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business, OPIC is mandated to mobilize and facilitate the participation of U.S. private capital and skills in the economic and social development of developing countries and emerging economies. Currently, OPIC programs are available for new business enterprises or expansion in some 140 countries worldwide. The Corporation encourages American overseas private investment in sound business projects, thereby improving U.S. global competitiveness, creating American jobs, and increasing U.S. exports. The Corporation does not support projects that will result in the loss of domestic jobs or have a negative impact on the host country's environment or workers' rights.
The Corporation is governed by a 15member Board of Directors, of whom 8 are appointed from the private sector and 7 from the Federal Government.
expropriation, inconvertibility of local currency holdings, and damage from war, revolution, insurrection, or civil strife. It also offers a special insurance policy to U.S. contractors and exporters against arbitrary drawings of letters of credit posted as bid, performance, or advance payment guaranties. Other special programs are offered for minerals exploration, oil and gas exploration, and development and leasing operations.
The Corporation offers U.S. lenders protection against both commercial and political risks by guaranteeing payment of principal and interest on loans (up to $200 million) made to eligible private enterprises.
Its Direct Investment loans, offered to small and medium-sized businesses, generally cover terms of from 7 to 12 years and usually range from $2 million to $10 million with varying interest rates, depending on assessment of the commercial risks of the project financed.
Additionally, OPIC supports a family of privately managed direct investment funds in various regions and business sectors. Such funds currently operate in most countries in East Asia, sub-Saharan African, South America, Russia and other New Independent States, Poland and other countries in Central Europe, India, and Israel.
Programs are available only for a new facility, expansion or modernization of an existing plant, or technological or service products designed to generate investment which will produce significant new benefits for host countries.
Activities By reducing or eliminating certain perceived political risks for investors and providing financing and assistance not otherwise available, the Corporation helps to reduce the unusual risks and problems that can make investment opportunities in the developing areas less attractive than in advanced countries. At the same time, it reduces the need for government-to-government lending programs by involving the U.S. private sector in establishing capitalgeneration and strengthening privatesector economies in developing countries.
The Corporation insures U.S. investors against the political risks of
Sources of Information
U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency General Inquiries Inquiries may be directed to the Office of External Affairs, U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, Washington, DC 20523-0001. Phone, 202-647-1850.
Agency for International Development Congressional Affairs Congressional inquiries may be directed to the Bureau for Legislative and Public Affairs, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001. Phone, 202-647-8440. Contracting and Small Business Inquiries For information regarding contracting
Relations Division, Bureau for Legislative
opportunities, contact the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001. Phone, 703-875-1551. Employment for information regarding employment opportunities, contact the Workforce Planning, Recruitment and Personnel Systems Division, Office of Human Resources, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001. Phone, 202-6632400. General Inquiries General inquiries may be directed to the Bureau for Legislative and Public Affairs, Agency for International Development, Washington, DC 20523-0001. Phone, 202-647– 1850. News Media Inquiries from the media only should be directed to the Press
Overseas Private Investment
UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Director of Operations
Public Affairs Officer
Trade Remedy Assistance Officer Chief Administrative Law Judge Secretary Inspector General Director, Office of Economics Director, Office of Industries Division Chief, Agriculture and Forest Products Division Chief, Minerals, Metals, Machinery,
and Miscellaneous Manufactures Division Chief, Energy, Chemicals, and Textiles Division Chief, Services, Electronics, and
PETER S. WATSON
CRAWFORD, DON E. NEWQUIST,
DAVID B. ROHR
JOHN J. GERSIC NORMAN MCLENNAN
EUGENE A. ROSENGARDEN
Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade
The United States International Trade Commission furnishes studies, reports, and recommendations involving international trade and tariffs to the President, the Congress, and other Government agencies. In this capacity, the Commission conducts a variety of investigations, public hearings, and research projects pertaining to the international trade policies of the United States.
The United States International Trade Commission is an independent agency created by act of September 8, 1916 (39 Stat. 795), and originally named the United States Tariff Commission. The name was changed to the United States International Trade Commission by section 171 of the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2231). The Commission's present powers and duties are provided for largely by the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1654); the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 601); the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. 1801); the Trade Act of 1974 (19 U.S.C. 2101); the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2501); and the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (19 U.S.C. 2901).
Six Commissioners are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate for 9-year terms, unless appointed to fill an unexpired term. The Chairman and Vice Chairman are designated by the President for 2year terms, and succeeding Chairmen may not be of the same political party. The Chairman generally is responsible for the administration of the Commission. Not more than three Commissioners may be members of the same political party (19 U.S.C. 1330).
competition of foreign industries with those of the United States; and all other factors affecting competition between articles of the United States and imported articles. The Commission is required to make available to the President and to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Finance of the Senate, whenever requested, all information at its command and is directed to make such investigations and reports as may be requested by the President or by either of said committees or by either branch of the Congress. The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 amended several of the statutes administered by the Commission and, in addition, required the Commission to conduct several industry competitiveness investigations.
In order to carry out these responsibilities, the Commission is required to engage in extensive research, conduct specialized studies, and maintain a high degree of expertise in all matters relating to the commercial and international trade policies of the United States. Trade Negotiations The Commission advises the President as to the probable economic effect on the domestic industry and consumers of modification of duties and other barriers to trade that may be considered for inclusion in any proposed trade agreement with foreign countries (19 U.S.C. 2151). Generalized System of Preferences The Commission advises the President with respect to every article that may be considered for preferential removal of the duty on imports from designated developing countries as to the probable
Activities The Commission performs a number of functions pursuant to the statutes referred to above. Under the Tariff Act of 1930, the Commission is given broad powers of investigation relating to the customs laws of the United States and foreign countries; the volume of importation in comparison with domestic production and consumption; the conditions, causes, and effects relating to
economic effect the preferential removal quantities and under such conditions so of duty will have on the domestic that imports of the article constitute a industry and on consumers (19 U.S.C. substantial cause of serious injury or 2151, 2163).
(except in the case of a Canadian article) Industry Adjustment to Import
a threat of serious injury to the domestic Competition (Global Safeguard Actions) industry producing an article that is like The Commission conducts investigations or directly competitive with the imported upon petition on behalf of an industry, a article (19 U.S.C. 3351-3356). If the firm, a group of workers, or other entity Commission's determination is in the representative of an industry to
affirmative, the Commission determine whether an article is being recommends to the President the relief imported in such increased quantities as which is necessary to prevent or remedy to be a substantial cause of serious serious injury. Such relief generally injury or threat thereof to the domestic would take the form of the suspension of industry producing an article like or any further reduction in the rate of duty directly competitive with the imported for such article from the subject country article (19 U.S.C. 2251-2254). If the provided for in NAFTA, or an increase in Commission's finding is affirmative, it the rate of duty on such article from recommends to the President the action such country to the lesser of the general that would address such injury and be column 1 rate of duty on such article or most effective in facilitating positive the column 1 rate of duty in effect adjustment by the industry to import immediately prior to the entry into force competition. The President has discretion of NAFTA. Commission investigations to take action that could be in the form under these provisions are similar of an increase in duties, imposition of a procedurally to those conducted under quota, negotiation of orderly marketing the global safeguard action provisions. agreements, or provision of adjustment Market Disruption from Communist assistance to groups of workers, firms, or Countries The Commission conducts communities. If the President does not investigations to determine whether provide relief or does not provide relief increased imports of an article produced in the form recommended by the
in a Communist country are causing Commission, Congress may, by means of market disruption in the United States a joint resolution disapproving the action (19 U.S.C. 2436). If the Commission's of the President, direct the President to determination is in the affirmative, the provide the relief recommended by the President may take the same action as in Commission (19 U.S.C. 2251-2254). the case of serious injury to an industry,
The Commission reports with respect except that the action would apply only to developments within an industry that to imports of the article from the has been granted import relief and Communist country. Commission advises the President of the probable investigations conducted under this economic effect of the reduction or provision are similar procedurally to elimination of the tariff increase that has those conducted under the global been granted. The President may
safeguard action provisions. continue, modify, or terminate the East-West Trade Monitoring System import relief previously granted.
The Commission monitors imports into Imports From NAFTA Countries
the United States from nonmarket(Bilateral Safeguard Actions) The economy countries and makes a report Commission conducts investigations to at least once each calendar quarter on determine whether, as a result of the the effect of such imports on the reduction or elimination of a duty production of like or directly competitive provided for under the North American articles in the United States and on Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a employment within the industry (19 Canadian article or a Mexican article, as U.S.C. 2440). the case may be, is being imported into Imported Articles Subsidized or Sold at the United States in such increased Less Than Fair Value The Commission