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XCVIII. Qualifications of the civil magistrate. Exod. xviti. 21. Thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness, and place such to be rulers.

Deut. i. 13. Take ye wise men and understanding, known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you. Ver. 15.


xvii. 18. The king shall write him a copy of this law in a book. Ver. 19. He shall read therein all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, and to keep all the words of this law and these statutes to do them. Ver. 15, 16, 17, 20. Josh. i. 8.

2 Sam. xxiii. 3. He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. 2 Chron. xix. 6, 7, 9..

Neh. v. 9. Ought ye not to walk in the fear of God?

Ps. ii. 10. Be wise, ye kings, be instructed, ye judges of the earth...
Ver. 11. Serve the Lord with fear.

Prov. xxix. 2. When the righteous are in authority the people rejoice.

Examples. Jehoshaphat. 2 Chron. xx. 3. Nehemiah. Neh. v. 15. XCIX. The magistrate's concern with religion. Numb. xiv. 17. Moses the chief magistrate, prayeth for the people. Deut. ix. 26. He enquireth of God for the people. Exod. xviii. 15.

Josh. vii. 6. Joshua prayeth for the people. Ver. 7. xxiv. 1 to 28. His religious exhortation to the people..

2 Sam. vi. 2. David's care of the ark of God. 1 Chron. xxiii. 6. He devides the priests into courses.

vii. 2. He resolves to build an house for the worship of God. Ver. 7, 8. 1 Kings viii. 18.

1 Chron. xxii. 3. He prepares materials for building the temple. 2 Sam vi. 18. He blesses the people in the name of the Lord. xxiv. 17. He prayeth for the people. Ver. 25.

1 Chron. xxix. 19. He prayeth for Solomon.

2 Sam. iii. 1. David waxed stronger and stronger. Ch. v. 10. He grew great, and the Lord established him. Ver. 12.

viii. 14. The Lord preserved him whithersoever he went.
1 Kings iii. 3. Solomon loved the Lord.

Ver. 9. He prayed to God for qualifications to govern the people.
Ver. 11. His prayer was answered. Ch. iv. 29.

vi. 14. He built the house of God.

viii. 23. His prayer and exhortation at the dedication of the temple. 2 Chron. viii. 14. He appoints the courses of the priests.

1 Chron. xxix. 25. The Lord magnified Solomon exceedingly.
2 Kings xiii. 4, 5. Jehoahaz besought the Lord, and the Lord
hearkened unto him, and gave Israel a saviour.

2 Chron. xiv. 2, 4. Asa reforms abuses in religion.
Ver. 11. He prayeth against the Ethiopian army.
Ver. 12. The Lord smote the Ethiopians before Asa.

xv. 8. He farther reforms the nation, and takes an oath of the people to reform and to seek the Lord. Ver. 12, 13, 14.

xvii. 7, 8, 9. Jehoshaphat enjoins the princes and the Levites to teach the law of the Lord.

xix. 4. He reforms abuses, gives a religious charge to the judges. See to ver. 11.

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2 Chron. xx. 6. He appoints a fast, prays against the enemies of the nation, and is heard. See to Ver. 24.

xxx. 2. Hezekiah took counsel with the princes, to celebrate the passover, which had been long neglected.

Ver. 5, 6, 7. He writes letters and makes proclamation to assem

ble the people. Ver. 18. He prays for the people.

xxxi. 2. He appoints the courses of the priests.

xxxii. 20. He prayed to God against the Assyrian army.

Ver. 21. And the Lord sent an angel which cut off all the mighty men of valour and the leaders and captains in the camp of the king of Assyria. 2 Kings xix. 15, 20. Isa. xxxvi. 1.

Ver. 22. God saved Hezekiah.

Ver. 23. He was magnified in the sight of all nations.

2 Kings xxii. 3. Josiah, his care for the house of God. Ver. 13. He sends to enquire of the Lord.

xxii. 2, 3. He reads the law to the people, and takes an oath of the people to keep it, and reforms abuses in religion. Jer. xxii. 15. God was with him.

Ezra ix. 6. Ezra prays and reforms abuses in religion. Ch. viii. 21. x. 1, 5. He takes an oath of the people to reform.

Nei. i. 4 to 11. Nehemiah's prayer and confession, on which deliverance is obtained. See chapters 2d, 3rd, 4th.

v. 6 to 9. He reforms abusers in religion. Ch. xiii. 10 to 31. viii. 9. He teached the people.

ix. 1, &c. A remarkable fast is kept, with acknowledgement of mercies, humiliation and confession of sins.

x. 29. The people enter into a curse and into an oath to walk in God's law.

Jonah iii. 7. The king of Nineveh appoints a fast.

Ver. 10. God approves thereof, and is intreated to be gracious. C. Good magistrates a blessing promised to God's people. Isa. i. 26. I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counsellors as at the beginning.

Ver. 27. Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with righteousness.

xxviii. 6. The Lord shall be for a Spirit of judgment to them that sit in judgment.

xxxii. 16. Judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness in the fruitful field.

xxxiii. 5. The Lord hath filled Zion with judgment and with righteousness.

xlix. 23. Kings shall be thy nursing fathers and queens thy nursing mothers.

xl. 16. Thou shalt suck the breasts of kings.

Ver. 17. I will make thine officers peace, and thine exactors right


Jer. xxx. 20. I wi:! punish all that oppress my people.

Ver. 21. Their nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed from the midst of them, and I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach unto me; for who is this that engageth his heart to approach unto me, saith the Lord?


Ezek. xlv. 8. Princes shall no more oppress-my people. Zech. ix. 8. No oppressor shall pass through them any more. ·CI. Magistracy is of divine appointment. Deut. xvi. 18. Judges and officers shalt thou make in all thy gates, and they shall judge the people. Ch. xvii. 5. Numb. xi. 16, 17.

Prov. viii. 15. By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. Rom. xiii. 1. There is no power but of God, the powers that be are ordained of God.

Ver. 2. The ordinance of God.

Ver. 4. The magistrate is the minister of God.

CII. Sins of magistrates. Perverting of judgment, respect of persons, partiality, &c. Exod. xxiii. 6. Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of the poor in his cause. Ver. 2.

Ver. 7. The innocent and righteous slay thou not, for I will not justify the wicked.

Lev. xix. 15. Thou shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of -the mighty. Prov. xxiv. 23.

Deut. i. 17. Ye shall not respect persons in judgment, ye shall not be afraid of the face of man, for the judgment is God's. 2 Chron. xix. 6. The Lord is with you in judgment. Ver. 7. Rom. ii. 11. There is no respect of persons with God. Eph. vi. 9. Col. xiii. 25.

Prov. xvi. 12. It is an abomination to kings to commit wickedness. Zech. vii. 10. Oppress not the widow nor the fatherless, the stranger nor the poor. Job xxxi. 21.

Isa. x.1. Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write grievousness which they have prescribed.

Ver. 2. To turn aside the needy from judgment, and to take away the right from the poor of my people, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the fatherless. Jer. xxii. 3, 5.

Isa. x. 3. What will ye do in the day of visitation? See Deut. xix. 15. Job xxxii. 21. Ps. xciv. 20. Eccl. v. 8. Isa. i. 10.-iii. 12 to 15. -xxviii. 14 to 18. Mic. iii. 1 to 4. Acts xxiii. 3.

CIII, Perverting of judgment through covetousness, taking gifts, &c. Exod. xxiii. 8. Thou shalt not take a gift, for a gift blindeth the eyes of the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous. Deut. xvi. 9.

Prov. xxix. 4. He that receiveth gifts, overthroweth the land.

xxiii. 23. A wicked man taketh a gift out of the bosom, to pervert the ways of judgment. See persons threatened for this sin. 1 Sam. viii. 3. Isa. i. 23, 24.—v. 22, 23. Jer. xxii. 17, 18, 19. Ezek. xxii. 27, 31. Hos. iv. 18. Amos v. 12. Mic. iii. 11, 12.-vii. 3, 4. See persons free from it. 1 Sam. xii. 3. Neh. v. 14, 15. Promises to such. Isa. xxxiii. 15. Ezek. xviii. 17.

CIV. Perverting of judgment through drunkenness. Prov. xxxi. 4. It is not for kings to drink wine, nor for princes strong drink, lest they drink and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.

Isa. xxviii. 1. Woe to the drunkards of Ephraim. Ver. 3. They shall be trodden under foot.

Ver. 7. They have erred through wine, and through strong drink are they out of the way. Ver. 8.

Isa. v. 22. Woe to them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink. See Eccl. x. 16, 17.

CV. The misery of being governed by weak or wicked rulers.

Ps. xii. 8. The wicked walk on every side when the vilest men are exalted. Eccl. x. 5, 6.

xciv. 20. Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a law.


Prov. xxviii. 15. As a roaring lion, and a raging bear, so is a wicked ruler over poor people.

Ver. 16. The prince that wanteth understanding is a great oppressor.

xxix. 2. When the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn.

Eccl. iii. 12. If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked. Ver. 16. I saw the place of judgment, that wickedness was there, and the place of righteousness that iniquity was there. Mic. vii. 3, 4 x. 16. Woe unto thee, O land, when thy king is a child.

iv. 13. Better is a poor and wise child, than an old and foolish king, that will no more be admonished.

Isa. lix. 14. Judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off, truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter.

Amos vi. 12. Ye have turned judgment into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into hemlock. Hos. x. 4.

CVI. Such set over a people, as a punishment for sin. Neh. ix. 37. The kings whom thou hast set over us for our sins have dominion over our bodies, &c.

Ps. cvi. 4. They that hated them, ruled over them.

Prov. xxviii. 2. For the transgressions of a land many are the princes thereof.

Isa. iii. 4. I will give children to their princes, and babes shall rule over them.


Ver. 5. The child shall behave himself proudly against the ancients, &c.

Ver. 12. Children are their oppressors, women rule over them. Ver. 13, 14.

Jer. li. 47. There shall come ruler against ruler.

Lam. v. 8. Servants have ruled over us. Neh. v. 15.

Hos. xiii. 11. I gave thee a king in mine anger, and took him away in my wrath.

Joel ii. 7. Give not thy heritage to the heathen that they should rule over them.

Ezra ix. 7. For our iniquities have we, our kings and our priests, been delivered into the hand of the kings of the land, to the sword, captivity, spoil and confusion of face. Neh. ix. 24. See 1 Sam. viii.

11 to 19.

CVII. Wicked rulers, enemies to religion. Ps. ii. 2. The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers took counsel against the Lord, and against his anointed. Ver. 9. Acts iv. 26.

Luke xxiii. 35. They derided Christ. John vii. 48. Acts i. 26.xiii. 27. See also Ezra ix. 2. Neh. v. 7.—xiii. 11. Rev. xvi. 14. CVIII. God's providence over kings and rulers, exalting or abasing


Job xii. 17. He lcadeth counsellors away spoiled, and maketh the judges fools. Isa. xliv. 25.

Ver. 18. He looseth the bond of kings and girdeth their loins with a girdle.

Ver. 21. He poureth contempt upon princes. Ps. cvii. 40.

xxxiv. 19. He accepteth not the persons of princes, nor regardeth the rich more than the poor.

Ver. 24. He shall break in pieces mighty men without number, and set others in their stead.

Ps. lxxv.7. He putteth down one and setteth up another. Ps. Ixxviii. 6. Dan. ii. 21.

Ps. lxxvi. 12. He shall cut off the spirit of princes, he shall be terrible to the kings of the earth.

lxxxii. 1. God standeth in the congregation of the mighty, he judgeth among the gods.

CXXXV. 10. Who smote great nations, who slew great kings.
Isa. xl. 22, 23. He bringeth the princes to nothing.

CIX. Particular instances of God's providence in exalting or debas, ing rulers.

Acts xiii. 20. God gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. Ver. 21. Afterward he gave them Saul.

Ver. 22. When he had removed him, he raised up unto them David. 1 Sam. xx. 30. Ps. lxxviii. 70.-lxxxix. 19.

1 Chron. xxix. 1. Solomon whom alone thou hast chosen.

Isa. xix. 18. The princes of Zoan are become fools. ver. 14. The Lord hath mingled a perverse spirit in the midst of Egypt.

xxii. 3. All thy rulers are fled together, ver, 5. for it is a day of trouble and of treading down, and of perplexity from the Lord.

xxix. 10. The Lord hath poured upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes, your rulers hath he covered.

Ver. 14. The wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid.

xliv. Į. Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus whose right hand I have holden to subdue nations before him. Ch. xliv. 28. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 2. Ezra i. 1 to 7,

Jer. xxi. 4. Thus saith the Lord, I will turn back the weapons of war in your hands. Ver. 7. I will deliver Zedekiah king of Judah and the people into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar. Ver. 5, 6.

xxyii, 6. I have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon my servant.

Ver. 7. All nations shall serve him, and his son, and his son's son. Jer. xxviii. 14. See further, concerning Nebuchadnezzar. Dan. ii. 37-iv. 17, 30 to 33. v. 18, 19, 23, 28. Isa. xiv. 12,

Ezek. xxviii. 2. Say unto the prince of Tyrus, thus saith the Lord God, because thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am a god;

Ver 7. I will bring strangers upon thee, ver. 8. and they shall bring thee down to the pit.

CX. Duties toward governors, praying for them. Ps. lxxii. 15. Prayer shall be made for him continually.

1 Tim. ii. 1. I exhort, that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men.

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