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NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD
Chief of Staff
MAGDALENA G. JACOBSEN
National Railroad Adjustment Board
The National Mediation Board, in carrying out the provisions of the Railway Labor Act, assists in maintaining a free flow of commerce in the railroad and airline industries by resolving disputes that could disrupt travel or imperil the economy. The Board also handles railroad and airline employee representation disputes, and provides administrative and financial support in adjusting minor grievances in the railroad industry under section 153 of the Railway Labor Act.
The National Mediation Board was created on June 21, 1934, by an act amending the Railway Labor Act, as amended (45 U.S.C. 151-158, 160–162, 1181-1188).
The Board's major responsibilities include the mediation of disputes over wages, hours, and working conditions that arise between rail and air carriers and organizations representing their employees; and the investigation of representation disputes and certification of employee organizations as representatives of crafts or classes of carrier employees.
Disputes arising out of grievances or interpretation or application of agreements concerning rates of pay, rules, or working conditions in the railroad industry are referable to the National Railroad Adjustment Board. This Board is divided into four divisions and consists of an equal number of representatives of the carriers and of national organizations of employees. In deadlocked cases the National
Mediation Board is authorized to appoint a referee to sit with the members of the division for the purpose of making an award.
In the airline industry no national airline adjustment board has been established for settlement of grievances. Over the years the employee organizations and air carriers with established bargaining relationships have agreed to grievance procedures with final jurisdiction resting with a system board of adjustment. The Board is frequently called upon to name a neutral referee to serve on a system board when the parties are deadlocked and cannot agree on such an appointment themselves.
Activities Mediation Disputes The National Mediation Board is charged with mediating disputes between carriers and labor organizations relating to initial contract negotiations or subsequent changes in rates of pay, rules, and
interstate commerce to a degree such as to deprive any section of the country of essential transportation service. In these cases, the President may, at his discretion, appoint an Emergency Board to investigate and report to him on the dispute. Self-help is barred for 60 days after appointment of the Emergency Board.
Section 9A of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 159a) provides emergency dispute procedures covering publicly funded and operated commuter railroads and their employees. That section attempts to resolve contract disputes between the parties through a series of emergency board procedures with a maximum 8-month status quo period. Section 9A is invoked only after all other procedures under the act have been exhausted.
working conditions. When the parties fail to reach accord in direct bargaining, either party may request the Board's services or the Board may on its own motion invoke its services. Thereafter, negotiations continue until the Board determines that its efforts to mediate have been unsuccessful, at which time it seeks to induce the parties to submit the dispute to arbitration. If either party refuses to arbitrate, the Board issues a notice stating that the parties have failed to resolve their dispute through mediation. This notice commences a 30day cooling-off period after which selfhelp is normally available to either or both parties. Employee Representation If a dispute arises among a carrier's employees as to who is to be the representative of such employees, it is the Board's duty to investigate such dispute and to determine by secret-ballot election or other appropriate means whether or not and to whom a representation certification should be issued. In the course of making this determination, the Board must determine the craft or class in which the employees seeking representation properly belong. Additional Duties Additional duties of the Board include the interpretation of agreements made under its mediatory auspices; the appointment of neutral referees when requested by the National Railroad Adjustment Board; the appointment of neutrals to sit on system boards and special boards of adjustment; and finally, the duty of notifying the President when the parties have failed to reach agreement through the Board's mediation efforts and that the labor dispute, in the judgment of the Board, threatens substantially to interrupt
Sources of Information Publications Available for public distribution are the following documents: Determinations of the National Mediation Board (21 volumes); Interpretations Pursuant to Section 5, Second of the Act (2 volumes); Annual Reports of the National Mediation Board including the Report of the National Railroad Adjustment Board; The Railway Labor Act at Fifty; and The National Mediation Board at Fifty-Its Impact on Railroad and Airline Labor Disputes. Reading Room At the Board's headquarters in Washington, DC, copies of collective bargaining agreements between labor and management of various rail and air carriers are available for public inspection, by appointment, during office hours (1 to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday).
For further information, contact the Chief of National Mediation Board, Suite 250 East, 1301 K Street NW., Washington, DC 20572. Phone, 202-523-5920. Fax, 202-523-1494.
NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) 60 Massachusetts Avenue NE., Washington, DC 20002 Phone, 202-906-3000
Board of Directors:
THOMAS M. DOWNS
Gov. THOMAS R. CARPER, DANIEL
W. COLLINS, SYLVIA A. DE LEON,
NEEL, DON J. PEASE, AMY ROSEN
THOMAS M. DOWNS
ELIZABETH C. REVEAL
DENNIS R. WRIGHT
RONALD J. HARTMAN Vice President, Passenger Marketing and Sales ROBERT K. WEHRMAN Vice President, Reengineering
NORRIS W. OVERTON
Strategic Business Unit
Strategic Business Unit
DANIELA WINKLER (For the National Railroad Passenger Corporation statement of organization, see the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 700)
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation was established to develop the potential of modern rail service in meeting the Nation's intercity passenger transportation needs.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) was created by the Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970, as amended (45 U.S.C. 541), and was incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia to provide a balanced national transportation system by developing, operating, and improving U.S. intercity rail passenger service.
Amtrak is governed by a nine-member Board of Directors: The Secretary of Transportation serves as an ex officio
member and Amtrak's president serves
executive officers of the strategic
agencies, Amtrak carried over 33 million business units (SBU's).
commuters. The three SBU's, the Northeast
Although Amtrak's basic route system Corridor, the Intercity, and the West,
was originally designated by the were created during Amtrak's
Secretary of Transportation in 1971, restructuring in the fall of 1994 in order
modifications have been made to the to increase profitability. Each SBU has a
Amtrak system and to individual routes chief executive officer who has control
that have resulted in more efficient and over business decisions in his area. The
cost-effective operations. Currently, in SBU's have been successful in the
the face of ongoing budget constraints, Northeast Corridor, which has expanded
new service will only be added if a State operations south, through Richmond to
agrees to share any losses associated Newport News.
with the new service or if the new Amtrak operates an average of 212
service does not substantially add to trains per day, serving over 540 station locations in 45 States, over a system of
Amtrak's need for Federal assistance. approximately 24,500 route miles. Of
Amtrak began operation in 1971 with this route system, Amtrak now owns a
an antiquated fleet of equipment right-of-way of 2,611 track miles in the
inherited from private railroads; some Northeast Corridor (Washington-New
cars were nearly 30 years old. Since York-Boston; New Haven-Springfield;
then, the fleet has been modernized and Philadelphia-Harrisburg), and several
new state-of-the-art single- and bi-level small track segments in the East,
passenger cars and locomotives have purchased pursuant to the Regional Rail
been added. Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. Systemwide ridership is steadily rising, 701 et seq.) and the Railroad
and Amtrak is finding it increasingly Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act
difficult to meet the demands of of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 801 et seq.).
increased travel patterns with its limited Amtrak owns or leases its stations and passenger fleet. To ease these equipment owns its own repair and maintenance
constraints, the Corporation is working facilities. The Corporation employs a
to identify innovative funding sources in total work force of approximately 23,000
order to acquire additional passenger and provides all reservation, station, and cars and locomotives. on-board service staffs, as well as train There is no rail passenger system in and engine operating crews. Outside the the world that makes a profit; Amtrak is Northeast Corridor, Amtrak has
no exception. However, Amtrak has historically contracted with 21 privately
made significant progress in reducing its owned railroads for the right to operate dependence on Federal support, while at over their track and has compensated the same time improving the quality of each railroad for its total package of service. Every year Amtrak moves further services. Under contract, these railroads toward increasing the ratio of its earned are responsible for the condition of the revenue to total costs. As a result, roadbed and for coordinating the flow of Amtrak's appropriation for the current traffic.
fiscal year is 45 percent below that for In fiscal year 1995, Amtrak transported fiscal year 1978 (in constant dollars). over 20 million people approximately One of Amtrak's highest priorities is to 5.5 billion passenger miles. In addition, make the Corporation even more selfunder contracts with several transit sufficient in the future.
For further information, contact the Public Affairs Department, Amtrak, 60 Massachusetts Avenue NE., Washington, DC 20002. Phone, 202-906–3860.
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230 Phone, 703-306-1234
National Science Board
RICHARD N. ZARE
GREENBERG, CHARLES E. Hess,
JR., (9 VACANCIES)
NEAL F. LANE ANNE C. PETERSEN KARL A. ERB JUDITH S. SUNLEY
WILLIAM A. LESTER
Assistant Inspector General for Oversight
Planning Assistant to the Director for Human Resource
Deputy General Counsel
Deputy Director, Office of Polar Programs Assistant Director for Mathematical and
Physical Sciences Executive Officer Director, Division of Physics Director, Division of Chemistry Director, Division of Materials Research Director, Division of Astronomical Sciences
Director, Division of Mathematical Sciences Assistant Director for Geosciences
Deputy Assistant Director
THOMAS N. COOLEY LAWRENCE RUDOLPH THEODORE A. MILES JULIA A. MOORE
JOEL M. WIDDER
SUSAN B. COZZENS NATHANIEL G. PITTS
CORNELIUS W. SULLIVAN ERICK CHIANG, Acting WILLIAM C. HARRIS
JOHN B. HUNT