good land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance:

3 Exod. 19. 18. 4 Heb. heart. 5 Heb. save a voice. 6 Or, imparted.

33 Did ever people hear the voice of God speaking out of the midst of the fire, as thou hast heard, and live?

34 Or hath God assayed to go and take

7 Chap. 9.3. Heb. 12. 29. 8 Heb. have found thee.

him a nation from the midst of another nation, by temptations, by signs, and by wonders, and by war, and by a mighty hand, and by a stretched out arm, and by great terrors, according to all that the LORD your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes? 35 Unto thee it was shewed, that thou mightest know that the LORD he is God; there is none else beside him.

36 Out of heaven he made thee to hear his voice, that he might instruct thee: and upon earth he shewed thee his great fire; and thou heardest his words out of the midst of the fire.

37 And because he loved thy fathers, therefore he chose their seed after them, and brought thee out in his sight with his mighty power out of Egypt;

38 To drive out nations from before thee greater and mightier than thou art, to bring thee in, to give thee their land for an inheritance, as it is this day.

39 Know therefore this day, and consider it in thine heart, that the LORD he is God in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath there is none else.

40 Thou shalt keep therefore his statutes, and his commandments, which I command thee this day, that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee, and that thou mayest prolong thy days upon the earth, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, for ever.

41 Then Moses severed three cities on this side Jordan toward the sun rising;

42 That the slayer might flee thither, which should kill his neighbour unawares, and hated him not in times past; and that fleeing unto one of these cities he might live:

9 Josh. 20.8. 10 Num. 21. 24. Chap. 1. 4.

43 Namely, 'Bezer in the wilderness, in the plain country, of the Reubenites; and Ramoth in Gilead, of the Gadites; and Golan in Bashan, of the Manassites.

44 And this is the law which Moses set before the children of Israel:

45 These are the testimonies, and the statutes, and the judgments, which Moses spake unto the children of Israel, after they came forth out of Egypt,

46 On this side Jordan, in the valley over against Beth-peor, in the land of Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt at Heshbon, whom Moses and the children of Israel 10smote, after they were come forth out of Egypt:

47 And they possessed his land, and the land "of Og king of Bashan, two kings of the Amorites, which were on this side Jordan toward the sun rising;

48 From Aroer, which is by the bank of the river Arnon, even unto mount Sion, which is Hermon,

49 And all the plain on this side Jordan eastward, even unto the sea of the plain, under the springs of Pisgah.

11 Num. 21. 33. Chap. 3. 3. 12 Chap. 3. 17.

Verses 15-19. "Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves," &c.-We shall not well understand this remarkable passage without recollecting that its drift is not only to preclude the representations of false gods, but also the forming fancied representations of the true God. The danger of such representations is manifest, inasmuch as the material figurations of the power and attributes of God would in time, and actually were, at least by the mass of the people, considered as distinct deities, and as such worshipped. Hence, in forming such representations, there was the two-fold danger of assigning separate deity to the separate symbols, and of paying to the symbol itself that honour which was due to God only. Thus men might, and did, fall into idolatry, without, perhaps, in the first instance, intending any thing else than to honour the true God. This was one but not the only way in which idolatry arose, and against this in particular it seems to have been the object of the text to guard; but there is also a manifest view to the other idolatries, less excusable, and less accountable in their origin than this. It will be useful to bear in mind that, as is well expressed by Dr. Hales, "The idolatry of the heathen in general, and of the Egyptians and Canaanites in particular, consisted not only in worshipping false gods, such as the sun, moon, stars, winds, elements, &c. (Deut. iv. 19), which they supposed to be animated, and actuated by some intelligences residing in them, and exerting their beneficial or noxious powers to the advantage or detriment of mankind, but also in forming certain symbolical and figurative representations of THE TRUE GOD, under the forms of beasts, bi.ds, and fishes, expressive of their peculiar excellencies or powers; as the horns or strength of the bull, the milk or nourishment of the cow, the swiftness or sharp-sightedness of the eagle or hawk, the wisdom or cunning of the serpent, &c., until at length the symbols were forgotten or perverted by the vulgar into the most grovelling and senseless materialism on the one hand, or bestial idolatry on the other." (Analysis of Chronology,' vol. ii. p. 231.) We do not intend to enter into so large a subject as the origin and progress of dolatry, although parts of it will occasionally, as here, come under our notice in illustrating particular texts. We shall only observe here, that the ancient systems, which at the first view offer only a confused mob of gods and goddesses, many of them described as murderers, adulterers and adulteresses, thieves and drunkards, will be found, when analyzed, to consist of corrupted symbols, as above mentioned, of the heavenly bodies and the elements personified, and of eminent persons, who, after death, were deified on account of their services or exploits. Generally these classes of gods are mixed together in an undistinguishable medley, and often the different characteristics are united in the same god in a manner the most confusing; but there were some nations who confined themselves to one of the classes we have enumerated; as, for instance, the Persians, who long retained the primitive form of idolatry, adoring only the host of heaven, particularly the sun, and at the last admitted fire only as its symbol and representative. Images they hated as strongly as it was possible for the Jews to do.

Among the various nations of antiquity, there was none which exhibited the different forms of idolatry together more strikingly than the Egyptians; and it is thought, not without the best reason, that the whole of the present exhortations were directed against any imitation of the idolatries of that country. Bishop Patrick, who seems inclined to doubt that the Egyptians entertained the forms of superstition to which the text alludes, at this early period, as conjectured by the learned Spencer, Sir John Marsham and others, yet allows that such a reference would be unquestionable were it established that the Egyptians "were so sottish in the time of Moses as they were in the time of Herodotus." We have already expressed our opinion that the Egyptian superstitions, as described by profane authors, were, in their general features, if not in every minute detail, as old as this time. How else do we account for the worship of the golden calf, which was so peculiarly Egyptian? and how else would Moses have thought of forbidding such brutish idolatries as he here interdicts, unless he, and those whom he addressed, had witnessed their exhibition? This could have only been witnessed in Egypt, for nowhere else were they collectively exhibited, and only there had they an opportunity of becoming aware of their existence; for it is to be remembered that these interdictions, now repeated on the plains of Moab, were first delivered in Sinai, soon after the exodus, and before the Israelites had much opportunity of becoming acquainted with the practices of other nations. Assuming therefore such a reference, which is now generally admitted, we have caused to be copied, from Egyptian paintings and sculptures, figures of some of the deities of Egypt, to enable the reader to perceive the classes of representations which Moses may, with the greatest probability, be supposed to have had in view. In the notes to Exod. viii. 26 and xxxii. 4, we have already entered into some details concerning the animal worship of Egypt. We need not therefore resume in detail that conspicuous part of the subject, but shall limit our attention to the general character of the Egyptian superstition, exhibiting its singularly compound character, and the principles on which it was or professed to be founded. This it is of the more importance to understand, because we shall not, without it, adequately comprehend the force of the addiction of the Hebrew mind to the "dark idolatries" of Egypt. If we see a man bowing himself down in reverence before such monstrosities as our wood-cuts exhibit, we shall not fail to feel deep pity at the degraded condition of his mind. But as the man has certainly some reasons for his conduct, with which he endeavours to satisfy his own mind, we must know what are the reasons with which his mind is satisfied, if we would accurately fathom the depths of its degradation.

"Ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the LORD spake unto you."-This evidently directs our attention to the symbolical representations of the true God. Had the Egyptians such representations? In other words, separated from the rabble of personified heavenly bodies and deified heroes, had they any notion of THE ONE GOD, the pre-eminent, the self-existent. the Creator of heaven and earth, as known to Noah, the common ancestor of mankind? It is possible that they had. We almost fail to discover this in the accounts which the Greek and Roman writers give of the Egyptian mythology; for knowing that their own system was derived from that of Egypt, they explained the Egyptian system with their own superadded imaginations, so that it is sometimes difficult, through the Greek accounts, to discover what it is that the Egyptians really believed. The Greeks therefore thought that the Egyptians were of the same opinion with themselves in excluding an intelligent Creator from having any part in the formation of the universe, and believing that there was nothing prior to the visible world-matter, not spirit, being the first principle of all things. Eusebius, who gave great attention to these matters, and to whom we owe much of our information concerning ancient cosmogonies and theogonies, concurred in this conclusion. But the materials preserved by him enabled our own eminent Cudworth to do a little more justice to the Egyptians. From these documents he proves that this people believed the creation of the world to have been presided over by an intelligent being whom they named Cneph. This also is further proved by the conclusion of Jamblicus, who was the contemporary of Eusebius, and who states that the Egyptians did not generally believe the doctrine we have cited, but acknowledged a soul superior to nature, and an Intelligence, superior to the soul, by whom the world was created. Here, then, we have their traditional knowledge of the true God; and now we shall see how they worshipped this Supreme Creator under certain figures and symbols, such as the text interdicts, and we shall thus perceive the drift of the interdiction. The god Cneph was adored under the figure of a man, holding a girdle and a sceptre, and crowned with magnificent plumes. From his mouth proceeded an egg, whence issued another god, whom they called Phtha, and the Greeks Vulcan. The explanation of this symbol will give us an insight into the nature and design of the symbolical figures with which the religious system of the Egyptians was crowded. The plumes which overshadowed his head were explained to denote the hidden and invisible nature of his being, his power of communicating life, his universal sovereignty, and the spirituality of his operations. The egg proceeding from his mouth signified the world which he created. The same god was also figured under the similitude of a serpent, with the head of a hawk, who by opening his eyes fills the world with light, and by closing them covers it with darkness. It is no wonder if this Supreme Being, "the Good God," as they called him, was, as seems to have been the case, overlooked in, or confounded with, the multitudinous rabble of deified heroes, and personified stars and elements and attributes of Nature. Another reason why he was overlooked was, that his worship was by no means general in Egypt. It was confined to the Thebais, where the religious system was more pure and simple than in the other parts of Egypt. Plutarch mentions it to the praise of the inhabitants of this district, that they were exempt from the common superstitions, since they acknowledged no mortal God, admitting for the first principle only the god Cneph, who had no beginning, and was not subject to death."

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16. "The likeness of male or female.”—It would be very desirable to give in this place a clear account of the leading principles of the Egyptian superstition. The subject has never been clearly explained; and it is not likely that it ever will. It is surrounded with so many difficulties, that it is not perhaps possible to obtain a distinct idea of what the several gods were, and what place they occupied in the general system. We are therefore content to leave the matter unexplained the more particularly as our limits do not afford the space for detailed investigation which so perplexed a subject would require. We may however state a few considerations which may assist the inquiry, and help to the better understanding of the very numerous passages in which the ancient idolatries are mentioned. We do not say particularly "the Egyptian idolatries;" because, however different from one another at the first glance, they are all so much alike in their general principles, that what may be said of the superstitions of Egypt will be found to have a very distinct bearing on the whole subject.

We are disposed fully to agree with those who think that the earliest form of idolatry was the worship of the stars, and particularly of the sun and moon. There is historical proof of this; and if there were none, we might easily conclude that men could scarcely at once make abruptly the great transition from even a faded knowledge of a Spiritual Being, to the grosser forms of idolatry in which we ultimately find them immersed. We see that this worship of the heavenly bodies is mentioned particularly in v. 19, and strongly interdicted. We shall not here expatiate on this idolatry (to which the name of Zabianism, or Zabiism, has been given) as this primitive corruption will demand particular observation in the note to Job xxxi. 26.

The elements and powers of Nature seem to have been next added to the "host of heaven:" and they were in the

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