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they do not think them proper instruction for careless or ignorant sinners, or for babes in Christ. And now, should any man come forward, and confidently aver that the author of the tracts above mentioned did not hold Calvinistical opinions, because they are not explicitly dwelt on in these books; the author would only have to refer them to The Force of Truth,' and to his 'Sermon Con Election,' to confute this negative argument: and we have only to refer the reader to the passages in the Appendix, from Tindal, Cranmer, Ridley, Bradford, Hooper, and others, to set aside the force of it, as urged against the Calvinism of these reformers. When Paul had preached a long sermon at Antioch, there "believed, as many as were ordained to everlasting life." With 'which saying a great number of people have been ' offended, and have said; We perceive, that only 'those shall come to believe and to everlasting 'life, which are chosen of God unto it: therefore it is no matter whatsoever we do; for, if we be 'chosen of God to everlasting life, we shall have it. 'And so they have opened a door unto themselves ' of all wickedness and carnal liberty, against the 'true meaning of the Scripture. Hence we may learn, to keep from all envious and dangerous questions. When we hear that some be chosen, ' and some be damned, let us have a good hope that 'we shall be among the chosen; and live after this 'hope, that is, uprightly and godly, and then we 'shall not be deceived. Think that God hath chosen 'those that believe in Christ, and that Christ is 'the book of life. If thou believest in him, then 'thou art written in the book of life, and shalt be

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'saved.'1 Latimer goes on to shew how men might know that their names are written in the book of life. This is the general way of treating the subject. He never opposes the strongest tenets of his more systematical brethren; he never attempts to explain in a different way any text of scripture which his brethren considered as containing this doctrine. Even after stating the perversion of the doctrine in the strongest terms, he says nothing against the doctrine itself. He ever seems to concede the truth of the tenet; and only to be desirous of guarding against perversions of it, and of improving it to practical purposes. And were not controversy in some cases needful, the manner of this most excellent martyr might be the best, in all respects. But his indecision, as to a systematical statement of his sentiments, rendered it less needful to adduce quotations from him; except as they are here called for.

We are free agents; yet we have by nature no will to what is good in the sight of God: they who boast that they have a will should shew it in their lives. They are, compared with others, like men who have got wings: let them shew this by soaring above earthly things, and aspiring " at "those things which are above, where Christ sit"teth at the right hand of God;" and not lie grovelling on the earth, and cleaving to the dust, as others do. Let them not think it enough to equal the exertions and attainments of those who form a far different estimate of the moral powers of our fallen nature, yet can say, " By the grace " of God, I am what I am;" but let them prove 'Latimer, Fathers of the English Church, vol. ii. p. 689.

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the superior excellency of their doctrine by the pre-eminent holiness of their lives. This would be the most effectual way to refute Calvinism and to reclaim Calvinists.

It may be considered as remarkable, that Jewell should be ranked with the martyrs, who were burned in Mary's reign, as not holding Calvinistic sentiments. He took shelter on the continent during queen Mary's persecutions: and, though not at Geneva, yet at Zurich he lived in the house with Peter Martyr; where he was almost as much in danger of imbibing Calvinistic sentiments,'1 as if he had been at Geneva; especially, as they read Augustine together, with which father they were greatly delighted. Jewell is the only one of these refugees who is mentioned in the Refutation: and, though others imbibed Calvinistic ' tenets' in Switzerland, Jewell is supposed to have returned uninfected! Perhaps our argument would not suffer, should this be allowed: yet I shall adduce one quotation from him shewing what were his real sentiments.- God hath "chosen you from the beginning. His election is sure for ever. The Lord knoweth who are 'his. You shall not be deceived with the power and subtilty of Antichrist. You shall not fall from grace. You shall not perish. ( This is the comfort which abideth with the 'faithful, when they behold the fall of the wicked; when they see them forsake the truth, and delight in fables; when they see them return to their vomit, and wallow again in the mire. When 'we see these things in others, we must say, Alas!

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' Ref. 582.

they are examples for me, and they are lament'able examples. "Let him that standeth take 'heed that he fall not." But God hath loved me,

and hath chosen me, to salvation. His mercy 'shall go before me, and his mercy shall follow

in me: his mercy shall guide my feet and stay 'me from falling. If I stay by myself, I stay by 'nothing; I must needs come to the ground..... 'He hath loved me; he hath chosen me; he will keep me. Neither the example nor the company ' of others, nor the enticing of the devil, nor my ' own sensual imaginations, nor sword, nor fire, is ' able to "separate me from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." This is the com'fort of the faithful.....Whatsoever falleth upon ' others, although others fall and perish, although they forsake Christ and follow after Antichrist; ' yet God hath loved you, and given his Son for you. He hath chosen you, and prepared you to 'salvation, and hath written your names in the 'book of life.-But how may we know that God

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hath chosen us? How may we see this ELECTION? 'Or how may we feel it? The apostle saith, "Through sanctification and the faith of truth." "These are tokens of God's election.-This (namely <the Holy Spirit) comforteth us in all temptations, " and "beareth witness with our spirit that we be 'the children of God;" that God hath chosen us, ' and doth love us, and hath prepared us to salva'tion; that we are the heirs of his glory; that 'God will keep us as the apple of his eye; that he ' will defend us, and we shall not perish.'-Such Bp. Jewell's Exposition of the Epistles to the Thessalonians, p. 143, 144. Edit. 1611.


language as this from that eminent prelate, who at least was the principal person in compiling the second book of Homilies, if not in a great degree the author of it, may shew the reader the cogency of these words. If our great reformers, 'the authors of these Homilies, Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer, and Jewell, had themselves, as it is ' pretended, held Calvinistic opinions, is it, &c.?' That they held those opinions which are now called Calvinistic, must be put out of all doubt: but they were wise enough, not to make the deeper doctrines of revelation the direct or prominent subject of the sermons, which were to be read to a multitude, "unstable and unlearned," (in the school of Christ,) who, till more fully instructed, would be liable to wrest them, as well as the ' other scriptures to their own destruction.'

"Our reformers followed no human authority; 'they had recourse to the scriptures themselves as their sole guide.. And the consequence has been, what might have been expected, that our 'Articles and Liturgy do not exactly correspond 'with the sentiments of any of the eminent re'formers upon the continent, or with the creeds of any of the protestant churches which are there 'established. Our church is not Lutheran-it is not ' Calvinistic-it is not Arminian.-It is scriptural : 'it is built upon the apostles and prophets, Jesus 'Christ himself being the chief corner-stone.'1

From the note on this page, it might appear that the reformers adopted the opinions of Luther and Zuingle, though not of Calvin. But, how

1 Ref. 589.

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