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country generally thought to be a desert, in common with the whole tract that is laid down in our modern maps as such, between the Jordan and the Euphrates; but we could now fully comprehend not only that the bulls of this luxuriant country might be proverbially fat, but that its possessors, too, might be a race renowned for strength and comeliness of person.” (“Travels,' vol. i. p. 113–14.) Continuing the journey in a north-westerly direction - The general face of this region improved as we advanced farther in it, and every new direction of our path opened upon us views which charmed us by their grandeur and their beauty. Lofty mountains gave an outline of most magnificent character ; Aowing beds of secondary hills softened the romantic wildness of the picture ; gentle slopes, clothed with wood, gave rich variety of tints, hardly to be imitated by the pencil ; deep valleys, filled with murmuring streams and verdant meadows, offered all the luxuriance of cultivation; and herds and flocks gave life and animation to scenes as grand, as beautiful, and as highly picturesque, as the taste or genius of a Claude could either invent or desire.” (Vol. i. p. 117–18.)
The travellers returned from Jerash to the Jordan by a more northerly, route. In the first part of the journey, the beautiful wooded scenery of the south was still continued. Mr. Buckingham says: “ Mr. Bankes, who had seen the whole of England, the greater part of Italy and France, and almost every province of Spain and Portugal, frequently remarked that, in all his travels, he had met with nothing equal to it, excepting, only in some parts of the latter country, Entre Minho and Duoro, to which he could alone compare it. It is certain that we were perpetually exclaiming, · How rich! How picturesque ! · How magnificent!' • How beautiful!' and that we both conceived the scenery around to be quite worth all the hazard and privation of a journey to the eastward of Jordan.”
It is true that, in prosecuting their route to the Jordan, the travellers met with much austere and barren land; but that the general character of the northern part of Og's kingdom coincides in a great degree with this account of the southern portion, we can gather even from the brief and inanimate indications of Burckhardt, who traversed the more northern parts of Bashan and Argob, and speaks frequently of desert fields covered with the richest pasturage, and than which artificial meadows could not be finer; and describes the soil, where cultivated, as affording the richest crops of wheat and barley. Upon the whole, the regions of Bashan and of Gilead, even now, after ages of neglect and desolation, bear witness to the accuracy of the frequent allusions to their fertility and beauty, which occur in the Sacred books. For the knowledge of this we are entirely indebted to modern research, as the region beyond Jordan has only ceased to be an unknown land within the present century.
12. “ Ashtaroth.”—This, one of the capitals of Bashan, derived its name from the Syrian Venus, whose worship was very prevalent in Syria and the neighbouring regions. It is sometimes called Ashtaroth-Carnaim; the adjunct signifies “the two-horned,” the goddess being sometimes represented, like the Egyptian Isis, horned, or with the horned
In time, the “ Ashtaroth” was dropped, and it was called simply Carnaim and Carnion, as in the books of Maccabees (1 Mac. v. 26, 43, 44; 2 Mac. xii. 21, 26), and, in Jerome's time, Carnea. It was then a considerable town. The place is now called Mezareib, and is the seat of the first castle (built upwards of three centuries since) on the route of the great pilgrim caravan from Damascus to Mecca. The castle contains the store-houses of provisions for the caravan, upon the roofs of which are built sixteen or eighteen mud huts for the peasants who cultivate the neighbouring grounds. There are no houses beyond the precincts of the castle. Near it, on the north and east, are a great number of springs, whose waters collect at a short distance into a large pond or lake, nearly half an hour in circumference, in the midst of which is an island. The water is excellent, and clear as crystal, abounding in fish. Near this lake there are many ruins of ancient buildings.
“ Edrei.”—This was the second chief city of Bashan; and here the decisive action was fought in which Og was slain. “ Eusebius and Jerome,” says Wells, “suppose it to be the same that was in their time called Adara, and was then a considerable city of what was then called Arabia, lying at the distance of four-and-twenty miles from Botsra.” It was also called Adraa, and is said to have been on a branch of the Hieromax. It may perhaps be found, as Burckhardt conjectures, in the village called Dran, about five miles N.N.E. from Ashtaroth.
17. “ Heshbon," &c.—Most of the principal towns mentioned in this chapter have been already noticed under Num. xxi. and xxxii. Such of them as have not been considered will be noticed where they occur historically; for there are few but historical towns which seem to claim particular notice. The names of towns here given, as included in the portion of each tribe, are however of the highest importance as materials for a map, which it would have been difficult to construct without them. We are at once enabled to determine, by reference to these lists, in what tribe most of the towns hereafter mentioned in Scripture were situated ; and then our research is limited to ascertain in what part of a tribe's territory we are to seek that particular town which engages our attention. In chap. xii. we stated at once the necessary particulars concerning the ancient metropolitan cities of Palestine; but as it would be inconvenient to describe even the chief towns which occur in the following lists, we shall merely point out the principal of those in each tribe, and mention under what texts an account of them is to be sought.
The princpal towns of Reuben were, Ashdod-Pisgah, of which we only know that it was situated near Mount Pis gah; Bethabara (see John i. 28); Beth-peor, or Baal-peor, where Balaam came to curse Israel, and in the valley over against which Moses delivered the summary of the law contained in Deuteronomy (Num. xxv. 3 ; Deut. iv. 46); Bezer, usually called “Bezer in the wilderness," or " in the plain,” implying that it was in a desert part of the country, probably towards Arabia (it was a Levitical city, and one of the three cities of refuge on the east of Jordan); Heshbon (see Num. xxi. 26); Jahaz (see ch. xxi. 39); Kedemoth, near the Arnon, and giving name to the wilderness whence Moses sent his messengers to Sihon king of the Amorites (Deut. ii. 26) — it became a Levitical city; Medeba (see Num. xxi. 30); Mephauth, given to the Levites ; Sibmah (see Num. xxxii. 3).
24. “Gad."-With regard to this and the other tribes, we must refer to the map for the demarcation of boundaries. The principal towns were, Beth-aran, or Beth-aram, called in Num. xxxii. 27, together with Beth-nimrah, "fenced cities and folds for sheep,"-Herod changed the name of the former to Livias, and as to the latter, see the note on the text just referred to; Jazer (see Num. xxxi. 3); Mahanaim, where the angels met Jacob (see Gen. xxxii. 2); Penuel, or Peniel (see Gen. xxxii. 30); Rabbah, or Rabbath-Ammon, the capital of the Ammonites, afterwards Philadelphia (see 2 Sam. xi. 1); Rromath-Mizpeh, or Ramoth-Gilead (see 1 Kings xxii. 3) ; Succoth (see Gen. xxxiii. 17).
29. “ Half tribe of Manasseh."-Ashtaroth-Carnaim and Edrei, noticed above, are the only two here mentioned cut of the sixty cities which the half tribe on the coast of Jordan possessed. The other cities, however, of principal im portance, were, Bethsaida, not mentioned in the Old Testament, but frequently in the New (see Matt. xi. 21); Gadara, where Christ cast forth the unclean spirit of the man who dwelt in the tombs (see Mark v. 1); Gerasa, or Gergesa, the inhabitants of which besought Jesus to leave their district, after he had permitted the unclean spirits to enter the berd of swine ; Jabesh-Gilead, connected with some important incidents in the history of Saul (See 1 Sam. xi. 2).
8 Nevertheless my brethren that went up
with me made the heart of the people melt: | The nine tribes and a half are to have their in
but I wholly 'followed the LORD heritance by lot. 6 Caleb by privilege obtaineth
9 And Moses sware on that day, saying,
Surely the land whereon thy feet have trodAnd these are the countries which the childen shall be thine inheritance, and thy children of Israel inherited in the land of Ca- dren's for ever, because thou hast wholly naan, 'which Eleazar the priest, and Joshua followed the Lord my God. the son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers 10 And now, behold, the Lord hath kept of the tribes of the children of Israel, distri- me alive, as he said, these forty and five buted for inheritance to them.
years, even since the Lord spake this word 2 'By lot was their inheritance, as the unto Moses, while the children of Israel Lord commanded by the hand of Moses, 'wandered in the wilderness: and now, lo, I for the nine tribes, and for the half tribe. am this day fourscore and five years old.
3 For Moses had given the inheritance 11 "As yet I am as strong this day as I of two tribes and an If tribe on the other
was in the day that Moses sent me: as my side Jordan : but unto the Levites he gave strength was then, even so is my strength none inhoritance among them.
now, for war, both to go out, and to come 4 For the children of Joseph were two in. tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim: therefore 12 Now therefore give me this mountain, they gave no part unto the Levites in the whereof the Lord spake in that day; for land, save cities to dwell in, with their thou heardest in that day how the Anakims suburbs for their cattle and for their sub- were there, and that the cities were great stance.
and fenced: if so be the LORD will be with 5 As the LORD commanded Moses, so me, then I shall be able to drive them out, the children of Israel did, and they divided as the LORD said. the land.
13 And Joshua blessed him, and gave 6 | Then the children of Judah came unto Caleb the son .of Jephunneh Hebron unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son for an inheritance. of Jephunneh the Kenezite said unto him, 14 'Hebron therefore became the inheThou knowest the thing that the LORD said ritance of Caleb the son of Jephunneh the unto Moses the man of God concerning me Kenezite unto this day, because that he and thee in Kadesh-barnea.
wholly followed the LORD God of Israel. 7 Forty years old was I when Moses the 15 And the name of Hebron before was servant of the LORD sent me from Kadesh- Kirjath-arba ; which Arba was a great man barnea to espy out the land; and I brought among the Anakims. And the land had him word again as it was in mine heart. rest from war. I Num. 34. 17 'Num. 26. 55, and 33.54. 3 Num. 35. 2. Chap. 21. 2.
• Ecclus. 46. 9. 1 (hay. 1. 12.
8 Chap. 15. 13. Verse 12. “ Then I shall be able to drive them out.”—There is a difficulty here; because, in ch. xi. 31, it is expressly said that Joshua had already driven the Anakim out of Hebron. Some think that Caleb's claim of the district of Hebron was anterior to the conquest of the city by Joshua; others suppose that Joshua indeed took the city, but that the Anækim retained the adjacent hills, from which Caleb now proposed to expel them; and this is thought to be the more probable, as it appears that Caleb did not become the proprietor of the city, which was given to the priests, but that he did possess the district in which Hebron stood. Lastly, another and perhaps the best interpretation, supposes that the Anakim had recovered Hebron while Joshua had been engaged in the northern parts of the country, and that now Caleb contemplates again to take it from them. We know that some towns which Joshua took were retaken by the former inhabitants, and that others which he destroyed had been rebuilt; and the same certainly may have happened in the case of Hebron.
4 Num. 14. 24.
5 Heb. walked.
I Mac. 2. 56.
portion and conquest. 16 Othniel, for his valour, hath Achsah, Caleb's daughter, to wife. 18 She obtaineth a blessing of her father. 21 The cities
children of Judah by their families; 'even to the border of Edom the 'wilderness of Zin southward was the uttermost part of the south coast.
2 And their south border was from the shore of the salt sea, from the 'bay that looketh southward :
of Juduh. 63 The Jebusites not conquered. This then was the lot of the tribe of the
I Num. 34. 3.
9 Num. 33. 36.
• Hebe tongue.
3 And it went out to the south side to looking toward Gilgal, that is before the *Maaleh-acrabbim, and passed along to Zin, going up to Adummim, which is on the and ascended up on the south side unto south side of the river: and the border Kadesh-barnea, and passed along to Hez- passed toward the waters of En-shemesh, ron, and went up to Adar, and fetched a and the goings out thereof were at 'Encompass to Karkaa :
rogel : 4 From thence it passed toward Azmon, 8 And the border went up by the valley and went out unto the river of Egypt; and of the son of Hinnom unto the south side of the goings out of that coast were at the the Jebusite; the same is Jerusalem : and sea : this shall be your south coast.
the border went up to the top of the moun5 And the east border was the salt sea, tain that lieth before the valley of Hinnom even unto the end of Jordan. And their westward, which is at the end of the valley border in the north quarter was from the of the giants northward : bay of the sea at the uttermost part of Jor- 9 And the border was drawn from the dan:
top of the hill unto the fountain of the water 6 And the border went up to Beth-hogla, of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of and passed along by the north of Beth-ara- mount Ephron ; and the border was drawn bah; and the border went up to the stone of to Baalah, which is Kirjath-jearim : Bohan the son of Reuben :
10 And the border compassed from Baa7 And the border went up toward Debir lah westward unto mount Seir, and passed from the valley of Achor, and so northward, along unto the side of mount Jearim, which
• Or, the going up to Acrabbim.
S1 Kings 1. 9.
18 Chesalon, on the north side, and went 30 And Eltolad, and Chesil, and Hordown to Beth-shemesh, and passed on to mah, Timnah:
31 And Ziklag, and Madmannah, and 11 And the border went out unto the side Sansannah, of Ekron northward : and the border was 32 And Lebaoth, and Shilhim, and Ain, drawn to Shıcron, and passed along to mount and Rimmon: all the cities are twenty and Baalah, and went out unto Jabneel; and the nine, with their villages : goings out of the border were at the sea. 33 And in the valley, Eshtaol, and Zo
12 And the west border was to the great reah, and Ashnah, sea, and the coast thereof. This is the coast 34 And Zanoah, and En-gannim, Tapof the children of Judah round about accord- puah, and Enam, ing to their families.
35 Jarmuth, and Adullam, Socoh, and 13 | And unto Caleb the son of Jephun-Azekah, neh he gave a part among the children of 36 And Sharaim, and Adithaim, and GeJudah, according to the commandment of derah, "and Gederothaim; fourteen cities the Lord to Joshua, even ®the city of Arba' with their villages : the father of Anak, which city is Hebron. 37 Zenan, and Hadashah, and Migdal
14 And Caleb drove thence ®the three gad, sons of Anak, Sheshai, and Ahiman, and 38 And Dilean, and Mizpeh, and JokTalmai, the children of Anak.
theel, 15 And he went up thence to the inha- 39 Lachish, and Bozkath, and Eglon, bitants of Debir: and the name of Debir 40 And Cabbon, and Lahmam, and Kithbefore was Kirjath-sepher.
lish, 16 And Caleb said, He that smiteth 41 And Gederoth, Beth-dagon, and Naa Kirjath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I mah, and Makkedah; sixteen cities with give Achsah my daughter to wife.
their villages : 17 And Othniel the son of Kenaz, the 42 Libnah, and Ether, and Ashan, brother of Caleb, took it: and he gave him 43 And Jiphtah, and Ashnah, and Nezib, Achsah his daughter to wife.
44 And Keilah, and Achzib, and Mare. 18 And it came to pass, as she came unto shah; nine cities with their villages : him, that she moved him to ask of her father 45 Ekron, with her towns and her villages : a field: and she lighted off her ass; and 46 From Ekron even unto the sea, all Caleb said unto her, What wouldest thou? that lay near Ashdod, with their villages :
19 Who answered, Give me a blessing 47 Ashdod with her towns and her vilfor thou hast given me a south land; give" | lages, Gaza with her towns and her villages, me also springs of water. And he gave her unto the river of Egypt, and the great sea, the
upper springs, and the nether springs. and the border thereof: 20 This is the inheritance of the tribe of 48 | And in the mountains, Shamir, and the children of Judah according to their fa- Jattir, and Socoh, milies.
49 And Dannah, and Kirjath-sannah, 21 And the uttermost cities of the tribe which is Debir, of the children of Judah toward the coast of 50 And Anab, and Eshtemoh, and Anim, Edom southward were Kabzeel, and Eder, 51 And Goshen, and Holon, and Giloh; and Jagur,
eleven cities with their villages : 22 And Kinah, and Dimonah, and Adadah, 52 Arab, and Dumah, and Eshean, 23 And Kedesh, and Hazor, and Ithnan, 53 And "Janum, and Beth-tappuah, and 24 Ziph, and Telem, and Bealoth, Aphekah,
25 And Hazor, Hadattah, and Kerioth, 54 And Humtah, and "Kirjath-arba, , and Hezron, which is Hazor,
which is Hebron, and Zior; nine cities with 26 Amam, and Shema, and Moladah, their villages:
27_And Hazar-gaddah, and Heshmon, 55 Maon, Carmel, and Ziph, and Juttah, and Beth-palet,
56 And Jezreel, and Jokdeam, and Za. 28 And Hazar-shual, and Beer-sheba, noah, und Bizjothjah,
57 Cain, Gibeah, and Timnah; ten cities 29 Baalah, and lim, and Azem,
with their villages :
“Chap 14, 15.
7 Or Kirjath Arbri.
8 Judges 1. 10.
18 Chap 14. 15.
10 Hleb, by the place of.
11 Or. Jang.
58 Halhul, Beth-zur, and Gedor,
62 And Nibshan, and the city of Salt, and 59 And Maarath, and Beth-anoth, and En-gedi; six cities with their villages. Eltekon; six cities with their villages : 63 As for the Jebusites the inhabitants
60 Kirjath-baal, which is Kirjath-jearim, of Jerusalem, the children of Judah could and Rabbah; two cities with their villages : not drive them out: but the Jebusites dwell
61 In the wilderness, Beth-arabah, Mid with the children of Judah at Jerusalem unto din, and Secacah,
Verse 1. “ This then was the lot of the tribe of Judah."--The lands on the east of Jordan were not distributed by lot, but were given by Moses to the tribes which had applied for it. We now enter upon the division by lot. There were two divisions, the first of which provided for the tribes of Judah, Ephraim and half of Manasseh ; and it is a remarkable confirmation of the prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob at his death, that the lot secured the earliest and amplest provision for the descendants of the two sons to whom he assigned the preference. How the lot was taken at the first division we do not know; but it was probably the same in principle as in the mode followed with respect to the remaining seven tribes. (See ch. xviii.) We may therefore conclude, that when this first conquered portion of the land had been surveyed, and found sufficient to furnish three cantons, all the tribes cast lots for them, and they fell to Judah, Ephraim, and the half tribe of Manasseh. The difference was, that at the first division the question was not only what lot should be had, but whether any should at present be obtained by a particular tribe ; at the second division, the former question only was to be determined, there being then as many lots as there were tribes unprovided for. It will be observed that the southern border of Judah coincides with that of the land generally, this being the southernmost tribe. See the note on Num. xxxiv.
6. “ The stone of Bohan the son of Reuben.”—The stone was probably set up either as a sepulchral monument, like “ the pillar of Rachel's grave,” (Gen. xxxv. 20.) or else to commemorate some exploit of Bohan, who was doubtless one of the Reubenites that came over Jordan to assist in the conquest of the country.
7. “ En-rogel,” literally the “ foot fountain.” It was near Jerusalem, as we see by the history in 1 Kings i. 1. The Targum renders it the Fuller's Fountain, under the idea that the fullers washed their clothes there, treading them with their feet. But others are of opinion that it was so called because travellers were accustomed to bathe their feet at this fountain. It is supposed to be the same as the Pool of Siloam. See the note to John ix. 7.
8. “ The valley of the son of Hinnom.”—This was a pleasant valley on the south-east of Jerusalem, notorious for the cruel rites of Moloch which were there celebrated. See 2 Kings xxiii. 10. The mountain before this valley is thought to be Mount Moriah, on which the temple was afterwards built.
16. “ To him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife.”—The father having in the East the absolute disposal of his daughter, such offers as this of Caleb have at all times been usual as an encouragement to enterprise. Nor was the practice confined to the East ; as we find examples of it in classical antiquity, and, more modernly, in the ages of chivalry. The father who makes such an offer is of course understood to dispense with the usual payments which a father expects from the bridegroom; and not only so, but sometimes grants a dowry with the bride. This Caleb seems to have done ; but whether as part of his original proposal, or an additional favour to his nephew Othniel, does not appear.
18. “ She moved him to ask of her father a field.”— It seems that Othniel was conducting Achsah to his own home from her father's house ; when, this being perhaps the first time she had been able to speak to him, she advised him, or else desired him to allow her (for the clause is differently understood) to ask Caleb to bestow on them springs of water, without which the dry lands he had already given would want much of their value. The request is an interesting indication of the supreme importance of water in Oriental regions.
“ She lighted off her ass.”- According to some interpretations she did this from finding Othniel reluctant to trouble Caleb on the subject; while others suppose she merely asked from him permission for herself to act, and, having obtained it, proceeded accordingly. The whole of this remarkable passage is attended with many verbal difficulties, though the general sense is sufficiently clear. The Septuagint says that Caleb's daughter cried from off the ass; and the Vulgate merely renders that she sighed as she sat upon
the ass. 20. “ This is the inheritance of the tribe of...Judah.”—There are some remarks on the character of this inheritance in the note to Gen. xliv. 8. Its limits are well defined in the early part of this chapter; and it will be observed that its territory was much larger than belonged to any other tribe ; the more so, when we consider that many other tribes, which seem among the largest, did not acquire possession of so much of their assigned territory, as Judah did. The lands of Judah were indeed so disproportionately extensive, that at the second division of the land, cantons for two other tribes were taken from it. These cantons fell to the lot of Simeon and Dan.
21. “ The uttermost cities of the tribe of ... Judah.”—The “uttermost” means those in the southern portion of Judah, towards the open desert. The list of these extends to the end of v. 32. From thence to the end of v. 47, is a list of the towns “ in the valley ;” that is, in the lowlands on the west, between the central mountains and the sea. that this part was even in his time called the valley. Verse 48 begins the list of towns " in the mountains,” that is, in the hilly country which composes the eastern half of Judah, comprehending the central range, and the mountains from thence eastward to the Dead Sea ; and verses 61 and 62 reckon up the towns " in the wilderness,” that is, on the east border of the country, towards the Dead Sea. This long list of towns includes many which we have already noticed, and others which never belonged to Judah as a tribe, but continued to be retained by the Philistines. Omitting the latter, the following are the more remarkable towns which this list contains :-Zip(v. 24, 55); we see here two cities of this name, one in the south and the other in the hill country; the latter, grouped with Maon and Carmel, was about eight miles to the east of Hebron, and is memorable chiefly for the retreat which its wilderness afforded to David, when persecuted by Saul (1 Sam. xxiii. 14). The Carmel just named must not be confounded with the great Mount Carmel near the Bay of Acre. Beersheba (see Gen. xxi. 14), Adullam, Debir, Hebron, Lachish, Libnah, Makkeduh-ancient capitals, all mentioned in chap. xii. Maon, about thirty miles south from Jerusalem, the abode of the churlish Nabal, and the district near whích David removed from that of Ziph when pursued by Saul (1 Sam. xxiii. 25, xxv. 2). Beth-zur (v. 58), which was one of the places fortified by Rehoboam: it is not much mentioned in the canonical books, but appears of great importance as a stronghold in the time of the Maceabees. The cu