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talking against the grain section of the United States. I am speaking of milk production. There they don't even feed grain to some cattle, but there are plenty of other uses for grain.

Here we have developed one grass in Georgia under Federal-State agreement which is coastal Bermuda grass, and we feel a grass of equal value should be developed for our winter grazing and we believe that can be done if work is done on it.

Another item is the Dairy Herd Improvement Association's testing work. I noticed that a previous witness suggested that probably more technical assistance could be given in some areas to some of the farm people. This is one place I feel as though money could be well spent which would prevent maybe future money being spent in another manner by the Federal Government, in that dairy herds could become much more efficient if there were wide testing of the dairy cattle throughout the United States with regard to their production under their Dairy Herd Improvement Association program.

I do believe that if the Federal Government could see their way clear to financing half of this program that you would find the States would finance the other half. As it is today, the dairy farmer, what few do, pay the expense themselves and as a result only a small percentage of the dairy cattle in the United States are tested according to production. The dairy farmers do not cull cows as they should based on production. We could get an increase in the efficiency of our milk production if we were carrying on a fulltime culling program of our dairy cows.

The only way I know this can be done is through Dairy Herd Improvement Association program, and my recommendation is that the United States Department of Agriculture finance half of this program and the States the other half in order to make these technicians' services free to the dairyman.

Now I would like to, if the committee will permit—that is all I have on dairying. Other things have already been said which cover the subject but I would like, with your permission, to make one brief recommendation on allotments of our basic crops if I may get out of the dairy field.

There are 2 or 3 of my friends who have allotments in the basic crops that have brought this to my attention and I think it is wort! of consideration. I haven't had time to check with all of the farmers, but as long as there are surpluses on hand I believe that this recommendation certainly is due serious consideration and it is this: That under the procedures as now set out, if a man does not plant his allotment he is doing the Federal Government a favor.

If he doesn't plant his allotment of a crop which has a surplus on hand he is doing the Federal Government a favor, but the Federal Government penalizes him as a result of doing them a favor by taking his allotment away because he did not plant it.

My recommendation is that a man's allotment not be reduced or taken awav from him by his failure to plant it as long as we have surpluses on hand. If we reach the point that there is no surplus on hand, then any rearrangement or the present system could be used which would allow new people to come into the business with regard to that particular crop whatever it is.

The CHAIRMAN. Somebody suggested this morning, I think, and I believe at other meetings, that it might be well to freeze the present acreage on each farm. What would you think of that idea?

Mr. CAMPBELL. I don't know what—what do you mean by freezing present acreage?

The CHAIRMAN. All cotton acreage. For instance, if you reduce them any further, whatever they get this year shall be the minimum; this crop will be the minimum of what they obtain in the future.

Mr. CAMPBELL. I prefer what I am saying better than that. I haven't had time to think that entirely through, but at the present time if a man does not plant his allotment he can turn it back into his county office and still retain it, but that means that someone else then plants it and he must plant it 1 year out of 3.

My suggestion is as long as you have surpluses on hand that he be allowed to retain it and not have to turn it in so that someone else plants it. The Federal Government wants reduction in total production of these allotted crops.

The CHAIRMAN. As I remember that provision of the law, if the transfer is made as you suggest, the man who transfers it does not lose that allotment but gets it back the next year.

Mr. CAMPBELL. That is right. That is the case now.
The CHAIRMAN. Do you want to make that permanent?

Mr. CAMPBELL. No; I am recommending that there be no allowance to transfer.

The CHAIRMAN. You would be surprised at how many Congressmen want that provision and all allotted acreage used up.

Mr. CAMPBELL. I beg your pardon!

The CHAIRMAN. You would be surprised at how many Members of the Congress wanted that power to transfer so as to have all allotted acres planted.

Mr. CAMPBELL. But when you get back to your individual farmer I think that if you check your individual farmers who have been in production of these crops, that you will find a lot of them will plant only half of their allotment or 80 percent because of the particular conditions prevailing on their farm that year, and that you might get an overall reduction of 10 percent in your cotton production during 1 year, or in your tobacco production or wheat or peanuts, as a result of the individual farmers knowing that they could retain their allotment even though they don't plant it.

I would say that as soon as you do not have a surplus on hand then it is perfectly all right to transfer this to someone else. By transferring it to someone else and increasing his allotment you are saying "we want you to produce more and pay you for it and take it out of the United States Treasury.

The CHAIRMAN. This transfer was made because of the fact that so many farmers got too small acreage allotments. That is why it was done; to cure the evil that has been complained of here this morning, to give to the smaller farmer a little more acreage.

Mr. CAMPBELL. I am not sure that increase has been going to the small farmer. I think most of the increase has been going to the larger

The CHAIRMAN. That was not the intention of Congress.

Mr. CAMPBELL. I understand that; but I don't think it works that way. I understand the reason for it.

areas.

That is all I have. I appreciate the opportunity of appearing. The CHAIRMAN. All right. Any questions? All right; tobacco is next. Mr. Dorsey Matthews and Mr. Ernest Strickland.' Will you gentlemen be seated? Will you each give your name and respective occupations, please?

Mr. MATTHEWS. I am Dorsey Matthews, from Colquitt County, Ga. I am strictly a dirt farmer in every respect.

Mr. STRICKLAND. I am Ernest Strickland, from Evans County; a dirt farmer and a small oil dealer. Very small.

The CHAIRMAN. You mean you get it out of the ground?
Mr. STRICKLAND. No, sir; dealer, I said; distributor.
The CHAIRMAN. I did not hear that part.

Mr. STRICKLAND. I am not one of those gentleman farmers. I live on a farm.

STATEMENT OF DORSEY MATTHEWS, MOULTRIE, GA. Mr. MATTHEWS. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I stated I am strictly a dirt farmer from Colquitt County. If I could have come today and testified before you gentlemen in my work clothes that I wear at home, I would have made more impression than I will make coming like this. But there is a lot of difference between a dirt farmer and a white collar farmer and a city farmer, and I want you to thoroughly understand that.

I am strictly a dirt farmer and my hands will bear me out. I lost my right hand 4 years ago on a circular saw, trying to produce lumber to repair my buildings on my farm.

Since I am from the largest tobacco producing county in the State, the tobacco situation is what I am interested in. Up until this year we have been pretty nearly satisfied with our tobacco support price that we got for our tobacco. This year, due to several conditions and things, our price for tobacco produced in Georgia was $5 a hundred across the board, grade for grade, less than last year and the year before. That wouldn't be so bad under our tobacco-support program

if our cost of production wasn't jumping up, up, up. At the present time, taking my family into consideration, my boys and girls, two each on the farm that I used to produce tobacco, myself, I use them; we have to to make tobacco pay a profit. It we have to hire all that labor, you can't produce tobacco at a profit with anything less than our present support level.

Now, by using those boys and girls out there who can supply the place of a man in some instances, by handling the small leaves of tobacco, we are able to hold the cost of production to 28 cents a pound, as near as I can get at it. There is no way in the world for us to produce an acre of tobacco for less than around $300. So you see why it is so mandatory that we have 90 percent support prices or more. That is a costly operation.

The CHAIRMAN. I do not know of any plan to change that. As a matter of fact, the only basic that Secretary Benson said ought to get 90 percent is tobacco. Mr. MATTHEWS. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. I don't think you folks are in danger from the administration, at any rate, nor the Congress.

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That is all I have. I appreciate the opportunity of appearing.
The CHAIRMAN. All right. Any questions?

All right; tobacco is next. Mr. Dorsey Matthews and Mr. Ernest Strickland.' Will you gentlemen be seated? Will you each give your name and respective occupations, please?

Mr. MATTHEWS. I am Dorsey Matthews, from Colquitt County, Ga. I am strictly a dirt farmer in every respect.

Mr. STRICKLAND. I am Ernest Strickland, from Evans County; a dirt farmer and a small oil dealer. Very small.

The CHAIRMAN. You mean you get it out of the ground?
Mr. STRICKLAND. No, sir; dealer, I said; distributor.
The CHAIRMAN. I did not hear that part.

Mr. STRICKLAND. I am not one of those gentleman farmers. I live on a farm.

STATEMENT OF DORSEY MATTHEWS, MOULTRIE, GA. Mr. MATTHEWS. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I stated I am strictly a dirt farmer from Colquitt County. If I could have come today and testified before you gentlemen in my work clothes that I wear at home, I would have made more impression than I will make coming like this. But there is a lot of difference between a dirt farmer and a white collar farmer and a city farmer, and I want you to thoroughly understand that.

I am strictly a dirt farmer and my hands will bear me out. I lost my right hand 4 years ago on a circular saw, trying to produce lumber to repair my buildings on my farm.

Since I am from the largest tobacco producing county in the State, the tobacco situation is what I am interested in. Up until this year we have been pretty nearly satisfied with our tobacco support price that we got for our tobacco. This year, due to several conditions and things, our price for tobacco produced in Georgia was $5 a hundred across the board, grade for grade, less than last year and the year before. That wouldn't be so bad under our tobacco-support program if our cost of production wasn't jumping up, up, up.

At the present time, taking my family into consideration, my boys and girls, two each on the farm that I used to produce tobacco, myself, I use them; we have to to make tobacco pay a profit. It we have to hire all that labor, you can't produce tobacco at a profit with anything less than our present support level.

Now, by using those boys and girls out there who can supply the place of a man in some instances, by handling the small leaves of tobacco, we are able to hold the cost of production to 28 cents a pound, as near as I can get at it. There is no way in the world for us to produce an acre of tobacco for less than around $300. So you see why it is so mandatory that we have 90 percent support prices or more. That is a costly operation.

The CHAIRMAN. I do not know of any plan to change that. As a matter of fact, the only basic that Secretary Benson said ought to get 90 percent is tobacco.

Mr. MATTHEWS. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. I don't think you folks are in danger from the administration, at any rate, nor the Congress.

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