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3 And it went out to the south side to 'Maaleh-acrabbim, and passed along to Zin, and ascended up on the south side unto Kadesh-barnea, and passed along to Hezron, and went up to Adar, and fetched a compass to Karkaa:

4 From thence it passed toward Azmon, and went out unto the river of Egypt; and the goings out of that coast were at the sea: this shall be your south coast.

5 And the east border was the salt sea, even unto the end of Jordan. And their border in the north quarter was from the bay of the sea at the uttermost part of Jordan:

6 And the border went up to Beth-hogla, and passed along by the north of Beth-arabah; and the border went up to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben:

7 And the border went up toward Debir from the valley of Achor, and so northward, 4Or, the going up to Acrabbim.

looking toward Gilgal, that is before the going up to Adummim, which is on the south side of the river: and the border passed toward the waters of En-shemesh, and the goings out thereof were at 'Enrogel:

8 And the border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom unto the south side of the Jebusite; the same is Jerusalem: and the border went up to the top of the mountain that lieth before the valley of Hinnom westward, which is at the end of the valley of the giants northward :

9 And the border was drawn from the top of the hill unto the fountain of the water of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of mount Ephron; and the border was drawn to Baalah, which is Kirjath-jearim:

10 And the border compassed from Baalah westward unto mount Seir, and passed along unto the side of mount Jearim, which

$1 Kings 1. 9.

is Chesalon, on the north side, and went down to Beth-shemesh, and passed on to Timnah:

11 And the border went out unto the side of Ekron northward: and the border was drawn to Shicron, and passed along to mount Baalah, and went out unto Jabneel; and the goings out of the border were at the sea.

12 And the west border was to the great sea, and the coast thereof. This is the coast of the children of Judah round about accord-puah, ing to their families.

13 ¶ And unto Caleb the son of Jephunneh he gave a part among the children of Judah, according to the commandment of the LORD to Joshua, even the city of Arba' the father of Anak, which city is Hebron.

14 And Caleb drove thence the three sons of Anak, Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai, the children of Anak.

15 And he went up thence to the inhabitants of Debir: and the name of Debir before was Kirjath-sepher.

16 And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife.

17 And Othniel the son of Kenaz, the brother of Caleb, took it: and he gave him Achsah his daughter to wife.

18 And it came to pass, as she came unto him, that she moved him to ask of her father a field and she lighted off her ass; and Caleb said unto her, What wouldest thou?


19 Who answered, Give me a blessing for thou hast given me a south land; give me also springs of water. And he gave her the upper springs, and the nether springs.

20 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Judah according to their families.

21 And the uttermost cities of the tribe of the children of Judah toward the coast of Edom southward were Kabzeel, and Eder, and Jagur,

22 And Kinah, and Dimonah, and Adadah, 23 And Kedesh, and Hazor, and Ithnan, 24 Ziph, and Telem, and Bealoth,

25 And Hazor, Hadattah, and Kerioth, and Hezron, which is Hazor,

26 Amam, and Shema, and Moladah, 27 And Hazar-gaddah, and Heshmon, and Beth-palet,

28 And Hazar-shual, and Beer-sheba, and Bizjothjah,

29 Baalah, and Iim, and Azem,

7 Or Kirjath Arba.

Chap. 14. 15.

30 And Eltolad, and Chesil, and Hormah,

31 And Ziklag, and Madmannah, and Sansannah,

8 Judges 1. 10.

32 And Lebaoth, and Shilhim, and Ain, and Rimmon: all the cities are twenty and nine, with their villages:

33 And in the valley, Eshtaol, and Zoreah, and Ashnah,

34 And Zanoah, and En-gannim, Tapand Enam,

35 Jarmuth, and Adullam, Socoh, and Azekah,

36 And Sharaim, and Adithaim, and Gederah, and Gederothaim; fourteen cities with their villages:

37 Zenan, and Hadashah, and Migdalgad,

38 And Dilean, and Mizpeh, and Joktheel,

39 Lachish, and Bozkath, and Eglon,
40 And Cabbon, and Lahmam, and Kith-


41 And Gederoth, Beth-dagon, and Naa mah, and Makkedah; sixteen cities with their villages:

42 Libnah, and Ether, and Ashan,

43 And Jiphtah, and Ashnah, and Nezib, 44 And Keilah, and Achzib, and Mareshah; nine cities with their villages:

45 Ekron, with her towns and her villages : 46 From Ekron even unto the sea, all that lay "near Ashdod, with their villages:

47 Ashdod with her towns and her villages, Gaza with her towns and her villages, unto the river of Egypt, and the great sea, and the border thereof:

48 And in the mountains, Shamir, and Jattir, and Socoh,

49 And Dannah, and Kirjath-sannah, which is Debir,

50 And Anab, and Eshtemoh, and Anim, 51 And Goshen, and Holon, and Giloh; eleven cities with their villages :

52 Arab, and Dumah, and Eshean, 53 And "Janum, and Beth-tappuah, and Aphekah,

54 And Humtah, and "Kirjath-arba, which is Hebron, and Zior; nine cities with their villages:

55 Maon, Carmel, and Ziph, and Juttah, 56 And Jezreel, and Jokdeam, and Zanoah,

57 Cain, Gibeah, and Timnah; ten cities with their villages:

10 Heb. by the place of.

9 Or, or. 12 Chap. 14. 15.

11 Or, Janus.

58 Halhul, Beth-zur, and Gedor,

59 And Maarath, and Beth-anoth, and Eltekon; six cities with their villages:

60 Kirjath-baal, which is Kirjath-jearim, and Rabbah; two cities with their villages: 61 In the wilderness, Beth-arabah, Middin, and Secacah,

62 And Nibshan, and the city of Salt, and En-gedi; six cities with their villages. 63 As for the Jebusites the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the children of Judah could not drive them out: but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Judah at Jerusalem unto this day.

Verse 1. "This then was the lot of the tribe of Judah."-The lands on the east of Jordan were not distributed by lot, but were given by Moses to the tribes which had applied for it. We now enter upon the division by lot. There were two divisions, the first of which provided for the tribes of Judah, Ephraim and half of Manasseh; and it is a remarkable confirmation of the prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob at his death, that the lot secured the earliest and amplest provision for the descendants of the two sons to whom he assigned the preference. How the lot was taken at the first division we do not know; but it was probably the same in principle as in the mode followed with respect to the remaining seven tribes. (See ch. xviii.) We may therefore conclude, that when this first conquered portion of the land had been surveyed, and found sufficient to furnish three cantons, all the tribes cast lots for them, and they fell to Judah, Ephraim, and the half tribe of Manasseh. The difference was, that at the first division the question was not only what lot should be had, but whether any should at present be obtained by a particular tribe; at the second division, the former question only was to be determined, there being then as many lots as there were tribes unprovided for. It will be observed that the southern border of Judah coincides with that of the land generally, this being the southernmost tribe. See the note on Num. xxxiv.

6. "The stone of Bohan the son of Reuben."-The stone was probably set up either as a sepulchral monument, like "the pillar of Rachel's grave," (Gen. xxxv. 20.) or else to commemorate some exploit of Bohan, who was doubtless one of the Reubenites that came over Jordan to assist in the conquest of the country.

7. "En-rogel,” literally the "foot fountain." It was near Jerusalem, as we see by the history in 1 Kings i. 1. The Targum renders it the Fuller's Fountain, under the idea that the fullers washed their clothes there, treading them with their feet. But others are of opinion that it was so called because travellers were accustomed to bathe their feet at this fountain. It is supposed to be the same as the Pool of Siloam. See the note to John ix. 7.

8. "The valley of the son of Hinnom."-This was a pleasant valley on the south-east of Jerusalem, notorious for the cruel rites of Moloch which were there celebrated. See 2 Kings xxiii. 10. The mountain before this valley is thought to be Mount Moriah, on which the temple was afterwards built.

16. “To him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife.”—The father having in the East the absolute disposal of his daughter, such offers as this of Caleb have at all times been usual as an encouragement to enterprise. Nor was the practice confined to the East; as we find examples of it in classical antiquity, and, more modernly, in the ages of chivalry. The father who makes such an offer is of course understood to dispense with the usual payments which a father expects from the bridegroom; and not only so, but sometimes grants a dowry with the bride. This Caleb seems to have done; but whether as part of his original proposal, or an additional favour to his nephew Othniel, does not


13." She moved him to ask of her father a field."-It seems that Othniel was conducting Achsah to his own home from her father's house; when, this being perhaps the first time she had been able to speak to him, she advised him, or else desired him to allow her (for the clause is differently understood) to ask Caleb to bestow on them springs of water, without which the dry lands he had already given would want much of their value. The request is an interesting indication of the supreme importance of water in Oriental regions.

"She lighted off her ass."-According to some interpretations she did this from finding Othniel reluctant to trouble Caleb on the subject; while others suppose she merely asked from him permission for herself to act, and, having obtained it, proceeded accordingly. The whole of this remarkable passage is attended with many verbal difficulties, though the general sense is sufficiently clear. The Septuagint says that Caleb's daughter cried from off the ass; and the Vulgate merely renders that she sighed as she sat upon the ass.

20. "This is the inheritance of the tribe of...Judah."-There are some remarks on the character of this inheritance in the note to Gen. xliv. 8. Its limits are well defined in the early part of this chapter; and it will be observed that its territory was much larger than belonged to any other tribe; the more so, when we consider that many other tribes, which seem among the largest, did not acquire possession of so much of their assigned territory, as Judah did. The lands of Judah were indeed so disproportionately extensive, that at the second division of the land, cantons for two other tribes were taken from it. These cantons fell to the lot of Simeon and Dan.

21. "The uttermost cities of the tribe of....Julah.”—The "uttermost" means those in the southern portion of Judah, towards the open desert. The list of these extends to the end of v. 32. From thence to the end of v. 47, is a list of the towns "in the valley ;" that is, in the lowlands on the west, between the central mountains and the sea. Jerome says that this part was even in his time called the valley. Verse 48 begins the list of towns "in the mountains," that is, in the hilly country which composes the eastern half of Judah, comprehending the central range, and the mountains from thence eastward to the Dead Sea; and verses 61 and 62 reckon up the towns "in the wilderness," that is, on the east border of the country, towards the Dead Sea. This long list of towns includes many which we have already noticed, and others which never belonged to Judah as a tribe, but continued to be retained by the Philistines. Omitting the latter, the following are the more remarkable towns which this list contains:-Ziph (v. 24, 55); we see here two cities of this name, one in the south and the other in the hill country; the latter, grouped with Maon and Carmel, was about eight miles to the east of Hebron, and is memorable chiefly for the retreat which its wilderness afforded to David, when persecuted by Saul (1 Sam. xxiii. 14). The Carmel just named must not be confounded with the great Mount Carmel near the Bay of Acre. Beersheba (see Gen. xxi. 14), Adullam, Debir, Hebron, Lachish, Libnah, Makkedah-ancient capitals, all mentioned in chap. xii. Maon, about thirty miles south from Jerusalem, the abode of the churlish Nabal, and the district near which David removed from that of Ziph when pursued by Saul (1 Sam. xxiii. 25, xxv. 2). Beth-zur (v. 58), which was one of the places fortified by Rehoboam: it is not much mentioned in the canonical books, but appears of great importance as a stronghold in the time of the Maccabees. The cu


croachments of the Idumæans upon the south country appear to have rendered it in that time a border fortress, which being very strong, the invaders of the country did not like to leave behind them in their march to Jerusalem. They then besieged it in the first instance, as it had been customary to besiege Lachish, when the Jewish territory extended more to the south. It was three times besieged by immense armies in the time of Judas Maccabæus, who relieved it on two of these occasions, but on the third, the want of provisions obliged the garrison to capitulate with Antiochus Eupator, who entered Judæa with 100,000 foot and 20,000 horse, besides elephants and chariots; and, as usual, began the war with the siege of Bethzur. This place seems to have been about fifteen miles south of Jerusalem, oa the road to Hebron. Engedi (v. 62) was somewhere not far from the Dead Sea, but no two authorities agree in fixing its position. Josephus says it was about thirty-five miles from Jerusalem. It was formerly called Hazazon-Tamar; a name allusive to the palm-trees, which abounded in this district; it was also famous for its vineyards. Jerome says, that in his time there was a large village, called Engaddi, near the Dead Sea. Historically, the place is chiefly noted for a cave which in its neighbourhood afforded a retreat to David and his men, and where he, for the second time, spared the life of the infatuated king who thirsted for his blood. (See 1 Sam. xxiv.)

32. "All the cities are twenty and nine, with their villages."-Yet the text itself enumerates thirty-six. This apparent contradiction has been variously obviated. Many Jewish and Christian commentators think that nine towns, afterwards given to Simeon, are on that account omitted in the summing up, although included in the enumeration. Others suppose that the verse before us means to say that twenty-nine of the places included in the enumeration were cities, and the remainder only villages. Lastly, some think the text corrupted, and that we are here to read “thirty six,” instead of twenty-nine," following the Syriac version, which has preserved a considerable number of true readings, where the Hebrew manuscripts were afterwards corrupted.


63. "The Jebusites dwell with the children of Judah at Jerusalem unto this day.”—We have already intimated that it is evident, by a comparison of this verse with 2 Sam. v. 6, 7, that even if Joshua himself were not directly the author of this book, it was certainly written in its present form before the time when David drove the Jebusites from the stronghold of Sion. There is an apparent difficulty in this verse, arising from our finding Jerusalem here placed in the tribe of Judah, when, in ch. xviii. 28, it is assigned to Benjamin. The fact seems to be, that the boundary line between the two tribes was drawn through the valley which separated Mount Sion, on which stood the fortress of the Jebusites, from Mount Acra, on which the lower city stood, and from Mount Moriah, on which the Temple of Solomon was in aftertimes erected. This boundary line would give Mount Sion to the tribe of Judah, and Mounts Acra and Moriah to Benjamin. It would seem that originally all the hills on which the different parts of the city ultimately stood were called Moriah (Gen. xxii. 2, 4), although ultimately the denomination came to be restricted to the mountain of the Temple.

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5 And the border of the children of Ephraim according to their families was thus: even the border of their inheritance on the east side was Ataroth-addar, unto Bethhoron the upper;

6 And the border went out toward the sea to Michmethah on the north side; and the border went about eastward unto Taanath-shiloh, and passed by it on the east to Janohah;

7 And it went down from Janohah to Ataroth, and to Naarath, and came to Jericho, and went out at Jordan.

8 The border went out from Tappuah westward unto the river Kanah; and the goings out thereof were at the sea. This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Ephraim by their families.

9 And the separate cities for the children of Ephrain were among the inheritance of the children of Manasseh, all the cities with their villages.

10 And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day, and serve under tribute.

1 Heb. went forth.

Judges 1. 26.

Verse 3. "Goeth down westward."-That is, we suppose, goes down the western declivity of the central mountains towards the sea; for it is evident enough that the four first verses describe the line from the Jordan to the sea, which formed the southern boundary of the house of Joseph, as a whole. Then comes a particular description of the boundaries of each of the tribes; and, first, of Ephraim.

5. "The border of their inheritance on the east side was Ataroth-addar."-The real obscurities of this very difficult chapter have been greatly increased by the indistinctness of translation which characterises the chorographical chapters of our version, and which was a necessary consequence of the extremely limited acquaintance with the face of the country, which was possessed when that version was made. On this we have remarked, in a note to Num. xxxiv. 2. The version of the present text would convey the idea that the eastern boundary is described; whereas, in fact, it seems clearly to be the western. The southern boundary line is extended beyond Ataroth addar, and includes the uncop


quered country even to the sea, in the preceding general definition; but now, in describing the territory of Ephra m more restrictedly, with a view to what was actually possessed, Ataroth-addar, which seems to have been the westernmost town actually possessed by the Ephraimites on their southern border, is taken as the point whence to draw northward the western boundary line. Accordingly, Dr. Boothroyd thus renders the clause which now engages our attentien: "The boundary of their inheritance went on the east side of Ataroth-addar to upper Beth-horon." This is the only explanation which can render intelligible the details of this very difficult chapter; but it must be confessed that the boundaries of Ephraim and Manasseh have, from local changes, become more unintelligible to us than those of almost any other tribes. One thing seems certain, that from Ataroth-addar to Beth-horon the upper, and thence to Michmethah, describes the breadth of Ephraim's lot from north to south in its eastern part; then the northern boundary is described (verses 6 and 7) from Michmethah eastward to the Jordan. Verse 8 seems a retrospect of the northern boundary backward from east to west, to describe the larger nominal boundary from Jordan to the sea. The eastern boundary, being formed by the Jordan, is not here particularly described.

There is no list of towns in this account of Ephraim's lot, Those which are incidentally mentioned in the definition of boundaries are either of no historical consequence, or have been already noticed under chap. xii. Besides these, Ephraim contained the towns of Shechem and Shiloh, and ultimately Samaria, the capital of the kingdom of Israel, was founded within its limits.


1 The lot of Manasseh. 8 His coast. 12 The Canaanites not driven out. 14 The children of Joseph obtain another lot.

THERE was also a lot for the tribe of Manasseh; for he was the 'firstborn of Joseph; to wit, for Machir the firstborn of Manasseh, the father of Gilead: because he was a man of war, therefore he had Gilead and Bashan.

2 There was also a lot for the rest of the children of Manasseh by their families; for the children of Abiezer, and for the children of Helek, and for the children of Asriel, and for the children of Shechem, and for the children of Hepher, and for the children of Shemida these were the male children of Manasseh the son of Joseph by their families.


3¶ But 'Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, had no sons, but daughters: and these are the names of his daughters, Mahlah, and Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah.

4 And they came near before Eleazar the priest, and before Joshua the son of Nun, and before the princes, saying, The LORD commanded Moses to give us an inheritance among our brethren. Therefore according to the commandment of the LORD he gave them an inheritance among the brethren of their father.

5 And there fell ten portions to Manasseh, beside the land of Gilead and Bashan, which were on the other side Jordan;

6 Because the daughters of Manasseh had an inheritance among his sons: and the rest of Manasseh's sons had the land of Gilead. 7 And the coast of Manasseh was from Asher to Michmethah, that lieth before

Shechem; and the border went along on the right hand unto the inhabitants of En-tappuah.

8 Now Manasseh had the land of Tappuah but Tappuah on the border of Manasseh belonged to the children of Ephraim; 9 And the coast descended unto the 'river Kanah, southward of the river: these cities of Ephraim are among the cities of Manasseh: the coast of Manasseh also was on the north side of the river, and the outgoings of it were at the sea:

10 Southward it was Ephraim's, and northward it was Manasseh's, and the sea is his border; and they met together in Asher on the north, and in Issachar on the east.

11 And Manasseh had in Issachar and in Asher Beth-shean and her towns, and Ibleam and her towns, and the inhabitants of Dor and her towns, and the inhabitants of En-dor and her towns, and the inhabitants of Taanach and her towns, and the inhabitants of Megiddo and her towns, even three countries.

12 Yet the children of Manasseh could not drive out the inhabitants of those cities; but the Canaanites would dwell in that land.

13 Yet it came to pass, when the children of Israel were waxen strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute; but did not utterly drive them out.

14 And the children of Joseph spake unto Joshua, saying, Why hast thou given me but one lot and one portion to inherit, seeing I am a great people, forasmuch as the LORD hath blessed me hitherto?

15 And Joshua answered them, If thou be a great people, then get thee up to the wood country, and cut down for thyself there in the land of the Perizzites and of the

8 Num. 26. 29. 4 Num. 26. 33, and 27. 1, and 36. 2.

Gen. 41. 51, and 46. 20. 2 Gen, 50. 23. Num. 32. 39.
5 Or, brook of reeds.

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