New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts: Commentary on the Two 1977 Protocols Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949

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Michael Bothe, Karl Josef Partsch, Waldemar A. Solf
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 30 апр. 1982 г. - Всего страниц: 746
Despite the advances made by the international community to outlaw the resort to force by the United Nations Charter, armed conflicts both international & non-international are a fact of every day life. The civilian casualties from such conflicts have assumed catastrophic proportions. Little attention, however, has been paid by scholars to the treatment of noncombatants in armed conflict & the place in international law of the principle fundamental to the law of armed conflict: noncombatant immunity. This work aims to remedy this omission. The author analyses in detail the content of the customary & conventional rules that give effect to this principle, in both international & non-international armed conflict. The importance of such a study is highlighted by the recent Gulf conflict where so many of the States were not bound by the most recent treaty rules protecting noncombatants.

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Содержание

Introduction B
16
Preamble P
31
Definitions P
52
Legal status of the Parties to the conflict
60
Qualified persons P
81
PART II
89
Field of application B
104
Protection and care B
107
Precautions against the effects of attacks
370
Nondefended localities S
379
Demilitarized zones S
385
Definitions and scope B
392
General protection B
399
Civil defence in occupied territories B 403 Article 63 Civil defence in occupied territories B
406
Identification B
415
RELIEF IN FAVOUR OF THE CIVILIAN
426

Protection of persons B
109
Protection of medical units B
116
Discontinuance of protection of civilian medical units B
120
Limitations on requisition of civilian medi cal units B
121
Protection of civilian medical and religious personnel B
124
General protection of medical duties B
126
Role of the civilian population and of aid societies B
130
Identification B
134
Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict B
138
Prohibition of reprisals B
139
MEDICAL TRANSPORTATION
141
Medical vehicles B
142
Hospital ships and coastal rescue craft B
143
Other medical ships and craft B
146
Protection of medical aircraft B
149
Medical aircraft in areas not controlled by an adverse Party B
151
Medical aircraft in contact or similar zones B
152
Medical aircraft in areas controlled by an adverse Party B
154
Restrictions on operations of medical air craft B
156
Notifications and agreements concerning medical aircraft B
158
Landing and inspection of medical aircraft B
161
Neutral and other States not Parties to the conflict B
163
MISSING AND DEAD PERSONS
168
General principle B
170
Missing persons B
171
Remains of deceased B
175
METHODS AND MEANS OF WARFARE
183
Basic rules S
192
New weapons S
198
Recognized emblems S
207
Quarter S
216
Occupants of aircraft S
224
COMBATANT AND PRISONEROFWAR
232
Combatants and prisoners of war S
241
Protection of persons who have taken part
258
Mercenaries S
267
PART IV
273
Basic Rules and Field of Application
280
Definition of attacks and scope of appli
286
Civilians and Civilian Population
292
Civilian Objects
318
Protection of cultural objects and of places
328
Protection of objects indispensable to
334
Protection of the natural environment S
343
Precautionary Measures
357
Personnel participating in relief actions B
437
TREATMENT OF PERSONS IN
440
Reunion of dispersed families S
450
Measures in Favour of Women and Children
467
Protection of children S
473
Evacuation of children S
479
Journalists
485
Activities of the Red Cross and other humani
492
Legal advisers in armed forces P
498
Rules of application P
504
Failure to act P
523
Mutual assistance in criminal matters P
529
International FactFinding Commission P
535
Responsibility P
546
Treaty relations upon entry into force
552
Revision of annex I B
558
Notifications P
565
ANNEX I
573
Use B
579
Light signal B
585
Communications
589
Works and Installations Containing Dangerous
596
PROTOCOL II
603
Preamble P
618
Personal field of application P
629
HUMANE TREATMENT
635
Persons whose liberty has been restricted
643
PART III
655
Protection of medical units and transports
662
Protection of the civilian population S
675
Protection of works and installations con
682
Prohibition of forced movements of civil
689
PARTV
699
Dissemination P
700
Signature P
701
Amendment P
702
Registration P
703
Selective bibliography
707
List of States signatories
717
Declarations made upon signature
719
List of States Parties
725
Reservations and declarations made upon ratification or accession
727
Index
729
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Об авторе (1982)

Michael Bothe, Dr.iur. (Heidelberg), Professor emeritus of international law, University of Frankfurt/Main. Chair, German Commission on International Humanitarian Law. Author of numerous books and articles on international and comparative constitutional law

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