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so, if his master had only lived till A.H. 120? This error originated with Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid, who was deceived by the fact that Abd Allah Ibn Kathir of the tribe of Koraish, but a different person from the koran-reader (9), died in that year; but God knows best! (10) The system of reading followed by Ibn Kathir was transmitted down orally by two persons, Kunbul and al-Bazzi; the former, whose real name was Muhammad Ibn Abd ar-Rahmân Ibn Muhammad Ibn Khalid Ibn Said Ibn Jurja al-Makki al-Makhzûmi died A. H. 291 (A.D. 903-4), aged ninety-six years; the latter, who bore the name of Abû 'l-Husain Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Kasim Ibn Nâfì Ibn Abi 'l-Bazza Bashshar al-Fârii (11), died A. H. 270 (A.D. 883-4), aged eighty.

(1) The autograph has Abû Sald, but the Nujûm writes the name Abû Mabad as here, and the author of the Tabakåt al-Kurrâ states expressly that such was his real surname.

(2) Abû Jaafar Ahmad Ibn Abi 'l-Hasan Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Bâdish, a descendant from the Ansårs and a celebrated teacher of the koranic readings, was a native of Granada, and held the office of public preacher in that city. His work, the Iknd fi 'l-Kiraât (the sufficient help, treating of the koranic readings), is esteemed one of the best treatises on the subject. He was likewise well acquainted with the Traditions. Died A.H. 542 (A.D. 1147-8).—(Tab. al-Kurrâ, fol. 162 verso.)

(3) Abu Rukaiya Tamim Ibn Aùs ad-Dâri was originally a Christian, but embraced Islamism in the ninth year of the Hijra and became one of Muhammad's Companions. He was so assiduous in the practice of devotion, that he obtained the appellation of Râhib al-Omma (the monk of the people). He possessed a talent for relating stories or histories, and he continued that practice with the permission of the Prophet.-(Majmå 'l-Ahbab, MS. fonds St. Germain, No. 131; Siar as-Salaf, ibid. No. 133.)-See d'Herbelot's Bib. Orient. TAMIM. (4) According to al-Idrîsi, Dârain is situated in the province of Fars; and the author of the Marâsid calls it a sea-port where musk was imported from India.

(3) According to Abû 'l-Fedâ, this occurred in the reign of Anushirwân; Saif Ibn Zi-Yazan then recovered the throne of his ancestors.

(6) See vol. I. page 46, note (3).

(7) Kadi of the community; this was a title given to the chief kadi (kādi 'l Kudat), more particularly in Africa and Spain. See Notices et Extraits, tom. XII. page 578.

(8) The Tabis were classed by the length of time which they had known and frequented the companions of Muhammad.

(9) This Ibn Kathir is cited in the Sahih as an authority for one of the Traditions given in that work. His grandfather's name was al-Muttalib.-(Tab. al-Kurrâ.)

(10) On this subject, ad-Dahabi makes the following observations in his Tabakåt al-Kurrâ: “Abû Jaafar Ibn “al-Bâdish al-Andalusi is grossly mistaken in saying that Abd Allah Ibn Idrîs al-Audi studied koran-reading under Ibn Kathir; a statement on which an opinion has been founded that Ibn Kathir died later than A. H. "120, which is another mistake."-(MS. No. 742, fol. 17 verso.)

(11) Al-Bazzi was a mawla to the tribe of Makhzům, and a muwazzin in the great mosque of Mekka. AdDahabi has a long article on him in the Tabakåt al-Kurrå.

IBN KUTAIBA.

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Muslim Ibn Kutaiba ad-Dinawari (native of Dinawar),—some say al-Marwazi (native of Maru),—the author of the Kitab al-Maarif (1) and the Adab al-Kâtib (2), was a grammarian and a philologer of eminent talent and noted for the correctness of his information. He resided at Baghdad and taught the Traditions in that city on the authority of Ishak Ibn Râhwaih (3), Abû Ishak Ibrahîm az-Ziàdi (4), Abû Hàtim as-Sijistàni (5), and other masters of the same period; his own authority was cited for Traditions by his son Ahmad and by Ibn Durustûya (6). Besides the works just mentioned, he composed a number of others equally instructive, such as his Explanation of the rare expressions occurring in the Koran, Explanation of the rare expressions occurring in the Traditions, the Oyûn al-Akhbar (7), the Mushkil al-Korân (obscurities of the Koran), the Mushkil al-Hadith (obscurities of the Traditions), the Tabakât as-Shuard (notices on the poets), the Kitâb al-Ashriba (treatise on the different sorts of drinks), the Islah al-Ghalat (faults corrected) (8), the Kitâb atTafkih (the instructor) (9), the Kitab al-Khail (treatise on horses), the seven Readings of the Koran analysed grammatically, a work on the Anwa (10), the Kitâb alMasail, etc. (book of questions and answers), the Kitâb al-Maisir wa 'l-Kidâh (on games of chance) (11). These books he continued to explain to his pupils at Baghdad till his death. His father was, it is said, a native of Marw, but he himself was born at Baghdad, or, according to some, at Kûfa; having acted for some time in the capacity of a kâdi at Dinawar, he received the surname of Dinawari. His birth took place A. H. 213 (A. D. 828-9), and his death occur555 red in the month of Zû 'l-Kaada, A. H. 270 (May, A. D. 884); but this point is not well established, as some say that he died in A. H. 274, others in A.H. 296, on the first of Rajab, or on the 15th of that month (April, A. H. 909), and this last opinion is nearest to the truth. His death happened quite suddenly ; he uttered a cry loud enough to be heard at a great distance, and then, falling into a state of insensibility, he expired. Another account says: He had eaten some harîsa (a sort of pottage so called) which brought on an inflammation (12); he then uttered a loud cry and fell into a state of insensibility which lasted till the hour of noon; he was then agitated convulsively for some time, after which

he remained quiet, and he continued to utter the profession of faith till daybreak the next morning, when he expired. His son Abû Jaafar Ahmad Ibn Abd Allah was a doctor of the law, and taught also all the works of his father, by whom he had himself been instructed in them. He filled the place of kâdi in Old Cairo, which city he first entered on the 18th of the latter Jumâda, A. H. 324; he died there in the exercise of his functions, A. H. 322, in the month of the first Rabi (February-March, A. D. 934): he was born at Baghdad.-It is said that most of the learned men (of that time) called the Adab al-Kâtib a preface without a book, and the Islâh al-Mantik (Ibn as-Sikkit's work) a book without a preface; but this observation betrays a certain degree of prejudice against Ibn Kutaiba, for his Adab al-Katib contains an abundance of information disposed under regular heads; and I am convinced that their only motive for saying so was, because its preface is very long, whilst the Islâh has none at all. It is reported that he composed this work for Abû 'l-Hasan Obaid Allah Ibn Yahya Ibn Khâkân (13), the vizir of the Abbaside khalif al-Motamid, son of al-Mutawakkil. It has been commented by Abû Muhammad (Abd Allah) Ibn as-Sid al-Batalyausi, whose life will be found farther on. This learned scholar has explained therein the difficulties of the Adab al-Katib in the fullest manner, and pointed out the mistakes into which the author has fallen. His treatise bears the title of al-Iktidûb fi sharh Adab al-Kuttâb (Extemporizing, being a commentary on the Guide for Katibs), and is a proof of the extensive information possessed by its author. -Kutaiba is the diminutive of kitba, the singular form of the word aktab, which signifies entrails. It is a common noun, but came to be used as a proper name. From it is formed the relative adjective Kutabi.—Dînawari (or Dainawari, as it is pronounced by as-Samàni, but incorrectly) means belonging to Dinawar, a town in Persian Irak near Kirmîsîn, which has produced a great number of eminent

men.

(1) The Kitab al-Madrif, or, as it might be denominated, the Book of Facts, is a most useful work. Eichhorn extracted from it the genealogies of the Arabs published in his Monumenta historiæ Arabum. It contains besides a great number of short biographical notices on the early Moslims, etc.

(2) The Adab al-Katib, or Writer's Guide, is a short work on orthography, philology, synonyms, and gramThe preface is remarkable for its length.

mar.

(3) See vol. I. page 180.

(4) Abu Ishak az-Ziâdi descended from Ziad Ibn Abth by the following line: His father Sofyan was son to Sulaiman Ibn Abi Bakr Ibn Abd ar-Rahmân Ibn Ziâd Ibn Abih.

(5) See vol. I. page 603.

(6) The life of Ibn Durustûya comes immediately after this.

(7) The Oyun al-Akhbâr (sources of information) forms a large volume in ten books, each of which treats of

a different subject. One is on the sultan, another on knowledge, a third on food, a fourth on women, etc.

(8) In this work he points out the mistakes into which Abu Obaida had fallen.

(9) The subject of this work is not specified by Hajji Khalifa.

(10) The anwa are the mansions of the moon in the Zodiac. The ancient Arabs imagined that they had great influence on the weather.

(11) See Pocock's Specimen, p. 315.

(12) This signification of the word is not given in the dictionaries, but it was known to M. de Sacy. See his edition of Abdallatif, page 16.

(13) Obaid Allah Ibn Khâkân was vizir to al-Mutawakkil and al-Motamid, in whose reign he died. He possessed great abilities as an administrator of public affairs, and by his generous character he gained the favour of the public and the military. He had refused to accept the vizirat a second time, but the troops insisted so strongly on his returning to office, that he was obliged to consent.-(See Fakhr ad-din Ibn Tabâtabâ's ad-Dual al-Islamiya, MS. No. 895. fol. 221, 232.)

IBN DURUSTUYA.

Abu Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Jaafar Ibn Durustûya Ibn al-Marzubân alFàrisi al-Fasawi (native of Fasa in the province of Fars) was a grammarian of great learning and talent. He studied philology at Baghdad under al-Mubarrad, Ibn Kutaiba (him whose life has been just given) and other masters; and a number of eminent men, such as ad-Dàrakutni and others, received lessons from him on the same subject. He was born A.H. 258 (A.D. 871-2), and died at Baghdad on Monday, the 20th of Safar,—some say the 23rd,—A. H. 347 (May, A.D. 958). His father was an eminent Traditionist. According to as-Samâni, the word

is pronounced Durustûya, but Ibn Makula says in his Kitâb al-Aâmâl that Darastawaih is the true pronunciation. As for the denominations Fârisi and Fasawi, we have already explained them in the life of al-Basȧsiri (vol.I. page 173). -Ibn Durustûya's works are the height of excellence and exactness; they consist in a commentary on al-Jarmi's work (the Farkh) (1); the Irshad (direction), a treatise on grammar; a treatise on the alphabet; a commentary on the philological work entitled al-Fasîh (2); an answer to al-Mufaddal ad-Dubbi's refutation of al-Khalil (Ibn Ahmad); the Hidâya (direction) (3); a treatise on the words which end in a long or a short elif; an explanation of the rare expressions occurring in

the Traditions; a treatise on the ideas and allusions usually met with in poetry; the Kitâb al-Haiyi wa 'l-Maiyit (4), the Kitâb at-Tawassut, or arbiter between alAkhfash and Thaalab relative to their explanations of the Koran; the History of Koss Ibn Saida (5); a treatise on those nouns which have each opposite significa- 354 tions; the History of the Grammarians; and a refutation of al-Farrâ's doctrines in rhetoric. He commenced also a number of other works, but did not finish them.

(1) See vol. I. page 629.

(2) The Fasih or correct speaker is, as its title implies, a philological work. It is not exactly known who was the author of it; some attribute it to Ibn as-Sikkit, and others to Abû 'l-Abbâs Thaalab. It has been elucidated by a great number of commentators.

(3) Hajji Khalifa does not specify the subject of this work.

(4) The Haiyi wa 'l-Maiyit (living and dead) is mentioned by Hajji Khalifa, but without any remark. (5) Koss Ibn Saida Ibn Amr al-Ibâdi (the Nestorian Christian) was bishop of Najrån in Yemen and celebrated for his eloquence. Muhammad met him at Okâz and heard him preach, some time previously to the promulgation of Islamism. Al-Masûdi speaks of him in the Murûj; see Dr. Sprenger's translation of that work, vol. I. page 137.

AL-KAABI.

Abû 'l-Kasim Abd Allah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mahmûd al-Kaabi al-Balkhi, a man celebrated for his learning, was the author of that sect of the Motazilites, the members of which are called Kaabites. He taught some doctrines peculiar to himself; for instance, that Almighty God has not the faculty of intention, and that all his acts happen without his having any intention or will to produce them. He was one of the great masters in scholastic theology, and held some eclectic opinions in this science. His death took place on the first of Shaabân, A. H. 317 (September, A. D. 929).- Kaabi means belonging to the tribe of Kaab.-Balkhi signifies belonging to Balkh, one of the great cities of Khorasan.

VOL. II.

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