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(2) Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn al-Husain al-Mazrafi, a teacher of the koranic readings and a calculator of the division of inheritances (al-Faradi), inhabited Mazrafa, a village lying between Baghdad and Okbara. He was born at Baghdad, A. H. 439 (A. D. 1047-8), and died praying, A. H. 527 (A. D. 1132).—(Tab. al-Kurrâ, fol. 145.)

(3) Saad Ibn Yahya Ibn Abi 'l-Khair al-Imrâni, a native of Yemen and the author of the Bayan, or elucidation of the secondary points of the law, was a doctor of the sect of as-Shâfî, and held a high reputation for his knowledge of the law, dogmatic and scholastic theology, and the science of grammar. None possessed a better acquaintance than he with the works of Abû Ishak as-Shîrâzi, and he was surpassed by none in piety and devotion. Students came from all countries to study under him; but it is said that he sometimes combined with the Shafite doctrines certain principles borrowed from the school of Irak, the great imâm of which was Abu Hanifa. He was born A. H. 489 (A. D. 1096), and died A. H 558 (A. D. 1162-3). The following works were composed by him: the Bayan, in ten volumes; the Zawaid, or additions to Abû Ishak as-Shirâzi's Muhaddab, in two volumes; the Kitab as-Sawal, questions on the obscure points of the Muhaddab; an abridged collection of fatwas; an abridgment of al-Ghazzâli's Ihya olûm ad-dîn; the Intisar, or aid, a refutation of the Kadarites. He composed the Bayan in somewhat less than four years and the Zawdid in about five.- (Tab. as-Shaf.)-In the autograph MS. of Ibn Khallikân, his surname is given as Abû 'l-Husain; in the Tabakat as-Shafiyin, as Abû 'l-Khair; and in the Tabakåt al-Fokahd, as Abû 'l-Hasan, which is also that found in the other manuscripts of Ibn Khallikân's work.

IBN ASAAD AL-MAUSILI.

Abu l-Faraj Abd Allah Ibn Asaad Ibn Ali Ibn Isa, generally known by the appellation of Ibn ad-Dahhân al-Mausili (son of the Mosul oil-merchant), entitled also al-Himsi (native of Emessa) and surnamed al-Muhaddab (1), was a jurisconsult of great abilities, a learned scholar and a fine poet. His verses are remarkable for the elegance of their turn and the beauty of their thoughts. Poetry became his ruling passion, and it was to it that he owed his reputation. His poetical works are all of great merit and form a small volume. Mosul was his native place, but poverty forced him to take the resolution of going to Egypt, that he might pay his court to as-Sâlih Ibn Ruzzîk, the lord of that country (see his life, vol. I. page 657). Obliged, by the insufficiency of his means, to leave his wife behind him, he addressed the following lines to the sharif Diâ ad-din Abû Abd Allah Zaid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Obaid Allah al-Husaini, the nakib or chief of the sharifs at Mosul :

An afflicted female, bathed in tears for my departure, hoped to detain me by declaring my project the result of folly. Her entreaties were urgent, and when she saw me deaf to her prayers, the tears which fell from her eyes wounded me to the heart. She perceived the camels already loaded,-and the moment of separation had united the lamenters and those for whom they were lamenting,-when she said: "Who will save me from starva"tion in thy absence?"-"God," I replied, "and thy patron Ibn Obaid Allah. Fear "not for want of sustenance; there is one whose beneficence is ample, like the showers "of the Pleiades; him I have asked to shed abundance upon thy place of dwelling."

When the sharif read these verses, he immediately undertook to provide for the poet's wife, and he furnished her with every thing she required as long as her husband was absent. As for Ibn Asaad, he went to Egypt and recited to as-Salih Ibn Ruzzik the poem composed in his praise, and rhyming in K, of which some verses have been already given (vol. I. page 658). He afterwards underwent various vicissitudes of fortune and became at length a professor at Hims (Emessa), where he fixed his residence. It was for this reason that he re- 361 ceived the surname of al-Himsi. The katib Imâd ad-din speaks of him in the Kharida: "When I was in Irak," says he, "my constant desire was to meet him, "for I had read his admired kasidas and was struck with the beauty of his ideas; "his poem rhyming in K had already circulated throughout all the literary world, and was itself a written proof that none of his contemporaries had at“tained to such a degree of excellence as he." After this eulogium he continues: "A slight lisp only served to display the perfection of his style, and the "very impediment in his speech only showed off better his command of lan"guage." Farther on he says: "When the sultan Salâh ad-dîn arrived at "Emessa and encamped outside the city, this Abû 'l-Faraj came out to us, and "I presented him to the sultan, saying: 'This is the man who said in his poem "on Ibn Ruzzik:

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'What! shall I praise the Turks in hopes of their bounty? Why! the Turks have always left poetry in neglect.'

"On this the sultan made him a present, and observed at the same time that ❝he did so in order to prevent him at least from saying that he was neglected." The poet then celebrated the praises of the sultan in a kasida of which each verse ends in the letter ain; it is in this poem that we find the following passage:

I shall say to her (2) whom religious scruples prevented from replying to my salutation: "Why then didst thou shed my heart's blood without feeling compunction? Thy pro

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"mise was to meet me in the coming year; but think not that I shall survive till thy "return. Miracle of beauty! thou in whose face alone the Creator employed his utmost "care! it could not have harmed thee hadst thou given me, on the day of our separa"tion, a sign of recognition with thy eye or with thy hand. Be assured, however, that I "love thee with devotion; so do with me as thou pleasest."

The katib mentions also that Ibn Asaad recited to him the following lines, and stated that the thought which they contained was perfectly original and had never before been expressed:

His letters are the destruction of squadrons; and when they go forth, I know not which is most effectual,-their lines or an army. The sand adhering to the writing had not been appropriate, did earth not adhere to the soldiers' legs when marching.

These two verses belong to a kasida, and the author has displayed in them great originality. But a certain poet has said, in comparing the pen to an army (3):

A family who, when they seize their pens in anger and dip them in the ink of fate, inflict with them on their enemies greater harm than with their swords.

I may observe that the idea expressed in Ibn Asaad's first verse resembles that which is contained in the following lines, composed by Abû Tammâm, in praise of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik az-Zaiyât, al-Motasim's vizir :

Prince of the faithful! you have roused Muhammad, and in your hand he is a lance and a sword. You no sooner direct his thoughts towards a rebel, than you have directed an army against that foe.

I afterwards discovered an idea similar to that contained in Ibn Asaad's second verse; it is to be found in a kasîda composed by at-Togrâi (whose life has been given, vol. I. page 462), in honour of Nizam al-Mulk :

When the day is changed to night by the cloud of dust which shrouds the battle-field, those heroes never cease to wield their blood-stained weapons of Indian steel. Lines are traced on their armour by the strokes of the sword; those lines are pointed by the thrusts of lances; thus is formed a page of writing for which the dust of the combat serves as sand.

The following verses by Ibn Asaad are currently cited:

All day she avoids me as she would an enemy; but from evening to morning she bears me company. When she passes by me, she fears discovery and her words are reproaches; but her wanton glance is a salutation.

By the same, on a girl whose lip was stung by a bee:

How dear to me is that maiden stung by the bee! It gave pain to the noblest and most precious of beings. Its sting left a mark on that lip which God had only created to be kissed. It took her mouth for its hive, on finding that the moisture of her lips was like honey.

The apprehension of lengthening this notice too much prevents me from giving more curious passages from his poems. He died at Emessa in the month of Shaaban, A. H. 581 (November, A. D. 1485), but some say, 582: the latter date is that given in the work entitled as-Sail wa 'z-Zail (4), but the former is the true one. He was then nearly sixty years of age. The sharif Ibn Obaid Allah, of whom we have spoken above, died at Mosul in the year 563 (A. D. 1167-8). He was a generous râis (5), always ready to do good and possessed of every virtue. He is the author of some poetry, of which we may cite the following lines:

(My enemies) said (to my beloved): "He is resigned to his loss." They spoke the truth; I am resigned to the loss of all consolation; not to the loss of her affection. They said: "Why has he ceased to visit her?" I answered: "Through fear of censorious "spies." They said: "How can he live in such a state?" I replied: "That is really 66 the wonder."

The kâtib Imâd ad-din mentions Ibn Obaid Allah in the Kharida, and, after praising him highly, he says: "When at Baghdad I heard a piece of verse sung "there which some Syrians attributed to the sharîf Diâ ad-din; in it was the "following passage:

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O willow of the valley! thou whose glances have shed my heart's blood!-or shall I ⚫ not rather call thee the slender reed of the plain ?—It is mine to disclose to thee what I

⚫ suffer from the pains of love, and it is thine not to hearken to me. By what means

shall I obtain the object of my wishes? my hands are unable to grasp it, and I feel like ⚫ one deprived of them (6) !'"

(1) Al-Muhaddab is probably the equivalent of Muhaddab ad-din.

(2) Literally: Say to her; that is, bear this message from me to her.

(3) The observations which follow are evidently later additions. They are written in the margin of the autograph MS. and it may be perceived from a close inspection, that they were inserted successively and at three different periods. It may even be remarked that many of the author's later additions, such as these, are of very slight importance.

(4) This is a mistake, but it is found in all the manuscripts, the autograph included. Ibn Khallikân should

have written as-Sail ala 'z-Zail, which work is a continuation, by the katib Imâd ad-din, of as-Samani's supplement to the History of Baghdad. See Fluegel's Hajji Khalifa, No. 2179.

(3) The author gives Ibn Obaid Allah the title of rais, or chief, because he was nakib of the sharifs.

(6) This verse is rather enigmatical, but as the poet has just hinted that his mistress resembled a willow or a reed by the thinness of her waist; he most probably means here that her waist was too thin to be clasped; in short, an evanescent quantity.

IBN SHAS.

Abû Muhammad Abd Allah Ibn Najm Ibn Shâs Ibn Nizâr Ibn Ashair Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Shâs al-Judâmi as-Saadi, surnamed al-Jalâl (1), was an able jurisconsult of the sect of Mâlik, in the principles of which he was profoundly versed: I met a great number of his former pupils at Cairo, and they all spoke of his merit in the highest terms. He composed on the system of doctrine founded by the imâm Mâlik a valuable work, displaying great originality and entitled al-Jawahir ath-Thamîna fi Mazhab Aalimi 'l-Madina (precious jems, being a treatise on the doctrines taught by the learned man of Medina): it is drawn up on the plan of Abû Hâmid al-Ghazzâli's Wajiz, and furnishes many proofs of the vast abilities possessed by its author; the Malikites of Cairo study it with great assiduity on account of its excellence and the rich store of information which they find in it. Ibn Shâs was a professor in the college near the Great Mosque of Cairo, but when the fortress of Dimyât (Damietta) was taken by the misguided 363 enemy (the crusaders), he proceeded thither with the design of fighting in the cause of God, and he died there in the month of the latter Jumâda, or in that of Rajab, A. H. 646 (Aug.-Sept. A. D. 1219).-We have already explained the meaning of the words Judami and Saadi (see vol. I. page 148).

الجلال The autograph has (1)

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