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tery.

me.

hate me,

face in the mount out of the midst of the 18 'Neither shalt thou commit adulfire,

5 (I stood between the LORD and you at 19 ''Neither shalt thou steal. that time, to shew you the word of the 20 Neither shalt thou bear false witness LORD: for ye were afraid by reason of the against thy neighbour, fire, and went not up into the mount;) say

21 "Neither shalt thou desire thy neigh. ing

bour's wife, neither shalt thou covet thy 6 T 'I am the LORD thy God, which neighbour's house, his field, or his manbrought thee out of the land of Egypt, from servant, or his maidservant, his ox, or his the house of bondage.

ass, or any thing that is thy neighbour's. 7 Thou shalt have none other gods before 22 9 These words the LORD spake unto me.

all your assembly in the mount out of the 8 Thou shalt not make thee any graven midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the image, or any likeness of any thing that is thick darkness, with a great voice: and he in heaven above, or that is in the earth be-added no more. And he wrote them in two neath, or that is in the waters beneath the tables of stone, and delivered them unto carth: 9 Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto 23 And it came to pass,

when ye

heard them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy the voice out of the midst of the darkness, God am a jealous God, 'visiting the iniquity (for the mountain did burn with fire,) that of the fathers upon the children unto the ye came near unto me, even all the heads of third and fourth generation of them that your tribes, and your elders;

24 And ye said, Behold, the LORD our 10 °And shewing mercy unto thousands God hath shewed us his glory and his greatof them that love me and keep my com- ness, and we have heard his voice out of mandinents.

the midst of the fire: we have seen this 11 Thou shalt not take the name of the day that God doth talk with man, and he LORD thy God in vain: for the LORD will liveth. not hold him guiltless that taketh his name 25 Now therefore why should we die? for in vain.

this great fire will consume us: if we “hear 12 Keep the sabbath day to sanctify it, the voice of the Lord our God any more, as the LORD thy God hath commanded then we shall die. thee.

26 For who is there of all flesh, that hath 13 Six days thou shalt labour, and do all heard the voice of the living God speaking thy work:

out of the midst of the fire, as we hare, and 14 But the seventh day is the sabbath lived ? of the LORD thy God : in it thou shalt not 27 Go thou near, and hear all that the do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy Lord our God shall say: and ''speak thou daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maid unto us all that the Lord our God shall servant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any speak unto thee; and we will hear it, and of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within do it. thy, gates ; that thy manservant and thy 28 And the Lord heard the voice of your maidscrvant

may

rest as well as thou. words, when ye spake unto me; and the 15 And remember that thou wast a ser- LORD said unto me, I have heard the voice vant in the land of Egypt, and that the of the words of this people, which they have Lord thy God brouglit thee out thence spoken unto thee: they have well said all through a mighty hand and by a stretched that they have spoken. out arm: therefore the LORD thy God com- 29 Othat there were such an heart in manded thee to keep the sabbath day. them, that they would fear me, and keep all

16 | Honour thy father and thy mother, my commandments always, that it might be as the Lord thy God hath commanded well with them, and with their children for thee; that thy days may be prolonged, and ever! that it may go well with thee, in the land 30 Go say to them, Get you into your which the Lord thy God giveth thee. tents again. 17 Thou shalt not kill.

31 But as for thee, stand thou here by

3 Exod. 20. 2, &c. Levit. 26. 1. Psal. 81. 10. 4 Heb. serrants. 5 Exod. 34.7.
B Matth. 5, 21. 9 Luke 18, 20, 10 Rom, 13.9. 11 Rom. 7.7. 12 Exod, 19, 19.

13 Exod. 20. 19.

6 Jer. 32. 18. 7 Gen. 2. 2. Heb. 4. 4.

lở Clap. 4, 33. 14 Heb, add to hear,

me, and I will speak unto thee all the com- ye

shall not turn aside to the right hand or mandments, and the statutes, and the judg- to the left. ments, which thou shalt teach them, that 33 Ye shall walk in all the ways which they may do them in the land which I give the LORD your God hath commanded you, them to possess it.

that ye may live, and that it may be well 32 Ye shall observe to do therefore as with you, and that ye may prolong your days the LORD your God hath commanded you: in the land which ye shall possess.

Verses 8, 9.-" Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing.... Thou shall not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them.—Are these and other similar prohibitions, coupled, as they always are, with a thou shalt not bow down to them,” to be understood as wholly interdicting every kind of sculpture and painting, or only as forbidding images and paintings to be made for idolatrous purposes, or for any purpose connected with religion? This is a question of some difficulty, and the first is the decision at which most commentators, both Jewish and Christian, have arrived. There seem, however, to be very good grounds for disputing this conclusion. Michaelis strongly advocates the second opinion, and contends that we have no right to separate the interdiction from the context, which context shows that representations of Deity, or idolatrous figures, only were intended. We might, with as much reason, in his opinion, separate the first portion of Deut. iv. 19, from its conclusion, and then declare it to mean that a man should not raise his eyes to heaven to contemplate the sun, moon, and stars. He then directs attention to instances which show that Moses did not himself understand the prohibition as it has been commonly understood—such as the cherubim, which, under divine direction, he caused to be made for the most holy place; the figures of cherubim, with fancy work, embroidered upon the "vail," and upon the hangings of the tabernacle; the ornaments of fruits and flowers on the golden candlestick; to which may perhaps be added the brazen serpent. He also shows, we think satisfactorily, that the Jews themselves did not so understand the prohibitions in question. We need but refer to the account of the works in Solomon's Temple to le convinced of this. Besides the cherubim in the holy of holies, the walls were profusely ornamented with figures of cherubim, and of flowers, palm-trees, and pomegranates. The brazen sea also was supported on twelve oxen, its rim was ornamented with flower-work, and the ledges with figures of " lions, oxen, and cherubim.” (1 Kings vii.) If such figures were allowable even in the works of the Temple, we have no ground to conclude that they were thought to be prohibited for regal or domestic ornament. Indeed, we know that the steps of Solomon's throne were guarded by twelve lions of gold. (1 Kings x. 19, 20.) We also observe that similar ornaments of cherubim and palm-trees appeared among the ornaments of the Temple which Ezekiel saw in his famous prophetic vision. Even in the times of the second Temple, when a general disposition arose to overstrain the enactments of the law, such a prohibition was not dreamt of. Michaelis instances the golden vines, with pendent clusters, which, according to Josephus, ornamented the roof and gate of the second Temple. He also instances the animal figures on the base of the golden candlestick, as represented in the arch of Titus; but on this we are not disposed to lay much stress, as Josephus seems to say that the Romans tampered with its base when it came into their possession. A strong illustration also, which might be derived from the Jewish coins of this period, as well as from their using coins bearing “ the image and superscription" of Cæsar, has escaped the notice of the learned commentator. We see that the shekels and parts of shekels, from the time of the return from captivity, do not contain any animal figures ; but they do contain almond and palm trees, ears and sheaves of corn, and vine leaves, and bunches of grapes --not to mention representations of artificial objects. What the Jews thought on the subject after their dispersion, it is of little consequence to inquire ; but our opinion upon the whole is, that until the captivity they did not believe that their law prohibited ornamental animal figures ; and that after the captivity they did incline to think that representations of animate creatures were prohibited, but not those of inanimate objects. Josephus, who lived in the last days of the llebrew polity, distinctly intimates this as the opinion of his own time. All the stories which we read at this period, of the aversion of the Jews to images and paintings, will, when examined, be found to refer to idolatrous figures. Thus their marked aversion to the Roman ensigns was probably not so much owing to their being adorned with images, as to the fact that these images were idolatrous. We have indeed admitted that at this period they were disinclined to tolerate animal figures, and may have objected to the standards on that account. But as we see they did tolerate the image of Cæsar on the coins in common use among themselves, we incline to think that, while they admitted representations of inanimate objects, without distinction, inasmuch as such were not usually deified, they did, with regard to the latter, distinguish those that were deified from those that were not, admitting the latter and rejecting the former. It is clear that, even at this superstitious time, there were exceptions; but it is difficult to determine what they were. And it is still more clear that, to whatever extent animal figures were thought to be forbidden, inanimate representations certainly were not.

It was undoubtedly from the practice among the Jews of his time, that Mohammed derived his prohibition of painting and sculpture. He no doubt thought that he was following the law of Moses, when he was only following the construction which the Jews of that late day put upon it. His law therefore may be cited, not as illustrating the law of Moses, but as illustrating the practice of the Jews of Arabia in his time. We cite the authentic and received traditions which are more full on this subject than the Koran. Mohammed professed that Gabriel told him that angels would pot enter any honse in which there were pictures ; after which he would not allow a single thing to be in his house with a picture on it, but would break it. The substance of all the traditions on the subject is, that, at the day of resurrection, God will require the painter to put a soul into every picture he has drawn, and as he cannot do that, God, for every such picture, shall appoint a tormentor to burn him with hell-fire. It appears, however, that this restriction was only applied to figures of animate objects ; " trees and things without souls were expressly permitted to be drawn. Mohammed's most trusted wife, Aayeshah, and one of his personal friends, Abuhurairah, concur in relating, with some simplicity, that the former put up a fine door-curtain, on which were “ images.". He ordered the heads of the figures to be cut off, and as they then lvoked like trees, he made no further objection to them; but, on the contrary, the same curtain being then used to over a mattress, he did not hesitate to sit and recline upon it. An anecdote is also related of a painter, who went to Ibn Abbas (" the prince of commentators ") and said, "OʻIbn Abbas! verily I have no livelihood but from the workmanship of my hands; verily I make pictures; what am I to do?” Ibn Abbas replied, " I will relate to you nothing but what I heard from the Prophet, who said, “Whoever makes a picture, verily God is his punisher, until he blows a soul into it; and this is not possible.” Then the man was alarmed, and turned pale; when Ibn Abbas added, “ Alas upon thee! if thou wilt not leave off drawing, draw trees and the likenesses of those things that have no souls.” In existing practice, the orthodox Moslems follow the practice here enjoined

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confining themselves to représentations of trees, plants, fruits, and other inanimate objects, which they employ profusely in ornamenting their apartments; but some of the more rigid people think it necessary to abstain even from these. But the sectaries of Ali-the Persians and others-allow themselves full latitude in this matter, and are particularly addicted to portrait painting and representations of the human figure in various circumstances of repose and action. Even they, however, think with horror of attempts to represent God, or indeed to paint the figures of their saints and holy persons. The Moslems, as well as the Oriental Christians, concur in regarding sculpture as far more objectionable than painting.

14. "That thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou."-This is alleged to be at variance with the motive assigned for the observance of the sabbath in Exod. xx. 11, where it is declared to be a memorial of the creation. To this Horne well answers, that the enforcement of the same precept, by two different motives, does not constitute two discordant motives. It seems, however, doubtful to us whether any motive at all is here assigned for the sabbatic observance. The primary motive, after so many years' attention of the day, must already have been familiarly known to all; but some misunderstanding or irregularity in their observance might have required Moses to remind them that their servants also were to participate in the sabbatic rest. The "that" or "so that," expressing consequence, may refer to what immediately precedes; namely, that the cattle were to rest to enable the servants to rest, which they could not otherwise do.

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1 Heb. pass over.

5 And 'thou shalt love the LORD thy God 16 | Ye shall not tempt the LORD your with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, God, 'as ye tempted him in Massah. and with all thy might.

17 Ye shall diligently keep the com6 And these words, which I command mandments of the Lord your God, and his thee this day, shall be in thine heart: testimonies, and his statutes, which he hath

7 And thou shalt 'teach them diligently commanded thee. unto thy children, and shalt talk of them 18 And thou shalt do that which is right when thou sittest in thine house, and when and good in the sight of the LORD: that it thou walkest by the way, and when thou may be well with thee, and that thou mayest liest down, and when thou risest up.

go in and possess the good land which the 8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign Lord sware unto thy fathers, upon thine hand, and they shall be as front- 19 To cast out all thine enemies from lets between thine eyes.

before thee, as the Lord hath spoken. 9 And thou shalt write them upon the 20 And when thy son asketh thee in posts of thy house, and on thy gates. time to come, saying, What mean the testi

10 And it shall be, when the Lord thy monies, and the statutes, and the judgments, God shall have brought thee into the land which the LORD our God hath commanded which he sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, you? to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give thee great 21 Then thou shalt say unto thy son, and goodly cities, which thou buildedst not, We were Pharaoh's bondmen in Egypt: and

11°And houses full of all good things, the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a which thou filledst not, and wells digged, mighty hand: which thou diggedst not, vineyards and 22 And the Lord shewed signs and wonolive trees, which thou plantedst not; 'when ders, great and "sore, upon Egypt, upon thou shalt have eaten and be full;

Pharaoh, and upon all his houshold, before 12 Then beware lest thou forget the LORD,

our eyes : which brought thee forth out of the land of 23 And he brought us out from thence, Egypt, from the house of Rbondage.

that he might bring us in, to give us the 13 Thou shalt "fear the LORD thy God, land which he sware unto our fathers. and serve him, and shalt swear by his name. 24 And the LORD commanded us to do

14 Ye shall not go after other gods, of all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, the gods of the people which are round for our good always, that he might preserve

us alive, as it is at this day. 15 (For the LORD thy God is a jealous 25 And it shall be our righteousness, if God among you) lest the anger of the LORD we observe to do all these commandments thy God be kindled against thee, and de- before the LORD our God, as he hath comstroy thee from off the face of the earth.

manded us.

about you;

9 Chap 10.12. Matth. 22. 37. Mark 12.30. Luke 10. 27. 6 Heb. bondmen, or servants. 7 Chap. 10. 12, 20, and 13. 4.

3 Chap. 11, 18. 8 Matth: 4.7.

4 Heb. whet, or sharpen. 5 Chap. 8. 10, ốc. 9 Exod. 17. 2. 10 Heb, to-morrow.

11 Heb. evil.

Verse 8. For a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes."—A very ingenious interpretation of this is, that it refers to a man tying something upon his hand as a token to prevent him from forgetting what he desires to remember. But this does not seem to agree very well with the other clauses. It seems to us that there is throughout a reference to existing usages, as well with regard to the sign on the hand as to the frontlets between the eyes, and the writing on the door-posts. The last item we shall consider in the following note. We believe that the Hebrews at this time were in the habit of wearing certain ornaments on the forehead and the arm, to which Moses referred; but whether he so referred with the intention of saying, “ as these are, so let the law be to you;" or," let the law be to you in the place of these,” is a matter of doubt. It is very likely that the Hebrews were in the habit of wearing amulets and other superstitious appendages, which are still much used in the East, and which consist sometimes of jewels and other ornaments, and at other times of certain lines and sentences, with Abracadabra and other superstitious figures written on scrolls or embroidered on linen. If the Jews had such, it may easily be conceived that Moses intended, by the present injunction, to supersede them. We rather incline to this opinion. The Jews in general have understood this law as permanently binding ; and the manner in which it has been observed is this. They call these things tephilim, and they are the same which are called phylacteries in the New Testament. They consisted, and still do, of a certain small square box of carefully prepared and stiff skin, attached at the open end to a thick border, which gives it considerable resemblance to a hat. This box has impressed on one side, in a raised character, the letter w, and on the other the same letter, with the singularity of having four prongs instead of three: but these letters are omitted in the box intended for the arm. In this box are placed long and narrow slips of parchment, rolled up, on which are written the texts, Exod. xii. 1–10, xiii. 11-16; Deut. vi. 4-9, xi. 13-21, all inclusive. In that intended for the arm, these texts are written on two slips of parchment, but for the head on four. The parchment is most carefully prepared for the occasion, and the ink also is made on purpose. . When the scrolls are inserted in the box, a flap connected with the brim is drawn over the open end and sewed firmly down, leaving however a loop, through which is run the thong by which the box is fastened to the forehead or the arm. Every particular, even the most minute, in the preparation and use of the tephilim, is regu

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