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LewisXII. tion to Maximilian I. containing their grievan1503 to ces in ten heads : Upon which the Emperor re1513 Pope

solved, with the King of France, to call a CounJulius II. cil, in consequence of a decree made in that of

Constance; and it was proclaimed the 16th of May 1511, at the request of these two Princes, and in the Name of nine Cardinals (j): It was appointed at Pisa for the ist day of September next, to find, as it was pretended, ways and means how to reform the Church in its Head, and in its Members ; though, as Guicciardine observes, those pretended Reformers were no wise better than Julius himself(i).

From Pifa, the Council was transferred to Milan, where the Fathers being assembled, they fummoned at several times the Pope to appear before them in Person, to give an account of his Conduct; and at last they suspended him from his Office, forbidding all People to obey him (k). From Milan it was removed to Lyons, and at last, all this bụstle came to nothing, as we shall fee presently.

Julius, to frustrate the designs of this Council, opposed them by another, which he appointed at Latran for the year 1512, wherein that of Pisa, Milan, or Lyons, was condemned, and all its Decrees declared void ; nay, Lewis XII. was excommunicated by Julius, and his Kingdom sufpended from Divine Service, and delivered into the hands of the first who should seize upon it (I). This Pope died the 21st of February 1513, during the Sessions of the Lateran Council.

He was, says Guicciardine, deemed the most „, illustrious of all the Popes his predecessors ;

but by those only, who having lost the true „ name of things, and confounding the right

» way (i) Mezeray Tom. iv. p. 457; (i) Guicciard. lib. x. 354. (k) Mezer. ibid. p. 461. (1) Guicciard. lib. xi. 395.



„ way of speaking, do think, that the Pope's LewisXII, ,

Office confifts more in increasing the Power 3 , and Authority of his See, by the force of Arms, Julius II. „ and the shedding of Christian Blood, than s,

in their endeavours to procure Men's Salva„ tion by their good Example, and wholesome Correction of Vices, for which

for which purpofe they have been (as they glory themselves) instituted by Christ, to be his Vicars upon Earth (m).

An Epigram was made in his Life-time, which displays his perfidiousness in a full light. We muit remember that his Father was a Genoese. Genua cui patrein, Geiletricem Grecia, partum

Pontus & u.nda dedit, num bonus je poteft ? Fallaces Ligures, mendax est Gracia, Ponto

Nulla fides ; Iiz te hac fingula Jule tenes, That is, He who stands indebted to Genoa for his Father, to Greece for his Mother, and to the Sea for his own Birth, can he prove good? The Genoefe are Cheats, the Grecians Lyars, and there is no trusting to the Sea: O Julius, thou hast all those bad qualities in thee. Julius dying, made room for Cardinal John de Medicis, to whose Family the Learned stood, and stand much indebted: He tock the name of Leo, and was the tenth of that Name.

If Varillas may be credited, he owed his Election to a very odd accident. He says, that the Cardinal made his Journey from Florence to Rome in a Litter, by reason of an Imposthume he had in those parts which modesty forbids mentioning ; and travelled so flowly, that the late Pope's Obsequies were already performed, and the Conclave begun when he arrived. He speaks afterwards of the difficulties which obstructed

the (m) Idem Ibid. p. 401.



LewisXII. the success of his Conclavist Bibiana’s Intrigues:

Then he adds, The Conclave had not ended yet
Leo X. 'a while, because the young and old Cardinals

persisted in an equal Obstinacy, without an odd
adventure, which made them jump in an Accord.
Cardinal de Medịcis being extraordinarily agitated
with the number of visits he made every night to
the Cardinals of his Party, his Impofthume open-
ed of itself, and the purulent matter issuing from
thence, exhaled such a stink, as infected all the
Cells, separated only by light Boards. The old
Cardinals, whose Constitution was less capable of
resisting the malign impressions of fo corrupted an
Air, consulted the Physicians of the Conclave
about the Course they were to take ; the Physi-
cians visited the Cardinal, and judging of his
Conítitution, rather by the ill humours that iffued
from his Body, than by the vigour of Nature in
fending them forth, and being bribed by Bibiana's
promises, answered, that the Cardinal had not a
month longer to live. This Doom made him
Pope, because the old Cardinals, thinking them-
felves much cunninger than the young, were wil-
ling to indulge them a satisfaction, which they
presumed would not be of long continuance:
They went, and told them, that they yielded at
last to their Resolution, on condition the like
compliance should be returned them some other
time. Thus, Cardinal de Medicis was chosen
Pope, upon a false infinuation, having not yet
compleated his 37th year; and as Joy is the most
Sovereign of Remedies, he quickly after recover-
ed so perfect a Health, that the old Cardinals
had occasion to repent for having been too Cre-
dulous (n).


(n) Varillas's secret Hift. of the House of Medicis, Bouk VI. Englished by Ferrand Spence,

If this relation is true, (and really we have LewisXII. nothing else to oppose it, but the silence of other 1513 to Historians :) See ! how the opening of an Impoft- Pope hume conferred the gift of Infallibility upon a Leo X: poor Sinner, and made of a Debauchee, the Vicar of the Holy of Holies, and the supreme Head of his unspotted Spouse the Church.

However, nothing can be parallelled to the Luxury of this Pope ; at the day of his Coronation he laid out a hundred thousand Ducats, which is above 40,000 l. Sterl. a great Sum indeed for those Days! He is noted for his Injustice and Ingratitude towards his best friends, who had supported him and his House in their Distresses, for his Disfimulation and Hypocrisy, for his Cruelty, and above all for his extravagant Expences, which put him every day upon some new methods for raising Money, and at last gave birth to the blessed Reformation, as we Thall see (0)

The Council of Latran was continued, and the Holy Fathers applied themselves to find ways, not to reform the Church, but to plunge it more and more in the deepest Corruption. Lewis XII. confented at last to the dissolution of his own Work, forsook the Council of Pisa, and received that of Latran. The Emperor, out of Jealousy for the good success of Lewis, had done the same, fince the Year 1512.

Francis I. succeeding to his Cousin Lewis XII. Francis I. in January 1515, came to an agreement with Leo, at their interview at Bologn, about the latter end of the said Year, to receive in his Kingdom certain new Conftitutions called the Concordate, drawn by Chancellor Du Prat (made afterwards Archbishop of Sens, and Cardinal) instead of the

Pragmatick (o) Guicciard. lib. xii. 456. lib. xiii. 474. Du Plessis Mornay ubi fuprà, p. 583.

Francis I. Pragmatick Sanction, which had been established 15'5 to in France by the Gallican Clergy assembled at 1517

Pope Bourges in 1438, and confirmed by the Council Leo X. of Basil, but very ill look’d upon by the Court of

Rome (P).

This Concordate, being so much contrary to the Rights and Liberties of the Gallican Church, particularly in regard to the Ecclesiastical Elections, (which by these new Constitutions, came absolutely into the King's and Pope's Hands; ) was warmly opposed by the Parliamentt, which could not be brought to a Compliance, but after great struggles, and many repeated Orders from the King (9).

Such were the pretended Vicars of Jesus Christ, the Supreme Head of his Church, in the XVth

and the beginning of the XVIth Century. (2) One can easily conceive that such Popes took Ignorance

no care at all to fill what is called, the Sacred and Vices

up, of the

College with Persons truly Pious and Devout. Clergy. Varillas tells us, that in the Conclave of Leo,

what hindered the young Cardinals from electing Cardinal Riario, was, that they were afraid this

old Genoese making profession of livingausterely, would oblige them to reform the Luxury wherein the two former Popes, namely, A lexander

VI. and Julius II. (for Pius III. had fat but 26 Days ;), had suffered them to bask (r).”

Leo, knowing not how, nor where to find Money, created thirty Cardinals in one Morning, at fifty thousand Ducats each (s).

It is true there had been Cardinals in those Days of great repute, and eminent for their Wit, their Eloquence, their political Virtues, and their

Capacity (0) Mezeray Tom. III. p. 257. (2) Idem Tom. IV. 483 (r) Varillas ubi fuprà. (s) Guicciard. lib. xiii. He does not say what Sum, nor that all paid this, but he says worse than Langius quoted by Mr. Du Plessis Mornay, ubi supra


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