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Reuben was Jordan, and the border thereof.
This was the inheritance of the children of
Reuben after their families, the cities and
the villages thereof.

24 And Moses gave inheritance unto the tribe of Gad, even unto the children of Gad according to their families.

25 And their coast was Jazer, and all the cities of Gilead, and half the land of the children of Ammon, unto Aroer that is before Rabbah;

26 And from Heshbon unto Ramathmizpeh, and Betonim; and from Mahanaim unto the border of Debir;

29 And Moses gave inheritance unto the half tribe of Manasseh: and this was the possession of the half tribe of the children of Manassch by their families.

30 And their coast was from Mahanaim, all Bashan, all the kingdom of Og king of Bashan, and all the towns of Jair, which are in Bashan, threescore cities:

31 And half Gilead, and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan, were pertaining unto the children of Machir the son of Manasseh, even to the one half of the "children of Machir by their families.

27 And in the valley, Beth-aram, and Beth-nimrah, and Succoth, and Zaphon, the rest of the kingdom of Sihon king of Heshbon, Jordan and his border, even unto the edge of the sea of Chinnereth on the other side Jordan eastward.

28 This is the inheritance of the children of Gad after their families, the cities, and their villages.

32 These are the countries which Moses did distribute for inheritance in the plains of Moab, on the other side Jordan, by Jericho, eastward.

33 "But unto the tribe of Levi Moses gave not any inheritance: the LORD God of Israel was their inheritance, as he said unto them.

10 Num. 32. 39. 11 Chap. 18. 7. 19 Num. 18. 20.

Verse 1. "Joshua was old.”—He was 110 years old at his death; and as the Jews say that the survey and division of the land occupied seven years, and as he does not appear to have lived long after that, he was at this time probably about a hundred years of age.

2. "The borders of the Philistines."-The Philistines were descended from Mizraim, the second son of Ham (Gen. x. 14), by whom Egypt was settled. They seem to have left that country at a very early period, and to have settled on the coast of Canaan, expelling the Avites by whom it had previously been occupied (Deut. ii. 3; Amos ix. 7; Jer. xlvii. 4). They soon became so powerful as to give to the whole country the name of "Palestine," by which it was known even in the time of Moses (Exod. xv. 14), and under which it is mentioned by Greek and Roman writers. The territory of the Philistines was very inconsiderable in extent, being merely a narrow strip extending about sixty miles along the coast, from the "river of Egypt" nearly to the bay of Joppa. This country was very fertile; and we are probably to look for the source of their power in the commerce which they appear to have carried on. It is certain that they were the most powerful and lasting enemies that the Israelites had to encounter; and the history of the wars between the two people fills a very large space in the historical books of Scripture. Their land fell to the lot of Judah; but that tribe never dispossessed them of their territory; and wars between them and the Hebrews continued to be waged from the commencement of the Jewish commonwealth to its dissolution at the captivity. After the Jews were again settled in their own country, the wars between their old enemies were revived. Judas Maccabæus defeated them and took Azotus (B.c. 159); and about sixty-five years after, Gaza was burnt by Alexander Janneus. After this, the Philistines seem to have been incorporated with the Jews who settled in their country. And hence the Philistines, who are before us from the commencement to the conclusion of the Old Testament history, are not once mentioned in the New Testament. We see that at the present time their little territory was divided into five principalities or commonwealths, the chiefs of which are distinguished by the peculiar title of DD, seranim, which almost every version differently renders (our own by "lords" and "princes"). It is probable that saran was the title which the Philistines themselves gave to the chief officer of their little states, the government of which seems to have been aristocratic. See the note on 1 Sam. xxvii. 22.

"Geshuri."-From the context the Geshurites must be the same as those mentioned in 1 Sam. xxvii. 8, where it is said that while David lived among the Philistines, he went and invaded the Geshurites and other nations which "were of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt." In verses 11, 13, another nation of Geshurites are mentioned as being situated at the other, the northern, extremity of the land, on the other side Jordan, that is, to the north of Bashan, within mount Hermon. Some Biblical chorographers think that they find a third Geshur in the "Geshur in Syria” of 2 Sam. xv. 8, the king of which was the father-in-law of Absalom, who fled thither after he had caused his brother Ammon to be murdered, and remained there three years till Joab had made his peace with the king. (See 2 Sam. iii. 3; xiii. 37, 38.) We do not, however, see any reason for establishing a difference between the Geshurites of Hermon and those of Syria, since the denomination of " Syria" reaches in the Scripture to the very borders of Palestine. The Geshurites either of the south or north were never expelled; but, as we see from verse 13, the latter were so far subdued that they were obliged to admit the Israelites to participate in the occupation of their land.

river were.

3. “Sihor, which is before Egypt."-This river is unquestionably the same as "the river of Egypt," whatever that See the notes on Gen. xv. 18, and Num. xxxiv. E. This text affords an additional proof that the "river of Egypt" and "Sihor" are not the Nile; for the territory of the Philistines, along the Mediterranean, certainly did not extend to the Nile; but it did extend to the vicinity of El Arish, near which we believe the river ought to be placed.

4. "To the borders of the Amorites."-We must conclude that this much dispersed people had a colony in the north, as well as in the south and east, unless we prefer to conclude that by some accident the letter has been transposed,

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and that we ought to read Aramites, that is, Syrians. Syria certainly was the northern boundary of Palestine, but we nowhere else learn that Amorites were there.

5. "The land of the Giblites."-This people had their capital, called Gebal, on the sea shore, under Lebanon, upwards of forty miles N.N.E. from Sidon, and therefore far beyond the limits of the territory which the Israelites ever permanently possessed. This, with other passages, seems to sanction the conclusion that, in the definition of boundaries, respect was sometimes had to the limits which might have been obtained, if the people had had that faith in the Lord's promise which would have rendered them invincible, and the want of which kept them from the complete occupation of their promised country. On this view, the definition of boundaries may have had in view the limits of the kingdom in the time of David and Solomon, when the power of the Hebrews attained its highest point. But in other explanations of boundary, there seems to be a reference to that extent of country which was actually and permanently possessed and occupied by the children of Abraham. The Giblites worked with the people of Solomon and the king of Tyre in preparing wood and stone for the temple (1 Kings v. 18, marginal reading); and in Ezek. xxvii. 9, the people of Gebal are described as employed in fitting out the ships of Tyre, on which state the Giblites seem to have been dependent both in the time of Solomon and Ezekiel. The chief town is no doubt the Gabel of Pliny, and the Byblus of the Greeks. Indeed, the Septuagint has the latter name for "Gebal" in the last cited text. It is still called Gebal, and exists as a small town, surrounded by a wall, parts of which seemed to Burckhardt to have been built in the time of the Crusades.

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6. "Lebanon."-The mountains of Lebanon form the root of the whole mountain system of Palestine. An extended view would perhaps trace them as ramifications southward from the great range of Taurus; but we must content ourselves with the more limited view which illustrates their immediate connection with Palestine. Two parallel ranges of mountains descend from Syria, enclosing between them a large valley which was anciently called Cole-Syria. These are the mountains of Lebanon of the Hebrews, who do not, like the Greeks, distinguish the western ridge as Libanus Proper, and the eastern as Anti-Libanus; but we shall retain this distinction, as convenient in a geographical statement. Arriving in the north of Palestine, the parallel ranges both incline to the west, and Libanus approaches the sea, and terminates near the mouth of the river Leontes, about five miles to the north of old Tyre. The history of Anti-Libanus is more complicated. Contracting the breadth of valley between itself and Libanus, it also advances to the sea, and terminates in the White Cape (Album Promontorium) about five miles south of old Tyre. This part, where Anti-Libanus turns westward and crosses the breadth of Palestine to the sea, is, as the nearest and not the least elevated, to be understood as

6.

the most usual "Lebanon" of the Scripture, in the restricted sense. At the point where this chain turns off eastward, to continue its parallel course with Libanus, it throws out a ramification to continue the southern course it was before pursuing. This might in fact be regarded as the prolongation of the main chain, and that which attends Libanus towards the sea, merely as a branch. At any rate, this continuation southward is of more importance than the other branches of Libanus. At the point of divergence the highest mountains of the range occur; and, together with the first part of the prolongation southward, form the Hermon" of Scripture. Thence, it may, with the usual interruption of plains and valleys, be traced along the east side of the Jordan, the Dead Sea, the Ghor, and the Gulf of Akaba, under the several denominations of the mountains of Gilead, Abarim, and Seir. This much of the southward continuation of Anti-Libanus, on the east of Jordan. Let us return to the point of divergence at mount Hermon. We have said that there Anti-Libanus inclines westward to the sea, to continue its parallel course with Libanus. This is true. But it will be observed that, after following this direction till it arrives at about the centre of the land's breadth between the Jordan and the sea, it merely sends a dash of mountain towards the west, to complete its duty of attending Libanus, and itself turns southward, and establishes a new parallelism with that other branch which we have traced southward on the cast of Jordan. It runs down through the centre of the country, forming the "mountains of Israel" and the mountains of Judah." In the south of that tribe, a cross range (see "Halak," note to ch. xi. 17) may be considered to carry it eastward nearer to the parallel range, from which it then becomes only separated by the broad Ghor between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akaba, forming the western hills of that valley, of which we have so often spoken. From thence this western range takes the western side of the Gulf of Akaba, and after throwing out the cross range of El Tyh, may be considered to terminate in the grand mountains which are clustered towards the extremity of the peninsula of Sinai. We believe this will be found a correct skeleton view of the mountains of Lebanon: and from this it will appear that all the mountains which bound and traverse the inheritance of Israel, on both sides the Jordan, are, in one way or another, ramifications of these mountains, or, to speak more precisely, of the AntiLibanus. In the note on Mount Halak (chap. xii. 7), it was found convenient to consider the hills which bound the plain of Jordan on the west as forming a ridge distinct from that which traverses the heart of the country; but this ridge being merely a ramification of the central range, we have, in the present more general view, regarded the whole as one line of mountain.

The mountains of Lebanon are most elevated in the north of Palestine, where they make a most conspicuous and striking appearance, whether as viewed from the western sea or the eastern plains. They appear as stretching far away to the north and south, forming the elevated central nucleus of all the mountains of this region, and raising their abrupt and steep summits in grand snow-invested masses, high above the inferior ridges which seem to diverge thence, as from a centre, to the north, the south, and the east. The higher summits of Anti-Libanus are covered with perpetual snow; not, as Dr. Clarke describes it, in patches, as it may be seen during summer upon the tops of very elevated mountains, but investing all the upper part with that perfect white and smooth velvet-like appearance which snow only exhibits when it is very deep ;-" a striking spectacle," adds the traveller, "in such a climate, where the beholder, seeking protection from a burning sun, almost considers the firmament to be on fire." The higher parts of Libanus not being above the point of perpetual congelation, are not thus covered with perpetual snow; but, as they border on that point, snow still remains during summer in the clefts and fissures which are exposed to the north. We do not know that any traveller has determined the height of the most elevated part of Libanus with any precision. Jahn, in his Archæologia Biblica,' says the height of Anti-Libanus is about 9000 feet; but the principal summits must be much higher than this; for some of them, as we have seen, are above the line of perpetual congelation, which line cannot in this latitude be much below 11,000 feet; consequently, the higher peaks must be above that elevation, but how much above we do not know. The geological structure of the mountains of Lebanon has not been examined with much attention. Burckhardt says of Anti-Libanus," Its rock is primitive, calcareous, of a fine grain; upon the highest part I found a sandy slate" (Syria,' p. 9). Of Libanus, he nearly repeats this description,-"The whole of the rock is calcareous, and the surface towards the top is so splintered by the atmosphere as to have the appearance of layers of slates." He adds, “I found a small petrified shell, and on breaking a stone which I picked up on the summit, I discovered another similar petrifaction within it." This is rather important, as seeming to show that the structure of the mountains is not of primitive but of either mountain or transition limestone.

We do not here notice the cedars, and other objects and circumstances, which furnished so many fine images to the Hebrew poets. Our statements on these subjects are reserved to illustrate the several texts which refer to them.

11. "Gilead...and all Basnan.”—The beautiful kingdom of Og, on the east of Jordan, extended from the river Jabbok on the south to Mount Hermon on the north. It comprehended three districts, all famous in the Bible for their exuberant fertility and their general excellence. Of these Argob was in the north; Bashan, properly so called, in the middle; and Gilead in the south. Part of Gilead, however, which lay south of the Jabbok, was not included in the kingdom of Bashan. But Argob may seem to be only a district of Bashan; whence the whole of Og's kingdom may be said to consist of all Bashan, and the greater part of Gilead. Or, indeed, it may be that Bashan was the general name for the whole, and Argob and Gilead only of particular districts-the former a small district in the north, and the latter a large one in the south. Parts of this country have been well described by Mr. Buckingham. He crossed the Jordan about ten miles above Jericho, and proceeded north-west to Jerash; consequently, till he came to the Jabbok (Zerka), his journey lay through that part of Gilead which was south of that river, and which had belonged to the Amorites. After ascending two ranges of barren hills, "we found ourselves on plains of nearly as high a level as the summits of the hills themselves, and certainly 800 feet at least above the level of the Jordan. The character of the country, too, was quite different from any thing I had seen in Palestine....We were now in a land of extraordinary richness, abounding with the most beautiful prospects, clothed with thick forests, varied with verdant slopes, and possessing extensive plains of a fine red soil, now covered with thistles, as the best proof of its fertility, and yielding in nothing to the celebrated plains of Zabulon and Esdraelon, in Galilee and Samaria.” (Palestine,' vol. ii. p. 104, 8vo. edit.) This continued to be the character of Gilead south of the Jabbok. After passing that river, the travellers entered that part of Gilead which formed the south portion of the kingdom of Bashan: "We ascended the steep on the south side of the Zerka (the Jabbok), and on reaching its summit, came again on a beautiful plain, of an elevated level.... We continued our way over this elevated tract, continuing to behold, with surprise and admiration, a beautiful country on all sides of us; its plains covered with a very fertile soil, its hills clothed with forests, at every new turn presenting the most magnificent landscapes that could be imagined. Among the trees the oak was frequently seen, and we know that this territory produced them of old." (Isa. ii. 13; Ezek. xxvii. 6 ; Zech. xi 2.)...."Some learned commentators, indeed, believing that no oaks grew in this supposed desert region, have translated the word by alders, to prevent the appearance of inaccuracy in the inspired writers. The expression of the fat bulls of Bashan, which occurs more than once in the Scriptures, seemed to us equally inconsistent, as applied to a

country generally thought to be a desert, in common with the whole tract that is laid down in our modern maps as such, between the Jordan and the Euphrates; but we could now fully comprehend not only that the bulls of this luxuriant country might be proverbially fat, but that its possessors, too, might be a race renowned for strength and comeliness of person." (Travels,' vol. i. p. 113-14.) Continuing the journey in a north-westerly direction" The general face of this region improved as we advanced farther in it, and every new direction of our path opened upon us views which charmed us by their grandeur and their beauty. Lofty mountains gave an outline of most magnificent character; flowing beds of secondary hills softened the romantic wildness of the picture; gentle slopes, clothed with wood, gave a rich variety of tints, hardly to be imitated by the pencil; deep valleys, filled with murmuring streams and verdant meadows, offered all the luxuriance of cultivation; and herds and flocks gave life and animation to scenes as grand, as beautiful, and as highly picturesque, as the taste or genius of a Claude could either invent or desire." (Vol. i. p. 117-18.)

The travellers returned from Jerash to the Jordan by a more northerly route. In the first part of the journey, the beautiful wooded scenery of the south was still continued. Mr. Buckingham says: "Mr. Bankes, who had seen the whole of England, the greater part of Italy and France, and almost every province of Spain and Portugal, frequently remarked that, in all his travels, he had met with nothing equal to it, excepting only in some parts of the latter country, Entre Minho and Duoro, to which he could alone compare it. It is certain that we were perpetually exclaiming, How rich!' How picturesque!' How magnificent! How beautiful!' and that we both conceived the scenery around to be quite worth all the hazard and privation of a journey to the eastward of Jordan."

It is true that, in prosecuting their route to the Jordan, the travellers met with much austere and barren land; but that the general character of the northern part of Og's kingdom coincides in a great degree with this account of the southern portion, we can gather even from the brief and inanimate indications of Burckhardt, who traversed the more northern parts of Bashan and Argob, and speaks frequently of desert fields covered with the richest pasturage, and than which artificial meadows could not be finer; and describes the soil, where cultivated, as affording the richest crops of wheat and barley. Upon the whole, the regions of Bashan and of Gilead, even now, after ages of neglect and desolation, bear witness to the accuracy of the frequent allusions to their fertility and beauty, which occur in the Sacred books. For the knowledge of this we are entirely indebted to modern research, as the region beyond Jordan has only ceased to be an unknown land within the present century.

12. “Ashtaroth."-This, one of the capitals of Bashan, derived its name from the Syrian Venus, whose worship was very prevalent in Syria and the neighbouring regions. It is sometimes called Ashtaroth-Carnaim; the adjunct signifies the two-horned," the goddess being sometimes represented, like the Egyptian Isis, horned, or with the horned moon. In time, the "Ashtaroth" was dropped, and it was called simply Carnaim and Carnion, as in the books of Maccabees (1 Mac. v. 26, 43, 44; 2 Mac. xii. 21, 26), and, in Jerome's time, Carnea. It was then a considerable town. The place is now called Mezareib, and is the seat of the first castle (built upwards of three centuries since) on the route of the great pilgrim caravan from Damascus to Mecca. The castle contains the store-houses of provisions for the caravan, upon the roofs of which are built sixteen or eighteen mud huts for the peasants who cultivate the neighbouring grounds. There are no houses beyond the precincts of the castle. Near it, on the north and east, are a great number of springs, whose waters collect at a short distance into a large pond or lake, nearly half an hour in circumference, in the midst of which is an island. The water is excellent, and clear as crystal, abounding in fish. Near this lake there are many ruins of ancient buildings.

"Edrei."-This was the second chief city of Bashan; and here the decisive action was fought in which Og was slain. "Eusebius and Jerome," says Wells, "suppose it to be the same that was in their time called Adara, and was then a considerable city of what was then called Arabia, lying at the distance of four-and-twenty miles from Botsra." It was also called Adraa, and is said to have been on a branch of the Hieromax. It may perhaps be found, as Burckhardt conjectures, in the village called Draa, about five miles N.N.E. from Ashtaroth.

17. "Heshbon," &c.-Most of the principal towns mentioned in this chapter have been already noticed under Num. xxi. and xxxii. Such of them as have not been considered will be noticed where they occur historically; for there are few but historical towns which seem to claim particular notice. The names of towns here given, as included in the portion of each tribe, are however of the highest importance as materials for a map, which it would have been difficult to construct without them. We are at once enabled to determine, by reference to these lists, in what tribe most of the towns hereafter mentioned in Scripture were situated; and then our research is limited to ascertain in what part of a tribe's territory we are to seek that particular town which engages our attention. In chap. xii. we stated at once the necessary particulars concerning the ancient metropolitan cities of Palestine; but as it would be inconvenient to describe even the chief towns which occur in the following lists, we shall merely point out the principal of those in each tribe, and mention under what texts an account of them is to be sought.

The princpal towns of Reuben were, Ashdod-Pisgah, of which we only know that it was situated near Mount Pis gah; Bethabara (see John i. 28); Beth-peor, or Baal-peor, where Balaam came to curse Israel, and in the valley over against which Moses delivered the summary of the law contained in Deuteronomy (Num. xxv. 3; Deut. iv. 46); Bezer, usually called "Bezer in the wilderness," or "in the plain," implying that it was in a desert part of the country, probably towards Arabia (it was a Levitical city, and one of the three cities of refuge on the east of Jordan); Heshbon (see Num. xxi. 26); Jahaz (see ch. xxi. 39); Kedemoth, near the Arnon, and giving name to the wilderness whence Moses sent his messengers to Sihon king of the Amorites (Deut. ii. 26)—it became a Levitical city; Medeba (see Num. xxi. 30); Mephaath, given to the Levites; Sibmah (see Num. xxxii. 3).

24. "Gad."-With regard to this and the other tribes, we must refer to the map for the demarcation of boundaries. The principal towns were, Beth-aran, or Beth-aram, called in Num. xxxii. 27, together with Beth-nimrah, “fenced cities and folds for sheep,"-Herod changed the name of the former to Livias, and as to the latter, see the note on the text just referred to: Jazer (see Num. xxxi. 3); Mahanaim, where the angels met Jacob (see Gen. xxxii. 2); Penuel, or Peniel (see Gen. xxxii. 30); Rabbah, or Rabbath-Ammon, the capital of the Ammonites, afterwards Philadelphia (see 2 Sam. xi. 1); Ramath-Mizpeh, or Ramoth-Gilead (see 1 Kings xxii. 3); Succoth (see Gen. xxxiii. 17).

29. "Half tribe of Manasseh."-Ashtaroth-Carnaim and Edrei, noticed above, are the only two here mentioned cut of the sixty cities which the half tribe on the coast of Jordan possessed. The other cities, however, of principal im portance, were, Bethsaida, not mentioned in the Old Testament, but frequently in the New (see Matt. xi. 21); Gadara, where Christ cast forth the unclean spirit of the man who dwelt in the tombs (see Mark v. 1); Gerasa, or Gergesa, the inhabitants of which besought Jesus to leave their district, after he had permitted the unclean spirits to enter the herd of swine; Jabesh-Gilead, connected with some important incidents in the history of Saul (See 1 Sam. xi. 2).

CHAPTER XIV.

1 The nine tribes and a half are to have their inheritance by lot. 6 Caleb by privilege obtaineth Hebron.

AND these are the countries which the children of Israel inherited in the land of Canaan, 'which Eleazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers of the tribes of the children of Israel, distributed for inheritance to them.

2 By lot was their inheritance, as the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses, for the nine tribes, and for the half tribe.

3 For Moses had given the inheritance of two tribes and an half tribe on the other

side Jordan: but unto the Levites he gave none inheritance among them.

4 For the children of Joseph were two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim: therefore they gave no part unto the Levites in the land, save cities to dwell in, with their suburbs for their cattle and for their substance.

5 As the LORD commanded Moses, so the children of Israel did, and they divided the land.

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8 Nevertheless my brethren that went up with me made the heart of the people melt: but I wholly followed the LORD my God.

9 And Moses sware on that day, saying, Surely the land whereon thy feet have trodden shall be thine inheritance, and thy children's for ever, because thou hast wholly followed the LORD my God.

10 And now, behold, the LORD hath kept me alive, as he said, these forty and five years, even since the LORD spake this word unto Moses, while the children of Israel wandered in the wilderness: and now, lo, I am this day fourscore and five years old.

11 As yet I am as strong this day as I was in the day that Moses sent me: as my strength was then, even so is my strength now, for war, both to go out, and to come in.

12 Now therefore give me this mountain, whereof the LORD spake in that day; for thou heardest in that day how the Anakims were there, and that the cities were great and fenced: if so be the LORD will be with me, then I shall be able to drive them out, as the LORD said.

13 And Joshua blessed him, and gave unto Caleb the son of Jephunneh Hebron for an inheritance.

CHAPTER XV.

1 The borders of the lot of Judah. 13 Caleb's portion and conquest. 16 Othniel, for his valour, hath Achsah, Caleb's daughter, to wife. 18 She obtaineth a blessing of her father. 21 The cities of Judah. 63 The Jebusites not conquered.

THIS then was the lot of the tribe of the

1 Num. 34. 3.

14 'Hebron therefore became the inheritance of Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite unto this day, because that he wholly followed the LORD God of Israel.

15 And the name of Hebron before was Kirjath-arba; which Arba was a great man among the Anakims. among the Anakims. And the land had rest from war.

Num. 26. 55, and 33. 54. 3 Num. 35. 2. Chap. 21. 2. Num. 14. 24.
7 Chap. 21. 12. I Mac. 2.56. 8 Chap. 15. 13.

5 Heb. walked.

Verse 12. "Then I shall be able to drive them out.”—There is a difficulty here; because, in ch. xi. 21, it is expressly said that Joshua had already driven the Anakim out of Hebron. Some think that Caleb's claim of the district of Hebron was anterior to the conquest of the city by Joshua; others suppose that Joshua indeed took the city, but that the Anakim retained the adjacent hills, from which Caleb now proposed to expel them; and this is thought to be the more probable, as it appears that Caleb did not become the proprietor of the city, which was given to the priests, but that he did possess the district in which Hebron stood. Lastly, another and perhaps the best interpretation, supposes that the Anakim had recovered Hebron while Joshua had been engaged in the northern parts of the country, and that now Caleb contemplates again to take it from them. We know that some towns which Joshua took were retaken by the former inhabitants, and that others which he destroyed had been rebuilt; and the same certainly may have happened in the case of Hebron.

Ecclus. 46. 9.

Num. 33. 36.

children of Judah by their families; 'even to the border of Edom the wilderness of Zin southward was the uttermost part of the south coast.

2 And their south border was from the shore of the salt sea, from the bay that looketh southward:

Heb. tongue.

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