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all that the argument requires.- Consequently,' says his Lordship, election cannot mean, election ' of individuals to salvation.' Consequently election does not always mean ' election of individuals 'to salvation:' this the premises fairly prove, but nothing more; and to this we have no objection.

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This is said of the unbelieving Jews.' Were then "the remnant according to the election of "grace," to which the apostle expressly joined himself, unbelieving Jews?' If not, another totally distinct election must be intended. It is ' remarkable, that in the same chapter, St. Paul 'speaks of a twofold election of the Jews.' Surely the apostle did not speak of the same election both of the believing and the unbelieving Jews! This establishes our position of a national and a personal election; the one to outward advantages, the other to eternal salvation.'1

'St. Paul says to Timothy, "I endure all things: 'for the elect's sake, that they may also obtain the 'salvation which is in Christ Jesus, with eternal

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glory." St. Paul therefore submitted to his sufferings and labours with a view of promoting ' and securing the salvation of the elect, and consequently he did not consider their salvation as certain, but as depending upon the success of 'his exertions. This is perfectly consistent with 'the idea of the elect being Christian converts in general, who might or might not be saved, but, 'cannot be reconciled with the Calvinistic notion, 'that the elect are persons infallibly destined to 'salvation.'2

1 See Remarks on Ref. p.


Ref. 212, 213.


This passage from St. Paul proves, (as many others do,) that God does not save his elect except by means and instruments: neither does he accomplish prophecies, or perform his promises, in any other way. Yet "the scripture cannot be "broken;" the promises shall infallibly be performed. "Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words," saith our Saviour, "shall not pass away."1 "His counsel shall stand, and he will "do all his pleasure." Almost immediately after St. Paul, in his voyage to Rome, had said to his companions, by express revelation, "There shall "be no loss of any man's life among you, but of "the ship:" he says to them again, "Except "these" (the seamen, who were attempting to quit the vessel,) " abide in the ship, ye cannot be "saved."2 With much more apparent propriety might we have concluded from this last sentence, that no absolute engagement had been made for the safety of all the company on board, than, from the text under consideration, that there exists no certainty of the salvation of " the elect."-Again, "Behold there came a prophet unto Ahab, saying, "Hast thou seen all this great multitude? Be"hold I will deliver it into thy hand this day."And Ahab said, By whom? And he said, Thus "saith the Lord, Even by the young men of the


princes of the provinces. Then he said, Who "shall order the battle? And he answered, Thou."3 The certainty of the event is inseparable from the use of the appointed means; and he who decreed the one as certainly decreed the other also. They "Acts xxvii. 22—25, 31, 32.

Matt. xxiv. 35.

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'shall be saved: for I will send Paul to preach the gospel; I will bless his word; they shall repent, believe, love, obey, and persevere to the end.' The words of the apostle also prove, that he did not expect to succeed to the salvation of any except the elect: but, as he knew not who these were, he proceeded in "his work and labour of "love," without being influenced by that consideration. The salvation of the elect depended

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upon the success of his exertions.' But on whom did the 'success of his exertions' depend? "God "hath from the beginning chosen you unto sal“vation, through sanctification of the Spirit, and "belief of the truth; whereunto he called you by our gospel." "Paul planted, Apollos watered, "but God gave the increase." "Other sheep I "have, which are not of this fold; them also must "I bring, and they shall hear my voice."2 The apostle was sent by the divine Saviour to accomplish this purpose, in the conversion of those gentiles whom the Father had given unto him. And when he was at Corinth, probably discouraged by the obstinate unbelief and enmity of the Jews, and the gross licentiousness of the gentiles, "The Lord spake to him by night in a vision," and said, "Be not afraid, but speak and hold not thy peace; for I have much people in this city."3 Were these "people" of Christ already believers? or were they those who, having been "chosen in "Christ," were to be "called according to his purpose," by the ministry of the apostle?-If by Christian converts in general' all those are ' John x. 16, 28, 29.



2 Thess. ii. 13, 14.

3 Acts xviii. 9, 10.

meant who called themselves Christians,' and appeared to be such even to the apostle, they 'might or might not be saved;' for they might not all be true believers; and might not belong to" the election who obtain" the blessing: but it does not appear from these premises, that the passage is irreconcilable to the notion, that the 'elect are persons infallibly destined to salvation,' whether that notion be well grounded or not.

"There shall be great tribulation, such as was "not from the beginning of the world to this "time, no, nor ever shall be. And, except those

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days should be shortened, there should no flesh "be saved: but for the elect's sake those days "shall be shortened."1

The words "for the elect's sake," in this text, are wholly inapplicable to the case of the Christians who lived in those times. The Jewish converts to Christianity were not exposed to any peculiar dangers by those calamities which befel the nation; they separated from the body of their countrymen before the desolations began, believing the word, and observing the directions of their Lord; and they were generally exempted from the miseries which followed. But, had not those "days of "tribulation been shortened," the nation of the Jews must soon have been extirpated. Yet, as God had purposed to bring forth an elect people from among them in after ages, he was pleased to shorten those days, and to preserve a remnant, who continue a separate people to this day, but who shall at length be " grafted into their own olive tree." This

Matt. xxiv. 21, 22. Ref. 213.

accords to the prophecy of Isaiah: "Thus saith "the Lord, As the new wine is in the cluster, " and one saith, Destroy it not for a blessing is in "it: so will I do for my servant's sake, that I may "not destroy them all. And I will bring forth a "seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor "of my holy mountains; and mine elect shall ❝ inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there." 1 The extirpation of the whole nation of unbelieving Jews could not have hindered the eternal salvation of one true Christian, any more than of one person who was "chosen to salvation;" and therefore to interpret the words concerning either of them must be erroneous. But, in the nation of Israel, even when rejected and most dreadfully punished for crucifying Christ, persecuting his church, and opposing his gospel, there was "an election," on account of which, as well as "for the father's "sake," the seed of Jacob is yet "beloved." 3 Millions, I speak with confidence, many millions, of that scattered race will yet become true Christians, and blessings to the world at large. Upon what other interpretation of the passage could the preservation of a remnant of the unbelieving Jews from death be" for the elect's sake, whom God "hath chosen ?" 4

'It appears from the context, that the word "saved" does not here relate to eternal salvation, but to preservation in this world.' 5

This remark seems very well founded: but how

' Isa. lxv. 8, 9. See also Isa. vi. 13.

'Rom. xi. 28.

Note, Ref. 213.


1 Thess. ii. 15, 16.

• Mark xiii. 20.

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