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Sales to: Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, which ran the atomic bomb, missile and chemical weapon factories; Nassr state enterprise, where equipment for enriching atomic bomb fuel was made; Salah Al Din site, where electronic equipment for missiles and atomic bombs was made; Ministry of Defense, which oversaw missile and atomic bomb development.

Axel Electronics: capacitors-$84,000

BDM Corporation: computers; computer-assisted design equipment—$52,000
Canberra Elektronik: computers for computer-assisted design—$21,552

Carl Zeiss: microcomputers for mapping $104,545

Consarc Corporation: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb parts (this sale was stopped by Presidential order in June 1990)— $525,550

Data General Corporation: computers for mapping $324,000

Gerber Systems: computers to run machine tools capable of manufacturing atomic bomb and missile parts-$367,428

Hewlett Packard: computers for making molds; frequency synthesizers and other equipment useful for operating secured military communications systems— $1,045,500

Honeywell Inc.: computers-$353,333

International Computer Systems: computers for manufacturing, tool design and graphics-$4,497,700

International Computers Ltd.: computers $687,994

Leybold Vacuum Systems: computer controlled welder used by Iraqis to produce centrifuges for making atomic bomb fuel-$1,400,000

Lummus Crest: Radio spectrum analyzers; design computers; computers for factories producing mustard gas ingredients $250,000

Rockwell Collins International: equipment for navigation, directional finding, radar communications or airborne communications $127,558

Sackman Associates: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture—$60,000

Siemens Corporation: computers and instruments capable of analyzing metals and powders for atomic bomb and missile manufacture $78,000

Spectra Physics: lasers; detection and tracking equipment for lasers-$19,000

Unisys Corporation: computers $2,600,000

Wild Magnavox Satellite Survey: computers for processing satellite images that are useful for military mapping and surveillance $270,000

Zeta Laboratories: quartz crystals for military radar-$1,105,000


Sales to: Saad 16, the main missile research site; State Organization for Technical Industry, the procurement organization for missile sites that bought most Scud missile parts and equipment.

BDM Corporation: computers; superconducting electronics—$29,405

Carl Schenck: computers $10,228

EZ Logic Data: computers-$27,800

Finnigan MAT: computers that U.N. inspectors believe monitored uranium enrichment for atomic bomb fuel-$483,000

Hewlett Packard: electronic testing equipment; computers; frequency synthesizers; radio spectrum analyzers $599,257

International Computer Systems: computers-$1,375,000

International Imaging Systems: computers for processing satellite data; infrared equipment capable of aerial reconaissance and military surveillance-$688,000 Lummus Crest: computers to aid factory design $44,320

Perkin-Elmer: computers-$24,560

Scientific Atlanta: equipment for producing radar antennas—$820,000

Semetex Corporation: computers $5,155,781

Spectral Data Corporation: satellite data processing equipment $26,880

Tektronix: high-speed electronics useful in developing atomic bombs and missiles; radio spectrum analyzers for developing microwave equipment-$102,000

Thermo Jarrell Ash Corporation: computers for testing materials $350,898 Unisys Corporation: computers for production control―$7,796

Veeco Instruments Inc.: computers for factory design—$4,640

Wiltron Company: equipment for making radar antennas $49,510

[Insert from the New York Times, The Week in Review, Sunday, July 18, 1993— E5.]


The Number of Deals

The Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control has compiled a list of all the publicly known deals in which Iraq bought technology and equipment for its nuclear and missile programs before the Persian Gulf war in 1991. Some purchases were made from brokers rather than directly from the manufacturer.

A deal can mean construction of an entire factory, or supplying the machine tools or training to operate it. The vast majority of these deals were approved by or made through the governments.

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Breakdown of Iraq's purchases, weighted for importance to its nuclear and missile programs, as estimated by the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. One example: although France had only six transactions with the Iraqis, one was to build the Osirak nuclear reactor, which Israel destroyed by bombing in 1981.

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[Source on all charts: Gary Milhollin and Diana L. Edensword, Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control.]


Types of technologies and equipment bought by Iraq from the five countries with the greatest share of responsibility

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The Soviet Union supplied Iraq with Scud missiles that had a range of 180 miles. They were used to bombard Israeli cities and a military base in Saudi Arabia where 28 American soldiers were killed after Saddam Hussein expanded the range to 380 miles. These companies and government agencies had roles:



AVL Designed rocket test tunnel for missile Anlagen Bau Contor Supplied laboratory complex equipment

Consulteo Designed missile complex
Alfred Fenneberg Managed construction of neers for missile complex
missile fuel complex

Aviatest Built wind tunnels, supplied engi


H.O. Piva; Embraer; Orbita Trained Iraqis in rocket technology, supplied assistance BRITAIN

International Computer Systems Supplied computers at missile site

International Military Services Designed and supervised construction of a missile testing complex

Matrix Churchill Supplied scores of sensitive machine tools

MEED international Front company for missile procurement Technology Development Group Front company for missile procurement

TMG Engineering Front company for missile procurement


Beaujean Developed and supplied test stands for missile propulsion

BP; Carl Zeiss; Degussa; Tesa Supplied training in missile electronics, wind tunnels, test facilities

Fritz Werner Subcontractor and supplier for missile complex

Gildemeister Contractor for missile complex, blueprints, machine tools, furnaces, test stands, control facilities

H & H Metalform Supplied rocketry equipment, cylindrical presses, testing plant for missile complex

Havert Industrie Supplied material, equipment, fast-refueling pressure units Heinrich Mueller Supplied precision lathes Inwako Intermediary for delivery of components to install gyroscopes

Saudi Pump Factory Helped supply test Leifeld Supplied cylindrical presses, rocket stand for turbo pumps


motor nozzles

Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm (MBB)

Soviet Government Supplied at least 819 Subcontractor for missile complex


Condor Projekt Supervised construction of missile fuel production site UNITED STATES

Electronics Associates Supplied computer system for missile wind tunnel International Imaging Systems Supplied imaging enhancing equipment capable of missile targeting

Litton Industries Financed West German firm Gildemeister, which built Iraq's missile complex

Scientific Atlanta Supplied antenna testers (through West German firms) for missile complex

Tektronix Supplied measuring equipment (through West German firm MBB) to missile


Wiltron Supplied network analyzers used to develop missile guidance

MBB and Gildemeister Transferred American-made computers, electronic test equip


MBB and Transtechnica Helped build radar tracking station, rocket test stand for missile complex

Nickel Supplied climate control technology for fuel stores at missile fuel production site Sauer Informatic Supplied computer plant for missile complex

Schaeftelmaier Supplied electronic measurement and testing instruments for missile fuel production

Siemens Supplied switching devices, transformers, electrical systems to control missile fuel production, equipped radio room at missile complex

Thyssen Contract for 305 turbopumps (supplied 35)

Carl Zeiss Supplied computerized mapping equipment

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