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furnish the best analogous illustration which it is now possible to obtain. One fact, which gives the greater weight and probability to the identification, is the certainty that the zimb was known to the Israelites; for it is difficult to suppose that Isaiah (chap. vii. 18) could have had in view any other insect when he says, "The Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt." Bruce himself does not fail to cite this passage. The original word, there rendered "fly," is 11 (zebub); and, as he observes, "The Chaldee version is content with calling this animal simply zebub, which signifies the fly in general, as we express it in English. The Arabs call it zimb in their translation, which has the same general signification. The Ethiopic translation calls it tsaltsalya, which is the true name of this particular fly in Geez, and was the same in Hebrew."

The traveller gives a figure of the insect in question, magnified, for the sake of distinctness, to rather more than twice the natural size, and from this our wood-cut is copied. The following is the substance of the very interesting account which Bruce gives of the Abyssinian zimb"This insect has not been described by any naturalist. It is in size very little larger than a bee, of a thicker proportion, and has wings, which are broader than those of a bee, placed separate like those of a fly; they are of pure gauze, without colour or spot upon them. The head is large; the upper jaw or lip is sharp, and has at the end of it a strong pointed hair, of about a quarter of an inch long: the lower jaw has two of these pointed hairs; and this pencil of hairs, when joined together, makes a resistance to the finger nearly equal to that of a hog's bristle. Its legs are serrated in the inside, and the whole covered with brown hair or down... He has no sting, though he seems to me to be rather of the bee kind; but his motion is more rapid and sudden than that of the bee, and resembles that of the gad-fly in England. There is something peculiar in the sound or buzzing. It is a jarring noise, together with a humming, which induces me to believe it proceeds, at least in part,


from a vibration made with the three hairs at its snout." He thus speaks of the power of annoyance possessed by the insect here described: "As soon as this plague appears, and their buzzing is heard, all the cattle forsake their food, and run wildly about the plain till they die, worn out with fatigue, fright, and hunger. No remedy remains but to leave the black earth [where they breed], and hasten down to the sands of Atbara; and there they remain while the rains last, this cruel enemy never daring to pursue them further. Though his size is immense, as is his strength, and his body covered with a thick skin, defended with strong hair, yet even the camel is not able to sustain the violent punctures the fly makes with his pointed proboscis. He must lose no time in removing to the sands of Atbara; for when once attacked by this fly, his body, hair, and legs break out into large bosses, which swell, break, and putrefy, to the certain destruction of the creature. Even the elephant and rhinoceros, who, by reason of their enormous bulk, and the vast quantity of food and water which they daily need, cannot shift to desert and dry places, as the season may require, are obliged to roll themselves in mud and mire, which, when dry, coats them over like armour, and enables them to stand their ground against this winged assassin; yet I have seen some of these tubercles upon almost every elephant and rhinoceros that I have seen, and attribute them to this cause. All the inhabitants of the sea-coast of Melinda, down to Cape Gardefan, to Saba, and the south coast of the Red Sea, are obliged to put themselves in motion, and remove to the next sand, in the beginning of the rainy season, to prevent all their stock of cattle from being destroyed. This is not a partial emigration: the inhabitants of all the countries from the mountains of Abyssinia to the confluence of the Nile and Astaboras, northward, are, once a year, obliged to change their abode, and seek protection in the sands of Beja; nor is there any alternative, or means of avoiding this, though a hostile band was in the way, capable of spoiling them of half their substance, as was actually the case when we were at Sennaar."

If we compare this with the passage in Isaiah, above referred to, in which the Lord threatens to call for "the fly of Ethiopia" as an agent for the punishment of iniquity, and if this be really the insect to which the text refers, the probability seems to be, that the zimb was not then, any more than now, a native of Palestine; but that swarms of them were drawn from Ethiopia to execute the Divine will. The Canaanites would be the more terrified by the calamity from being unacquainted with its nature, and could not therefore regulate their flight by that knowledge of the insect's habits which the Abyssinians possess. It would not have availed them, however, if otherwise in their power, to have returned after the calamity had subsided, as the Israelites would of course, in the meantime, have taken possession of the country they had vacated.

"Drave them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites."-For "two kings," the Septuagint has "twelve kings." As there were such a multitude of kings in Canaan, the reading is not improbable, although unsupported by any other version; and, in fact, the promise in Exod. xxiii. 28, refers to the expulsion by the "hornet" of three of the seven nations, each of which seems to have contained several kingdoms. Dr. Boothroyd adopts the reading of the Septuagint. Dr. Hales, in his 'New Analysis of Chronology,' has an excellent article on the historical part of the present subject, the substance of which, with some additional matter, will be found in the sequel of this note, where, to his Latin quotations from Virgil, we have added Dryden's version of the same passages, for the use of the general reader.

It is commonly understood that the nations expelled by the hornet emigrated to other countries: and it seems very probable that some part of them were assisted in their emigration by the ships of their maritime neighbours, who retained possession of the coast. One of the expelled nations, according to the Jewish commentaries of R. Nachman, was "the nation of the Girgashites, who retired into Africa, fearing the power of God." In unison with this Jewish tradition is the remarkable statement of Procopius, in his work De Bello Vandalico.' He relates how the Phoenicians fled before the Hebrews into Africa, and spread themselves abroad as far as the pillars of Hercules, and thus proceeds: "There they still dwell, and speak the Phoenician language; and in Numidia, where now stands the city Tigisis, they have erected two columns, on which, in Phoenician characters, is the following inscription,- We are the Phoenicians who fled before the robber Joshua, the son of Nun.' This is probably the same story as that given by Suidas, whose copy of the inscription, however, uses the word " Canaanites" instead of "Phoenicians," and omits the "son of Nun." The cause of the difference is probably that Suidas was much better acquainted with the Hebrew Scriptures than Procopius, who, like other mere Greeks, does not distinguish any ancient people of Palestine but the Phoenicians. The

Hebrew reference, as above cited, to the Girgashites, seems to be confirmed by the sacred text, in which, although the
Girgashites are included in the general list of the seven devoted nations, they are omitted in the list of those to be
utterly destroyed (Deut. xx. 17); and also in that of the nations among whom, in neglect of the Divine decree, the
Israelites lived and intermarried (Judg. iii. 1-6).

Dr. Hales thinks that, of the fugitive tribes, some appear to have fled beyond sea to Italy, where they became the aborigines, or first colonists, as distinguished from the indigenæ, or natives, and quotes in evidence the following from that profound antiquary Virgil:

"Hæc nemora indigene Fauni Nymphæque tenebant,
Gensque virûm truncis et duro robore nata:

Queis neque mos, neque cultus erat, neque tangere tauros,
Aut componere opes norant, aut parcere parto:
Sed rami, atque asper victu venatus agebat.

Primus ab Etherio venit Saturnus Olympo
Arma Jovis fugiens, et regnis exul ademptis.
Is genus indocile, ac dispersum montibus altis,
Composuit, legesque dedit: Latiumque vocari
Maluit, his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris.-

Tum manus Ausonia, et gentes venere Sicanæ,
Sæpius et nomen posuit Saturnia tellus."-En. viii. 314-329.

"These woods were first the seat of sylvan pow'rs,
Of Nymphs and Fauns, and savage men who took
Their birth from trunks of trees and stubborn oak.
Nor laws they knew, nor manners, nor the care
Of lab'ring oxen, or the shining share,
Nor arts of gain, nor what they gain'd to spare.
Their exercise the chase: the running flood
Supply'd their thirst; the trees supply'd their food
Then Saturn came, who fled the pow'r of Jove,
Robb'd of his realms, and banish'd from above.
The men, dispers'd on hills, to towns he brought,
And laws ordain'd and civil customs taught;
And Latium call'd the land, where safe he lay.
The Ausonians then, and bold Sicanians came,

And Saturn's empire often chang'd the name."-Dryden.

"From this curious passage," says Dr. Hales, "we learn that the rude native settlers lived on fruits, in the savage or hunter state. These were primitive Javanians" (from Javan, the son of Japhet), "whose leader, Janus, gave name to the hill Janiculum, and was prior to Saturn, as we learn also from Virgil. Saturn was prior to the Ausonian and Sicilian colonists, and introduced civilization and laws in the agricultural state; and his name Saturn proves his oriental extraction, being evidently derived from (satar), latuit, which Virgil accurately expresses, and describes him as an exile, stript of his kingdom, flying from the east, from the arms of Jove; than which there cannot be a more suitable description of the expulsion of one of the kings of the Amorites before Joshua." Here Dr. Hales, of course, supposes his readers to be aware that Saturn was the great deity of the Phoenicians and Canaanites, and that what was done to his votaries is described as being done to himself. He proceeds:-" And these arms of Jove were the hornets sent by the God Israel, IAHOH, or by contraction IO, to which Virgil's description of the Asilus exactly corresponds:

"Plurimus-volitans (cui nomen Asilo
Romanum est; orTgov, Graii vertere vocantes)
Asper, acerba sonans, quo tota exterrita silvis
Diffugiunt armenta."-Georg. iii. 145.

"Of winged insects mighty swarms are seen:
This flying plague (to mark its quality)
Estros the Grecians call-Asilus, we-

A fierce, loud-buzzing breeze. Their stings draw blood,
And drive the cattle gadding through the wood.”—Dryden.

The Latin asilus, and the Greek arren, were probably only different pronunciations of the same Oriental term (Ha-tsirah), as this fly is called by Moses and Joshua; and the reader will not fail to observe how exactly Virgil's account of it coincides with that which Bruce gives of the zimb.

"That orgy was actually of Phoenician, not Latin descent," continues Dr. Hales, "appears from schylus, who, in his Prometheus, thus introduces Io, the daughter of Inachus, changed into a heifer, and persecuted by the hornet, through the jealousy of Juno:

Οιστρόπληξ δ'εγω

Θεση μαστιγι, γην προ γής ελαύνομαι.

"Alas, I, hornet-struck, By a divine scourge, from land to land am driven!"

And to this very passage Virgil alludes, after the foregoing description of the asilus :—

"Hoc quondam monstro, horribiles exercuit iras
Inachia, Juno, pestem meditata juvencæ.”

"This curse the jealous Juno did invent,

And first employ'd for Io's punishment."-DRYDEN.

29. "Joshua, the son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died.”—Jahn, in his 'Hebrew Commonwealth,' thus discrimi nates the public character of Joshua, and of his government:-" While Joshua lived, the people were obedient and prosperous. Though idolatry was secretly practised here and there" (see verse 23) "by individuals, it did not break


out openly, and the nation remained faithful to Jehovah their king" (see verse 31). To prevent future degeneracy, Joshua, in the latter part of his life, convened two general assemblies, and earnestly inculcated on the rulers fidelity to Jehovah, and a conscientious observance of his law. At the last assembly he caused a new election to be made of Jehovah for their king, and to be solemnly acknowledged by the people. He erected a permanent monument of this renewal of their homage, and recorded the whole transaction in the book of the law. Soon after, this hero died: a man who devoted his whole life to the establishment of the theocratic policy, and consequently to the preservation of the true religion-services that ought to endear his memory to all succeeding ages."

32. "And the bones of Joseph.... buried they in Shechem."-(See the note on Gen. 1. 25.)-The bones of Joseph had probably been buried at Shechem as soon as Ephraim obtained possession of its inheritance; but the circumstance is mentioned here as a supplementary piece of information, to which the account of Joshua's death and burial naturally gave occasion. The tomb of Joseph at Shechem seems to have been at all times pointed out to travellers. It is mentioned by Jerome, Benjamin of Tudela, Maundrell, and by most travellers who have visited the place. What is now indicated as the tomb of the patriarch is a small building in a recess between two mountains (Řae Wilson); it is a Turkish oratory, with a whitened dome, like the tomb of his mother Rachel, on the road between Jerusalem and Bethlehem (Richardson). Rachel's tomb has been described in the note to Gen. xxxv. 20.




1 The acts of Judah and Simeon. 4 Adoni-bezek justly requited. 8 Jerusalem taken. 10 Hebron taken. 11 Othniel hath Achsah to wife for taking of Debir. 16 The Kenites dwell in Judah. 17 Hormah, Gaza, Askelon and Ekron taken. 21 The acts of Benjamin. 22 Of the house of Joseph, who take Beth-el. 30 Of Zebulun. 31 Of Asher. 33 Of Naphtali. 34 Of Dan.

O W after the death of Joshua it came to pass, that the children of Israel asked the LORD, saying,

Who shall go up for us against the Canaanites first, to fight against them?

2 And the LORD said, Judah shall goup: behold, I have delivered the land into his hand.

3 And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my lot, that we may fight against the Canaanites; and I likewise will go with thee into thy lot. So Simeon went with him.

4 And Judah went up; and the LORD delivered the Canaanites and the Perizzites into their hand: and they slew of them in Bezek ten thousand men.

5 And they found Adoni-bezek in Bezek: and they fought against him, and they slew the Canaanites and the Perizzites.


6 But Adoni-bezek fled; and they pursued after him, and caught him, and cut off his thumbs and his great toes.

7 And Adoni-bezek said, Threescore and ten kings, having 'their thumbs and their great toes cut off, 'gathered their meat un

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der my table: as I have done, so God hath Jerusalem, and there he died. requited me. And they brought him to

8 Now the children of Judah had fought against Jerusalem, and had taken it, and smitten it with the edge of the sword, and set the city on fire.

9 And afterward the children of Judah went down to fight against the Canaanites, that dwelt in the mountain, and in the south, and in the 'valley.


10 And Judah went against the Canaanites that dwelt in Hebron: (now the name of Hebron before was "Kirjath-arba:) and they slew Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai.

Il And from thence he went against the inhabitants of Debir: and the name of Debir before was Kirjath-sepher:

12 And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjath-sepher, and taketh it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter to wife.

13 And Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother, took it: and he gave him Achsah his daughter to wife.

14 And it came to pass, when she came to him, that she moved him to ask of her father a field and she lighted from off her ass; and Caleb said unto her, What wilt thou?

15 And she said unto him, Give me a blessing for thou hast given me a south land; give me also springs of water. And Caleb gave her the upper springs and the nether springs.

16 And the children of the Kenite, Moses' father in law, went up out of the city of palm trees with the children of Judah into the wilderness of Judah, which lieth in the south of Arad; and they went and dwelt among the people.

17 And Judah went with Simeon his brother, and they slew the Canaanites that inhabited Zephath, and utterly destroyed it. And the name of the city was called 'Hormah.

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18 Also Judah took Gaza with the coast thereof, and Askelon with the coast thereof, and Ekron with the coast thereof.

| bitants of Ibleam and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Megiddo and her towns: but the Canaanites would dwell in that land.

19 And the LORD was with Judah; and The drave out the inhabitants of the mountain; but could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had chariots of iron. 20 And they gave Hebron unto Caleb, as Moses said: and he expelled thence the three sons of Anak.

21 And the children of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusalem; but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto this day.

22 ¶ And the house of Joseph, they also went up against Beth-el: and the LORD was with them.

23 And the house of Joseph sent to descry Beth-el. (Now the name of the city before was 'Luz.)

24 And the spies saw a man come forth out of the city, and they said unto him, Shew us, we pray thee, the entrance into the city, and we will shew thee mercy.

25 And when he shewed them the entrance into the city, they smote the city with the edge of the sword; but they let go the man and all his family.

26 And the man went into the land of the Hittites, and built a city, and called the name thereof Luz: which is the name thereof unto this day.

27¶"Neither did Manasseh drive out the inhabitants of Beth-shean and her towns, nor Taanach and her towns, nor the inha bitants of Dor and her towns, nor the inha

7 Or, he possessed the mountain.

8 Num. 14. 24. 12 Josh. 16. 10.

28 And it came to pass, when Israel was strong, that they put the Canaanites to tribute, and did not utterly drive them out.

29¶Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them. 30 Neither did Zebulun drive out the inhabitants of Kitron, nor the inhabitants of Nahalol; but the Canaanites dwelt among them, and became tributaries.

31 Neither did Asher drive out the inhabitants of Accho, nor the inhabitants of Zidon, nor of Ahlab, nor of Achzib, nor of Helbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob:

32 But the Asherites dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land: for they did not drive them out.

33 Neither did Naphtali drive out the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh, nor the inhabitants of Beth-anath; but he dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land: nevertheless the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh and of Beth-anath became tributaries unto them.

34 And the Amorites forced the children of Dan into the mountain: for they would not suffer them to come down to the valley:

35 But the Amorites would dwell in mount Heres in Aijalon, and in Shaalbim : yet the hand of the house of Joseph "prevailed, so that they became tributaries.

36 And the coast of the Amorites was from the going up to Akrabbim, from the rock, and upward.

Josh. 14. 13, and 15. 13.

Geu. 28. 19. 10 Josh. 2. 14. 11 Josh. 17. 11, 12. 13 Heb, was heavy. 14 Or, Maaleh-akralbim.

JUDGES. The name of this book is taken from the title of the functionaries whose actions and administration it principally relates. This name is, shophetim, plural of 5, shophet, a judge. This word designates the ordinary magistrates, properly called judges; and is here also applied to the chief rulers, perhaps because ruling and judging are so intimately connected in the east, that sitting in judgment is one of the principal employments of an Oriental monarch (see Gesenius in ). It is remarkable that the Carthaginians, who were descended from the Tyrians, and spoke Hebrew, called their chief magistrates by the same name: but the Latins, who had no such sh, as the Hebrews and Carthaginians had, and as we and the Germans have, wrote the word with a sharp s, and, adding a Latin termination, denominated them Suffetes. These functionaries are compared to the Roman consuls, and appear in office as well as name, to have borne considerable resemblance to the Hebrew shophetim, "judges." For some observations on the Hebrew "judges," and the nature of their administration, see the note on chap. ii. 16.

The book is easily divisible into two parts; one, ending with chap. xvi., contains the history of the Judges, from Othniel to Samson; and the other, which occupies the rest of the book, forms a sort of appendix, relating particular transactions, which, not to interrupt the regular history, the author seems to have reserved for the end. If these transactions had been placed in order of time, we should probably have found them in a much earlier portion of the work, as the incidents related seem to have occurred not long after the death of Joshua.

The author of the book is unknown. Some ascribe it to Samuel, some to Hezekiah, and others to Ezra. The reason which has principally influenced the last determination of the authorship is found in chap. xviii. 30:-" He and his son were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land." But this may have referred to the captivity of the ark among the Philistines, or to some particular captivity of the tribe of Dan, or rather of that part of the tribe settled in the north; or the reference may have been to both circumstances. It is also possible that the clause, "until the day of the captivity of the land," may actually have been added after the captivity. That the book itself was not then written is evident from the absence of Chaldee words, which so often occur in the books which we know to have been posterior to that event. Most of the Jewish and Christian commentators assign the authorship to Samuel; probably because internal evidence places it pretty clearly about his time, and in his time he is the most

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