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things his Duty, with very little Gravity and
Decency, had granted the product of these Pope Leo X.
Extortions out of several Provinces of Ger,, many to his Sister Magdalen, who appointed
Bishop Arembaud for her Receiver General; a Man every way, fit for that Employment, being particularly noted for his Avarice, to which he gave a full run in the discharge of this Office. The Money thus collected was not for the Pope, or for the publick Treasury, from whence, may be, part of it could have been laid out for some good use, but to
gratify the Avarice of a Woman. Therefore ..not only this Exaction, and the Ministers of
it, but the Pope himself who granted those Indulgences, and his Authority became detestable to every fober Man (w).”
That Bull, the pretence of which was the War against Selim Emperor of the Turks, was published in the Council of Latran, 1516. Tezelius a Dominican Friar, having been appointed to preach it in Germany, his fcandalous Behaviour, and his impious Sermons provoked so much Martin Luther, that he opposed him ftrenuously by his Sermons, and by XCV Propositions which he caused to be affixed to the College Gates at Wirtemberg, in order for a Disputation; he sent Copies of them to Albert of Brandenbourg, Archbishop of Mentz and Magdebourg, and complained in his Letter to him, of that shame
ful Trade that was carried on(x). (6) But Albert was deaf, and took no notice of Disputes, these Complaints. Leo himself, to whom Luther occafioned by it.
wrote a very submillive Letter, was not moved by any thing he could say ; nay, he summoned
him (2) Guicciard. Hift. Ital. lib. xiii. p. 489.
(x) Sleidani Coinment. lib. 1. p. 1.&c. Sculceti Annales ad Ann. 1516,
17, 18, &c.
him to appear at Rome, in order to take his Francis I. Tryal ; but at the request of Frederick Elector 5'7 to
1520. of Saxony a jealous Patron of Luther, it was a
Pope greed that his Cause should be tried in Germany. Leo X.
He appeared at Augsbourg before the Cardinal Cajetan the Pope's Legate, who left no Stone unturned to bring Luther to'a Recantation. But Luther stood on his Ground, and could not be brought to any manner of compliance. He ap, pealed from Cajetan to the Pope, and from the Pope to a general Council. At which the Pope being offended, he, by another Bull of the 15th of June 1520, condemned Luther's Doctrine as impious, false, and heretical, and ordered his Books to be burnt; he likewife excommunicated Luther himself, unless he would alter his mind in fixty days.
Luther's Answer to this Censure was very brilk, he reiterated his Appeal to a general Council, and caused Leo's Bull, and the Decretals of the Popes to be burnt in a publick Place at Wirtemberg:
A little before this, Luther had published his Book intitled, the Babylonian Captivity (y).
Such were the first beginnings of the Reformation in Germany, which spread itself in a few years, in several large Provinces of the Empire, in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, England, Scotland, Switzerland, and was there admitted and became the National Religion of those Countries, though, unhappily, 'not under the same Denomination.
But though it has never been the happiness of II. France to have the Reformation admitted and The Effects settled in it in the like manner, as to be the Na- of those
Disputes is tional Religion ; nevertheless, all the Malice, Hia- Franse. tred and Perfecutions of Men hindered not the
Truth G) Sleid. lib. 2. p. 47, 48, 53.
J. Truth from penetrating into it, and taking root 1520 and in the Hearts of a prodigious number of its Sub
Pops jects"; and it is what I am going to relate in the Leo X. following History. '*1
THỂ Disputes of Germany became the fubject of common Discourse in France, the Cenfure of the Sorbonists paffed against Luther's Book, The Babylonian Captivity, gave occasion to some learned Men to examine the Matter thereof:
William Briffonnet Bishop of Meaux was of Brissonnet that number, and being moved with Zeal, he Rinopen spared nothing in his power for promoting te
Knowledge of the sound Doctrine in his own nances the Diocese. He preached himself, a thing quite out Reforma- of fashion in those days, and invited several good
and learned Men, graduated and others, to come and affist him. Of that number 'were' James Fabri above-named; Williani Farel, at that time Master in the College of Cardinal le Moine, at Paris, Martial and Gerard Ruffi or Ruffel both Doctors (z)
But a Persecution having been excited a
gainst them, at the instance of the Franciscan He recants Friars at Meaux, 'Mattial instead of encouraging the Perfe- the Bishop, disheartened him so much, that he
proceeded no further. · Martial recanted pubsickly, and was made á Canon and Penitentiary of Paris'; Fabri went to Blois, and from thence to Nerac in the Dutchy of Albret, where he was kindly received by Margaret Sister of Francis I. and afterwards Queen of Navarré, a Princess of very exquifite Parts, whom God had raised to oppose the Cruelty and bloody Designs of Antony Du Prat above-mentioned, and of some others who exasperated the King against the pretended Hereticks. Farel stayed at Paris as long as he could with safety, then he went to Switzer
land, (z) Beze Hift. Eccl. vol. i. liv. 1. p. 5.
land, where he was very useful, he was the first Francis I. Reformer of Geneva, and of several other neighbouring Places. Ruffi
, alias Russel , escaped Hadrian through the Queen of Navarr's favour, and VI. though he did not join himself openly with the two Reformed Churches yet he was a great Promoter of the Reformation in Bearn ; he was made Bishop of Oleron (4).
Though the greatest part of those who followed the new Doctrine, at Meaux were: People of mean Condition, such as Cloath-makers, Carders, and such others ; yet they were an excellent Pattern of Constancy, and Stedfastness in the Faith, and they may boast themselves of having Pope been the first who suffered in France for the Re- VII. formed Religion's fake. John Le Clerc a Carder was taken Prisoner at Meaux in 1523, and condemned to be whipt for three different Days, and John Le to be branded with a Flower de Luce on the Clerc for Forehead, which was executed with the utmost France.
Martyr in rigour. From Meaux, he went to Rozay in Brie, and from thence to Metz in Lorrain, where 1524 he was the first Founder of the Reformed Church in that Place, and sealed the Truth with his Blood, being burnt alive the next year..
James Pavanes of the Country of Bologn, a learned though a young Man, who had been inticed into Meaux by the Bishop, being arrested, was so much terrified by Martial, that he recanted, and made Amende honourable (b). But being recovered of his fright, and not able to abide with the remorses of his Conscience, he
(a) All this is extracted out of Mr. de Beze Hift. Eccl. ibid. p. 6, and 7. (b) It is a' most ignominious Punishment inflicted upon a great Offender, or one who is thought to be fuch, who must go through the Streets bare-foot, and bareheaded, often a rope to his neck, with a burning Link in his band, onto the Scat of Justice, or other publick Place, and these confess his Offence and ask pardon.
Francis I. abjured anew the Errors of the Church of Rome, 1525. for which he was condemned and burut at Paris
Pope Clement in the year, 1525. Many othess underwent the VII. fame Fate with a Chriftian-like Constancy: vi
Francis li who had been made Prisoner at Pa
via and brought to Madrid in 152 51 was released Francis I's Proceed
thirteen Months after, and came back into his ing sagain? own Kingdom; where he was no fooher arrived, tbe Re
but hearing of the Progress of Lutheranism in furmid.
France, and being told, that this Heresy, as they called it, had occafioned those heavy Judgments of God on him and his People, he followed the Chancellor Du Prat's Advice, and ordered, that for the future, the Cognizance of the Grimes of Heresy, should-belong to the Civil Magistrates. Theneeforward the Parliaments, particularly that of Paris, were fet at work against those poor People, and many cruel Ekocutions were made
of them all over the kingdom Choo Y37156.11! VII.
But these barbarousi afages rhindered not the Their Doctrine re Propagation of the Reformation is therMattyr's ceived by blood proved a fruitful Seed' to the Church ; it fevral al was received by many im Orleans, 1 Bourges, Orleans,
Thoulouse, and spread itself from these three large Cities, all over the Kingdom. At Orleans the number of the Reformed increased apáce after Calvin's Arrival in that City where he came
to study the Law.. VII. He was born at Noyon in Picardy, the toth Albert el. of July 1509; his Father Gerard Chauvin, in Lacount of Calvin,
tin Calvinus, was Secretary to the Bishop of that Place, he came to Orleans in. 1532, being about 23 years old ; he iniployed the best part of his time in the reading of the Scriptures and the study of Divinity, wherein he was a great proficient. Andrew Alciat the most renowned Civili. n of that time for Learning and Eloquence,
(c) Maimbourg Viit. du Calvinisme lib. i. p. 52. Dutch Edit.