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publishes surveys and sponsors conferences on migration trends and issues.
In the United States, IOM carries out certain activities for the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program, facilitates sponsor prepayment for other U.S.-bound immigrants, and operates a limited number of return migration programs. In addition to Washington, DC, and New York, IOM has offices in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, San Francisco, and Seattle.
The Organization comprises 100 states (59 members and 41 observers). They meet once a year, usually in Geneva, as the Council, to consider global migration issues and the Organization's work, direction, and budget. Mandatory assessed contributions from member states finance IOM's administrative budget, whereas its operational budget is funded through voluntary contributions. Member states elect the Director General and the Deputy Director General, whose regular terms are 5 years. Several international governmental and nongovernmental organizations are invited to observe and address the IOM Council.
The Organization has observer status at the U.N. General Assembly and at the governing bodies of several specialized U.N. agencies, the Organization of American States, and other organizations.
and civil disturbance; and by providing advisory and consultative services.
During the World Bank's 1995 fiscal year, MIGA issued 54 guarantees with a maximum contingent liability of $672 million to facilitate aggregate direct investment of approximately $2.5 billion. Organization of American States General Secretariat: 1889 F Street NW., Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202–458– 3000. Fax, 202-458-3967 Secretary General: César Gaviria Assistant Secretary General: Christopher Thomas Executive Secretary for Integral Development: Leonel Zuñiga, Acting Assistant Secretary for Management: James B. McCeney, Acting Assistant Secretary for Legal Affairs: William M. Berenson, Acting The Organization of American States (OAS) is a regional, intergovernmental organization whose primary purposes are to strengthen the peace and security of the continent; to promote and consolidate representative democracy, with due respect for the principle of nonintervention; to prevent possible causes of difficulties and to conciliate disputes that may arise among the member states; to provide for common action by those states in the event of aggression; to seek the solution of political, juridical, and economic problems that may arise among them; to promote, by cooperative action, their economic, social, and cultural development; and to achieve an effective limitation of conventional weapons that will make it possible to devote the largest amount of resources to the economic and social development of the member states.
With roots dating from 1890, the first OAS Charter was signed in 1948. Two subsequent protocols of amendment, Buenos Aires 1967 and Cartagena de Indias 1985, gave it its present form. One additional protocol of amendment, Washington 1992, is currently in the ratification process. The Protocol of Washington will incorporate provisions for the protection of democratically
Multilateral Investment Guarantee
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), an affiliate of the World Bank, was formally constituted in April 1988.
Its basic purpose is to facilitate the flow of foreign private investment for productive purposes to developing member countries by offering long-term political risk insurance in the areas of expropriation, currency transfer, and war
-the General Secretariat, which is the central and permanent organ, headquartered in Washington, DC.
The Organization has six specialized organizations that handle technical matters of common interest to the American States. It also holds specialized conferences on specific technical matters. For further information, contact the Director, Department of Public Information, Organization of American States, Seventeenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202-458–3760. Fax, 202-458 6421.
United Nations, New York, NY 10017.
United Nations Office at Geneva: Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland Director-General: Antoine Blanca
constituted governments and will include among the essential purposes of the Organization the eradication of extreme poverty, which constitutes an obstacle to the full democratic development of the peoples of the hemisphere. A fourth protocol of amendment, the Protocol of Managua 1993 which entered into force on January 29, 1996, established the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI), which replaces the Inter-American Councils for Economic and Social Affairs and Education, Science and Culture.
The Organization's member states are Argentina, Antigua and Barbuda, Commonwealth of the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Commonwealth of Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States of America, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The present Government of Cuba is excluded from participation by a decision of the Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs in 1962. Thirty-seven non-American countries, as well as the Holy See and the European Union, are permanent observers. The principal organs of the OAS are:
- the General Assembly, which is normally composed of the foreign ministers of the member states and meets at least once a year to decide the general action and policy of the Organization;
-the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, which meets on call to consider urgent matters of common interest or threats to the peace and security of the hemisphere;
-the Permanent Council, which meets twice a month at OAS headquarters;
-the Inter-American Council for Integral Development;
-the Inter-American Juridical Committee;
-the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; and
United Nations Office at Vienna: Vienna
Washington, DC, Office: U.N. Information
The United Nations is an international organization that was set up in accordance with the Charter' drafted by governments represented at the Conference on International Organization meeting at San Francisco. The Charter was signed on June 26, 1945, and came into force on October 24, 1945, when the required number of ratifications and accessions had been made by the signatories. Amendments increasing membership of the Security Council and the Economic and Social
Charter of the United Nations, together with the Statute of the International Court of Justice (Department of State Publication No. 2353, International Organization and Conference Series III, 21), June 26, 1945. Available for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone, 202-5121800.
Council came into effect on August 31, 1965.
The United Nations now consists of 185 member states, of which 51 are founding members.
The purposes of the United Nations set out in the Charter are: to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character and in promoting respect for human rights; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
The principal organs of the United Nations are: General Assembly All states that are members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly. Its functions are to consider and discuss any matter within the scope of the Charter of the United Nations and to make recommendations to the members of the United Nations and other organs. It approves the budget of the organization, the expenses of which are borne by the members as apportioned by the General Assembly.
The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations likely to endanger international peace and security, may initiate studies, and may receive and consider reports from other organs of the United Nations. Under the "Uniting for Peace" resolution adopted by the General Assembly in November 1950, if the Security Council fails to act on an apparent threat to or breach of the peace or act of aggression because of lack of unanimity of its five permanent members, the Assembly itself may take up the matter within 24 hours-in emergency special session—and recommend collective measures, including, in case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression, use of armed force when necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security.
The General Assembly has held to date 50 regular sessions, 18 special sessions, and 11 emergency special
sessions. It normally meets in regular annual session in September. Security Council The Security Council consists of 15 members, of which 5—the People's Republic of China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America-are permanent members and are elected each year. The 10 nonpermanent members are elected for 2-year terms by the General Assembly. The primary responsibility of the Security Council is to act on behalf of the members of the United Nations in maintenance of international peace and security, Measures that may be employed by the Security Council are outlined in the Charter.
The Security Council, together with the General Assembly, also elects the judges of the International Court of Justice and makes a recommendation to the General Assembly on the appointment of the Secretary General of the organization.
The Security Council first met in London on January 17, 1946, and is so organized as to be able to function continuously. Economic and Social Council This organ is responsible, under the authority of the General Assembly, for the economic and social programs of the United Nations. Its functions include making or initiating studies, reports, and recommendations on international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters; promoting respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all; calling international conferences and preparing draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly on matters within its competence; negotiating agreements with the specialized agencies and defining their relationship with the United Nations; coordinating the activities of the specialized agencies; and consulting with nongovernmental organizations concerned with matters within its competence. The Council consists of 54 members of the United Nations elected by the General Assembly for 3-year terms; 18 are elected each year.
The Council usually holds two regular sessions a year. It has also held a number of special sessions. Trusteeship Council The Trusteeship Council was initially established to consist of any member states that administered trust territories, permanent members of the Security Council that did not administer trust territories, and enough other nonadministering countries elected by the General Assembly for 3year terms to ensure that membership would be equally divided between administering and nonadministering members. Under authority of the General Assembly, the Council considered reports from members administering trust territories, examined petitions from trust territory inhabitants, and provided for periodic inspection visits to trust territories.
With the independence of Palau, the last remaining U.N. trust territory, the Trusteeship Council formally suspended operations after nearly half a century. The council will henceforth meet only on an extraordinary basis, as the need may arise. International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It has its seat at The Hague, The Netherlands. All members of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the
Statute of the Court. Nonmembers of the United Nations may become parties to the Statute of the Court on conditions prescribed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
The jurisdiction of the Court comprises all cases that the parties refer to it and all matters specially provided for in the Charter of the United Nations or in treaties and conventions in force.
The Court consists of 15 judges known as "members' of the Court. They are elected for 9-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council, voting independently, and may be reelected. Secretariat The Secretariat consists of a Secretary-General and "such staff as the Organization may require." The Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council, is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. He acts in that capacity for the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the Trusteeship Council. Under the Charter, the Secretary-General "may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security."