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Shaabàn, A. H. 197 (April, A. D. 813). He composed a number of wellknown works on jurisprudence, and was also a Traditionist. Yûnus Ibn Abd al-Aala (5), one of the imâm as-Shafi's disciples, relates as follows: The khalif wrote to Ibn Wahb, desiring him to accept the place of kâdi at Old Cairo, on which he concealed himself (6) and avoided stirring from home; but one of his neighbours, Asad (7) Ibn Saad, happening to look out, and seeing him making his ablutions in the court-yard of his house, called to him and said:

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Why dost thou not go forth to the people and judge between them according "to the book of God and the sunna of the Prophet?"-On this, Ibn Wahb looked up and replied: "Is that the utmost extent of thy wisdom? dost thou not "know that the learned shall be raised to life with the prophets, and the kådis "with the princes?" (8)-Ibn Wahb was a man of learning and holiness, living in the fear of Almighty God. His death happened in the following manner: A student was reading to him out of his own Jâmî, or collection of Traditions, an account of the terrible signs which are to precede the day of judgment, when something like a swoon came over him, and he was carried to his house, he remained in that state till he expired. Ibn Yunus al-Misri says in his History (of Egypt) that Ibn Wahb was a mawla to Yazid Ibn Rommâna, who was himself a mawla to Abu Abd ar-Rahmân Yazid Ibn Unais; the statement first given is made by Ibn Abd al-Barr, and God best knoweth which is the truth. The following anecdote is related by Abd Allah Ibn Wahb: "When Haiyat Ibn Shu"raih (9) received his yearly salary of sixty dinars, he used to distribute it all "in alms before he went home, but on entering into his house, he would find "this money again under his mattress. Haiyat had a cousin who, on learning "the circumstance, took his salary also and gave it in alms; he then sought it "under his mattress, but found nothing; and Haiyat, to whom he complained of "his disappointment, said to him: 'I gave to the Lord with full confidence, "but you gave to him merely to make a trial of his goodness.'"

(1) See vol. I. page 672.

(2) The life of this celebrated disciple of Mâlik will be found in this volume.

(3) Some mistakes disfigure this notice in the printed Arabic text: here

and in the first line ,عند ملك

زید
یزید.

In the third line the word

has been put for for must be suppressed. A too scrupulous adherence to his manuscripts led the editor into these faults and some others, which shall be noticed when met with.

(4) I have not been able to discover any account of this place in al-Makrîzi's Khitat.

(5) His life is given by Ibn Khallikân.

(6) The printed text has ↳ and the autograph. The meaning of both words is the same.

(7) In place of Asad the autograph seems to have Shadin

(8) See an observation on this subject in vol. I. p. 235, note (5).

شدین

(9) There were two Traditionists of this name, both of whom drew their origin from Hadramût. The first, who was probably the same person who is mentioned here, bore the surname of Abu Zaraa äsj and was a native of Egypt. He taught the Traditions on the authority of Ibn al-Mubarak, Ibn Wahb, and other doctors. He died A. H. 157 (A. D. 773-4), during the khalifat of Abu Jaafar al-Mansûr. The other Haiyat Ibn Shuraih was surnamed Abu 'l-Abbâs and was a native of Emessa. His authority is cited by al-Bukhâri in that chapter of his work which treats of the prayer to be said in time of danger.-(Tab. al-Muhad.)

ABD ALLAH IBN LAHIA.

Abu Abd ar-Rahman Abd Allah Ibn Lahia Ibn Okba Ibn Lahia al-Hadrami al-Ghâfiki (member of the tribe of Ghafik) (1), a native of Egypt, was a narrator of Traditions, historical relations, and pieces in prose and verse, a great quantity of which he transmitted down. Muhammad Ibn Saad states that he was a man of weak memory, and that those who received from him oral information when he first began to give lessons, had most probably acquired more correct versions of the pieces which he taught them, than those who studied under him in the latter period of his life. It sometimes happened that his pupils read to him (out of their note-books) passages which he had never taught them (2), and he would make no observation on the subject; being afterwards told of the circumstance, he would reply: "It is not my fault; they come to me with a book and read it "in my presence; they then go away. Had they asked me if that was what I taught them, I should have told them that it was not." In the beginning of the year 155 (A.D. 772), he was appointed kâdi of Old Cairo by Abu Jaafar alMansûr, and was the first person raised to the place of kâdi in that city by the 551 direct nomination of the khalif. He was removed from office in the month of the first Rabì, A. H. 164. He was also the first kâdi who made it his duty to be present when watch was kept for the first appearance of the new moon in the month of Ramadân (3), and this custom is still continued to the present time (4). Ibn al-Farrà mentions him in his Annals under the year 152: "In this

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year," says he, "died the kâdi Abû Khuzaima Ibrahim Ibn Yazid al-Himyari (descended from Himyar) (5); he was succeeded by Abd Allah Ibn Lahia al"Hadrami. Ibn Khudaij (Hudaij), who was in Irak at that time, relates in the fol،، lowing terms the cause of his nomination : ، I went to see Abû Jaafar al-Mansûr, ،، ، who said to me : Ibn Khudaij ! there is a man in your city who has just died ،،، and left the people in affliction for his loss.Commander of the faithful ! ،، ، I replied, it must be Ibn Khuzaima ! It is, said he; and whom do you ، ، think we should put in his place ? I answered, Commander of the faith""ful! I suppose Ibn Maadan al-Yahsubi.-It is not fit that a kâdi should be ،، ، deaf, replied al-Mansûr, and he is.It is then Ibn Lahia, said I.The very man, answered the khalif, although his memory be a little weak. He then gave orders for his appointment and settled on him thirty dinars a month.' "He was the first kâdi who received a salary, and the first also who was nomi"nated directly by the khalif; before that, the kâdi was chosen by the go

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vernor of the city." (6)-Ibn Lahîa died at Old Cairo on Sunday, the 15th of the first Rabi, A. H. 174 (August, A. D. 790),—or by another account in 170, -aged eighty-one years. Abi Masa al-Anazi (7) says in his History, that alLaith Ibn Saad was one or two years older than Ibn Lahia. Ibn Yunus also mentions him in his History, in these terms: "Abd Allah Ibn Lahîa Ibn Okba “Ibn Furân Ibn Rabia belonged to the family of Odùl, one of the first in ،، Hadramaut. His surname was Abu Abd ar-Rahman. Traditions were given Abû 66 on his authority by Amr Ibn al-Harith (8), al-Laith Ibn Saad, Othman Ibn “al-Hakam al-Judàmi, and Ibn al-Mubârak (9). He then gives the date of his death and adds: "He was born A. H. 97 (A. D. 715-6);" after which, he mentions the following words, and traces them down, through an uninterrupted series of narrators, from Ibn Lahia to himself: "On going to see Yazid "Ibn Abi Habib (10), he said to me: 'I think I see you seated on the cushion,' "meaning the one on which the kâdi sits.'" And so it came to pass, for Ibn Lahia did not die before he filled the place of a kàdi. — Hadrami means belonging to Hadramaut, which is a country in the most distant part of Yemen.

(1) According to the author of the Ansab, Ghalik was the son of as-Shahid Ibn Alkama Ibn Akk, a descendant from Kahlân.

(2) Students took notes of the master's lessons and read them to him the next day.

(3) In those countries where the Sunnite doctrines are professed, the fast of Ramadan is not commenced till the appearance of the new moon has been regularly certified.

(4) Ibn Khallikân might have observed that it was discontinued under the Fatimite dynasty and had been re-established by Salâh ad-din.

(5) Abû Khuzaima Ibrahim Ibn Yazid, a native of Old Cairo, was appointed kâdi of that city by Yazid Ibn Hâtim, A.H. 144 (A.D. 761-2). He continued to fill this place till his death, which took place A.H. 154 (A. D. 770-1). He was a man of great piety and lived by making halters, of which he sold two every day; with the price of one he supported himself, and he gave the price of the other to his brethren in Alexandria.—(History of the kadis of Cairo, by Sibt Ibn Hujr, MS. No. 691.)

(6) Sibt Ibn Hujr, in his Lives of the Kadis, mentions Ibn Lahia and relates the anecdote given here. Ibn Khudaij, or, as he writes the name, Abd Allah Ibn Abd ar-Rahmân Ibn Hudaij, was the son of a kâdi of Cairo who had been nominated A. H. 86 and died A. H. 94 (A. D. 712-3).

(7) In the Arabic text this name is incorrectly printed.

(8) Abû Omaiya Amr Ibn al-Hârith Ibn Yakub, a native of Egypt and surnamed al-Muwaddib (the preceptor), was allied by adoption to the Ansârs. He learned the Traditions from Katâda and other great masters, and among his own pupils he had Ibn Wahb. His death took place between A. H. 447 (A. D. 764) and 149. He was then upwards of fifty.—(Tab. al-Muhad.)

(9) The life of Ibn al-Mubârak is given in this volume, page 12.

(10) Abû Rajâ Yazîd Ibn Abi Habib Suwaid, a member by adoption of the tribe of Koraish and a native of Egypt, studied, the Traditions under a number of eminent masters and had al-Laith Ibn Saad among his own pupils. He died A. H. 128 (A.D. 745), aged between seventy-five and eighty years.—(Tab. al-Muhaddithîn.)

AL-KAANABI.

Abu Abd ar-Rahman Abd Allah Ibn Maslama Ibn Kaanab al-Hârithi, surnamed al-Kaanabi, was a native of Medina. He received instructions in jurisprudence and the Traditions from the imâm Mâlik, and was one of his most talented, learned (1), and virtuous disciples. He knew by heart his master's work, the Muwatta, and taught it to his own pupils from memory; for such was the manner in which this work was transmitted down by a number of Mâlik's disciples: some diversity exists in the text as thus related by each; but the most perfect copy of it is that given viva voce by Yahya Ibn Yahya, as shall be again remarked in his life. Al-Kaanabi was surnamed ar-Râhib (the monk) for his devotion and his virtue. Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Haitham related that his grandfather had said to him, in speaking of al-Kaanabi: "When we went to see him, he would "come out to us with the face of one who had been looking down on (the ter

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rors of hell; may God preserve us from it!" He died at Basra, the city where he resided, on Friday the 6th of Muharram, A. H. 221 (January, A. D. 836). Ibn Bashkuwȧl mentions, in his list of those who transmitted orally 552 the Muwatta from Malik to their own pupils, that al-Kaanabi died at Mekka.—The surname of Kaanabi is derived from the name of his grandfather.

(1) The word ä____ signifies esteemed as a sure authority for the exactness of the Traditions which he transmits. It is here rendered by learned.

IBN KATHIR THE KORAN-READER.

Abû Mabad (1) Abd Allah Ibn Kathir, one of the seven great masters in the science of koran-reading, died at Mekka, A. H. 120 (A. D. 737-8). This is the only information I can find respecting him.-I have since discovered that he is spoken of in the Kitâb al-Iknd (2), a work treating of the different readings of the Koran. The author of that book says: "Ibn Kathir al-Makki (native of

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Mekka) ad-Dâri (belonging to the tribe of ad-Dâr), which is a branch of that of "Lakhm and produced Tamim ad-Dâri (3); some say however that he took "this surname from Dârain (4), because he was a druggist and perfumer, and "that is the place where perfumes are procured; this last derivation is the true "one. They say that he was a mawla to Amr Ibn Alkama al-Kinâni, and "that he drew his origin from one of those Persians whom Chosroes had sent by sea to Yemen, when he expelled the Abyssinians from that country (5). "He dyed his beard with hinna (6) and was kâdi of the community at Mekka (7). "In the classification of the Tâbîs, he was placed in the second division (8). He "was advanced in years, his hair was white, his beard long, his body large, his complexion tawny, and his eyes dark blue; his grey hair was dyed with hinna "or with yellow dye (sufra), and in his conduct he displayed a dignified gravity. "He was born at Mekka, A. H. 45 (A. D. 665-6), and he died in that city, A. H. "120." This writer gives here the same date for his death as that mentioned above, and it seems a point on which all the readers agree; but, in my opinion, it cannot be exact, for Abd Allah Ibn Idris al-Audi, who learned the readings of the Koran under Ibn Kathir, was born A.H. 115; and how could he have done

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