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The present volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, for the year 1867, contains the proceedings of Congress to secure a final settlement of the difficulties with the Southern States by a reconstruction of those States; the action of the President in the execution of these several measures of Congress; the administrations of the several commanders of the military districts thus created, and the action of the people of the “sub-districts,” or States, in compliance with the laws and authority thus established, especially that portion of the colored race who have in a brief period passed from a condition of servitude to the active discharge of the duties of freemen at the ballot-box and in the Constitutional Convention. These are circumstances which, owing to the numbers of the colored people, are without a parallel in the previous history of mankind. They form the most important steps in the solution of a problem full of intense interest. Under this view, all the measures proposed or adopted by Congress in the work of reconstruction have been inserted in these pages, with the debates on these measures; the views of the Executive Department respecting them; the conflict of opinion between the President and Congress, and the numerous messages to the latter, and official letters to public officers, with legal instructions incident thereto; the gradual change in the social and industrial condition of the people of the Southern States, arising from their new political relations, together with all those events which illustrate the history of this national crisis.

The details of the internal affairs of the United States embrace the financial condition of the Government, with the operation of its system of taxation and currency; the public debt; the banks; commerce and agriculture; the proceedings in the Southern States to complete the reorganization of their civil and social affairs; the position of the freedmen; the various political conventions of the year, both national and State; the acts of State Legislatures; the results of elections; the progress of educational and charitable institutions under the care of the State governments; the debts and resources of the States, and all those facts which serve to show their growth and development. :

The events in Europe during the year were of more than ordinary importance: the critical situation of Luxemburg, the progress of Prussia in the consolidation of her new dominions, the disturbances in Italy, and others, unnecessary here to mention, are fully narrated.

The progress of mechanical industry among civilized nations, especially in the more useful arts, was displayed with unusual success at the Exhibition in Paris, and the part taken by citizens of the United States is fully shown.

The diplomatic relations of the Federal Government with foreign nations have presented some features of interest, especially the correspondence relative to what is known as the Alabama claims—and the arrangements for the purchase of territory from Russia and Denmark.

The advance in the various branches of Astronomical, Chemical, and other sciences, with the new applications to useful purposes, are extensively described.

The havoc made by those scourges, the Asiatic Cholera and the Yellow Fever, during the year, have been noticed, with the measures taken to combat them.

, Geographical explorations have continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries which have been made are fully described.

The record of Literature is as extensive as that of any previous year, and the titles of all the more important works have been arranged under the various classes to which they belong.

The history of the religious denominations of the country, with an account of their conventions, branches, membership, views on political affairs, and the progress of their opinions, are presented from official sources.

A brief tribute has been given to the memory of deceased persons of note in every department of society.

All important documents, messages, orders, treaties, constitutions, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.



А. ABYSSINIA*, a kingdom or empire in East- carry artillery in the field, but they have many ern Asia. Abyssinia proper has an area esti- guns and mortars in the forts or "ambas.' inated at 7,450 geographical square miles, and Monsieur Legean considers that the Abyssinians & population of from three to four millions, but are brave even to temerity, and that they would the whole of the Ethiopian plateau, which not, in the first instance, try to defend the sometimes is also designated by the name of passes, but would rather allow an army to enter Abyssinia, has, according to the Roman Catho- the country, and attack them in the open field. lie Bishop Massaja, some 12,000,000 of people, lle speaks of having witnessed reviews and 9,000,000 of whom are Sidama and Galas. sham fights. The irregular army is the feudal

In the large amount of interesting information following of the great chiefs, and its numbers contained in the “Blue Book," on Abyssinia, depend on the willingness of the chiefs to obey published by the English Government, on De- the Emperor's summons. They might amount cernler 27, 1867, are the following notes on the to nearly 100,000 men. army and fortresses of Abyssinia, which were · Forts.—The hill forts, or ambas, occupy the communicated by Captain Webber, R. E., and summits of small table-mountains, where water Captain Hobart, R. A., who received the in- is to be had. They are scarped on all sides, forination from M. Legean, French vice-consul and have only one means of access— by a windat Massowah in 1863:

ing ascent. It is rarely necessary to fortify the " Irmy.-The battalion is the unit. It con- sumits or build a rampart. Monsieur Legean sists nominally of 1,000 men, and is commanded considered them impregnable to assault, and by a chiet and numerous under officers. The unassailable by mining operations, on account fizhting strength only amounts to 250 well- of the basaltic formations. They could genarioed men, and about 150 to 200 half-armed erally, however, be taken by stratagem. Their followers, the remainder being merely servants. garrisons only consist of 300 or 400 men, and A thousand rations are drawn for each battal. their chief use is as depots, etc. The greatest ion, the number including about 250 women. number of them being to the south, they are These details apply only to Theodore's regular not likely to prove an obstacle early in the camarmy, of which he can muster about 60,000 paign. The following are some of the principal (this evidently refers to an earlier portion of forts: Gondar.-Although this is the capital, its Theodore's career, probably about 1863), who capture would not have much effect on Theoare quartered in time of peace on the various dore, whose policy is to have no fixed residence, districts of the country. Of these, 20,000 aro so that it cannot be said, if any one important armed with percassion fire-arms; the rest witir town is taken, that he has lost its capital. The sword and spear. Owing to the badness of the çapture of Gondar wonld give possession of the quality of the fire-arms, they count much more richest part of the country. [By the latest ac07 the latter than on the former. Their pow- .counts, it appears that Gondar has been deder is chietly imported. Rigid obedience is ex- stroyed.] Tchelga.-Southwest of Gondar. Very acted to the immediate superior officer, but strong. Ainba Ras.-South of the Taccazy, in there is no attempt at formation except for Samen, near the Chaakne (apparently the same defence, when they form line, the front rank as the Lamalnor) Pass. Amba Gah.--Southeast kneeling and covering themselves with shields of Gondar. A favorite residence of the Emof rhinoceros-hide, There is no attempt to peror, and a State prison. A very strong natural

position. Selalkulla.— Near Wobo. Very strong.

Magdala.--Said to be very strong, but never Se the Asyal CYCLOPEDIA for 1866 for a fuller ale jent of the area and population of Abyssinia.

seen by Monsieur Legean. Djibella.-- Near the VOL. VII.-1

Absi River. Very strong, naturally and arti- Theodore. Between Yaha and Guendepta, north ficially. There are some three forts in the of Adowa, there is a very strong pass. One of country lying between Gondar and Magdala; the great obstacles on the route between Adowa one near Zengadi, one at Emfras, and one at and Goņdar is the Chaakne Pass, in Wagara." Mahdera Mariam. Derra Damo.-Northeast Form of Government.—The government is of Adowa is a monastery, in a very strong po- feudal in character, each chief having absolute sition, overlooking the route. It is also arti- command of his own territory, subject to the ficially strengthened. There is a fort near Aous- condition that he makes regular presents to his sienne, in the Haramat country, the favorite superior, and follows him to war with as large residence of King Oubi, the great enemy of a force as he is able to muster. For many

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years past the Emperor has been invested with King Theodore. Mr. Flad arrived at Massomerely nominal authority, the chiefs lording it wah toward the end of October, 1866, and at over him in any manner they pleased. The once tried to put himself in communication empire is divided into three principal provinces with that monarch. About the middle of – Tigré, Amhara, and Shoa—and some minor December, 1866, the Queen's letter, with an ones, among them being Lasta and Waag. Amharic translation, reached Theodore, who

At the beginning of the year 1867, the con- at first seemed disposed to answer it. On the dition of the British captives remained un- 19th of that month the king transmitted the changed. Mr. Flad, the German missionary, English copy to the prisoner at Amba aghad in 1866 conveyed a letter to England from dala, with his compliments to the captives

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generalls, and with an intimation that he lows: “I, Isaiah, servant of Jesus Christ, and

old soon visit Amba, in order to consult by the grace of God Archbishop and Patriarch with Mr. Rassam, respecting the reply which of Jerusalem, and guardian of the Holy Places, he should dispatch to the Queen's letter. The offer, with the Divine benedictions and favors letta was read with great emotion by the cap- of the Holy City, my apostolic salutations to tires and excited their deepest gratitude. The your very Christian majesty, sovereign of tee of the royal epistle was most conciliatory, Ethiopia. May the heavenly protection and bat at the same time so distinct in the terms of- the care of Divine Providence always watch fered that it was deemed almost impossible that over the person of your majesty, your august the King could evade them. A few days after- family, and the whole State governed by your sard, however-on the 7th of January, 1867— puissant sovereignty. We know, sire, the exa letter, intended for the British Government, alted prudence and love of justice which charwas sent to Mr. Rassam from the royal camp, acterize your majesty. We are, moreover, enFherein, after acknowledging the receipt of the chanted to see in your august person the true Queen's letter, the King proceeded in an apolo- type of the queen, eulogized in Iloly Scripture, getic manner to complain that the English who was enamoured of the wisdom of Solomon. Government had betrayed him to the Turks- It is the same blood undoubtedly as that of a course of conduct utterly at variance with his Solomon which flows in your majesty's veins, own honest and straightforward character and and animates you with the same equity. These proceedings. He then adverted to the removal precious qualities, then, which adorn your of the captives to Amba (hill-foot '] Magdala, august person, have encouraged us to bring where he stated they were lodged in his own our prayers to the foot of your sublime throne. house and treated with every consideration, say. We feel assured that they will be heard by inz nothing of their being prisoners and in chains. your most merciful majesty in the love of The letter concluded with the request that the Jesus Christ, who has given us in his person presents and artisans should be forwarded to him an example of humility and gentleness, and forth with. The day following Mr. Rassam re- who has also prescribed to us to visit all wlio ceived another letter from the royal camp, in are oppressed and deprived of their liberty, which the King expressed the highest respect for which is beyond all the possessions of this England and the English Queen, comparing the world. Animated by the same evangelical latier to Hiram of Tyre, and himself to Solomon, sentiments, we pray your most merciful maNext, after an effusion of complimentary ex- jesty to look graciously upon the English conpressions, he recapitulated his grievances against sul and his companions, and to pardon them Passann, Cameron, and the whole party; and for all the faults they may have committed. If last, but not least, against the British Govern- our prayers are heard by your clemency, as we ment and the Turks, whom he held responsible feel a pleasure in believing, we shall be infor all the trouble which had occurred. This finitely obliged; and every one shall be as deletter closed with a renewed request that the lighted as ourselves at your indulgence toward presents and artisans should be sent up to him the unfortunates. By so philanthropic a deed, from Massowah, without giving any intimation your inajesty will increase the number of those that he intended to liberate the captives. who pray for the prosperity of your empire,

In March an effort was made by Lord Stanley and for the preservation of the precious life of to obtain the release of the captives, through the your august person. May the peace and grace intercession of the Armenian Patriarch, Paul of of God be always with you. So be it! Given Constantinople. The English ambassador in Con- at our Apostolic Sce of St. James, the 30th of stantinople, Lord Lyons, requested the Patriarch March, of the year of our Saviour 1867." to address a written appeal to King Theodore As Theodore gave no indication whatever of on behalf of Consul Cameron and his fellow his readiness to accede to the demands of the prisoners in Abyssinia. The Patriarch promptly English Government, early in March the articomplied with the request, and gave the am- sans who had been sent out for the royal serbassador one letter for Theodore himself

, and, vice were brought away from Massowah and another for the Armenian Patriarch, Isaiah left Aden for England. Mr. Flad left Massowah of Jerusalem, whose relations with the Abys- for the interior, to meet the King at his resisinian Church are intimate, requesting the dence at Debra Tabor, taking with him the arlatter also to exert his influence on behalf of ticles purchased with the King's money. the captives. The Patriarch of Jerusalem at On April 16th, Lord Stanley, the Secretary once consented to join in the intercession, and for Foreign Affairs, addressed to the King the to render it as effectuai as possible, sent a following letter: special deputation-consisting of Archbishop Dorotheos and a famous preacher-to the

“I am commanded by the Queen, my sovereign,

to state to your majesty that she had expected to Negos, bearing one letter containing the apos- learn by this time that the prisoners, respecting tolic benediction on Theodore, and a second, whom ber majesty wrote to you on the 4th of Octopleading directly for his royal grace to the ber last, had been all released and had arrived at English prisoners. The latter of these docu- Massowah, and that the presents which were awaitments, according to the Jerusalem Armenian ing their arrival at Massowah were already on their

way to Abyssinia. The Queen regrets to find that, review, Sion, which published both, was as fol- although you had become acquainted with the con

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