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pating on a basis of proportional representation. That federal world governmei should maintain an international antiwar police force, composed of individu volunteers from any and all lands (not quota forces from nations as such) ju as the United States Government now hires its employees, in and out of ti Army, regardless of in which State of the Union they happened to be born.

That federal world government should control all natural resources, for ti good of all, by means of a just universal pricing system and a new money mediu for the just exchange of goods and services by and between individuals as pr ducing world citizens and as consuming world citizens.

By the international antiwar police force and the control of all natural r sources, by a planetary government, there would be established that social ar economic justice that alone can remove the cause of exploitation and of war.

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p. m., the committee adjourned, to reconver Wednesday, May 5, 1948, at 10 a. m.)

STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE UNITED NATIONS

WEDNESDAY, MAY 5, 1948

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS,

Washington, D. C. The committee convened at 10 a. m., in the caucus room, House Office Building, Hon. Charles A. Eaton (chairman) presiding.

Chairman Eaton. The committee will be in order. We have with us this morning the distinguished Secretary of State who will now make a statement.

STATEMENT OF HON. GEORGE C. MARSHALL, SECRETARY OF

STATE Secretary MARSHALL. Mr. Chairman, gentlemen, I will outline for the committee the views of the State Department with respect to the structure of the United Nations and the relationship of this Government to the United Nations. I will try to place in perspective the steps which this Government has taken, and the proposals now before the committee, on this subject.

The interest shown by the great majority of Americans in the United Nations and in increasing its effectiveness is an impressive fact. A vast amount of thought is being devoted throughout our country to means of furthering the objectives of the Charter in the prevailing world circumstances. The attitude of the United States toward the problems of the United Nations will have a profound effect on the future of the organization.

A clear understanding of the international situation is essential to decisions on the course we should pursue. Neither the United Nations nor any other form of world organization can exist as an abstraction without relation to the realities of a given world situation.

The United Nations was conceived on the assumption that certain conditions would develop following the war. These were:

1. That the major powers charged with responsibility for working out peace settlements would complete their task promptly and effectively;

2. That the critical postwar conditions in the economic and political fields would be brought to an end as speedily as possible; and

3. That the cooperation among the great powers pledged during the war and reflected in the Charter would be continuing.

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The United Nations was specifically designed to preserve the peace and not to make the peace. The task of

making the peace settlements was specifically recognized by article 107 of the Charter as one for the responsible victor powers. The United Nations can assist in this task, but the improvement of the United Nations machinery would not in itself solve the problem. Since the most important of the peace settlements, have not been agreed upon, the United Nations has been compelled to carry on its activities under world conditions far different from those contemplated by the Charter.

It was obvious to the framers of the Charter of the United Nations that an effective organization to preserve the peace must include every major power. The San Francisco Conference created an organization, the purpose and principles of which corresponded with the objectives of the United States foreign policy.

Mr. Chairman, I would like to read into the record a statement of the purposes and principles of the United Nations. They are (reading]

1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end : To take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;

2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on the respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;

3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and

4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

The organization as developed at San Francisco received the overwhelming endorsement of the American people and had the virtually unanimous approval of the United States Senate.

This organization was designed to consolidate and strengthen over a long period of time the foundations of peace through common action in solving political, economic, social, cultural, and health problems. Machinery was established for the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means so that the advice and assistance of all members, and the mobilization of world public opinion, might be brought to bear in the pacific settlement of disputes. It was found possible to go considerably further than the League of Nations in the establishment of enforcement machinery, but at the San Francisco Conference none of the major powers was prepared to grant to this organization the right of enforcement against a major power.

When universal agreement to the Charter was achieved, the strength of the major powers in relation to one another was such that no one of them could safely break the peace if the others stood united in defense of the Charter. Under existing world circumstances the maintenance of a comparable power relationship is fundamental to world security.

The aspirations of the people of the world as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations have been shaken by developments since the summer of 1945. It gradually became apparent that the

postwar conditions anticipated at San Francisco were not being realized. The failure of concerted action by the major allies rendered it necessary for the United States Government to attempt to create the desired postwar conditions in cooperation with other States willing to do so.

It became progressively clearer that serious misconceptions prevailed in the minds of the leaders of the Soviet Union concerning western civilization and the possibilities for developing stabilized working relations between the Soviet Union and the other members of the community of nations. It is a misconception to suppose that domination of the world by a single system is inevitable. It is a misconception to suppose that differing systems cannot live side by side in peace under the basic rules of international conduct prescribed by the Charter of the United Nations. These rules are obligatory upon all members.

A fundamental task of the United Nations and of our foreign policy is to dispel the misconceptions of the Soviet leaders and to bring about a more realistic view of what is possible and what is impossible in the relationship between the Soviet Union and the world at large. In this way there can be restored to international society the equilibrium necessary to permit the United Nations to function as contemplated at San Francisco.

Our realization of the need for this equilibrium has led to action along several lires, all designed to create conditions favorable to the working of the United Nations. The first necessary step was to insure the freedom and independence of the members. The ability of democratic peoples to preserve their independence in the face of totalitarian threats depends upon their determination to do so. That determination in turn depends upon the development of a healthy economic and political life and a genuine sense of security.

Therefore, the United States Government is responding to requests to provide the economic assistance to various countries in Europe and elsewhere. The United States is cooperating with 16 European countries in a recovery program providing for self-help and mutual aid.

The United States Government is now considering the steps necessary to bring the National Military Establishment to the minimum level necessary to restore the balance-of-power relationships required for international security.

The United States is acutely aware that the return of a sense of security to the free nations of the world is essential for the promotion of conditions under which the United Nations can function. The necessary steps for self-protection against aggression can be taken within the Charter of the United Nations. The Charter recognizes in article 51 the right of individual and collective self-defense against armed attack until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to preserve peace and security. Articles 52, 53, and 54 provide for regional arrangements dealing with the maintenance of international peace and security, on condition that such arrangements are consistent with the purposes and principles of the Charter.

In recognition of the possibility foreseen in the Charter that an armed attack might occur upon a member of the United Nations, despite the binding obligations accepted by every member to refrain from the threat or use of force against another State, the United States

and the other American Republics concluded at Rio de Janeiro last year a treaty for individual and collective self-defense. Certain countries of western Europe likewise have organized themselves into a western union, for their individual and collective self-defense. By such arrangements under article 51 of the Charter and the articles providing for regional arrangements, constructive steps have been taken to bulwark international security and the maintenance of peace. Our intention to afford encouragement and support to arrangements made by free nations for the preservation of their independence and liberty has already been stated by the President in his message to the Congress on March 17.

The United States Government has followed an active policy of strengthening the existing machinery of the United Nations.

1. We have endeavored to assure that the United Nations would carry out its responsibilities in dealing with the dangerous political issues which have arisen in various quarters of the world. We have sought to promote its basic work on economic problems, human rights, freedom of information, health, and related needs.

2. We have made proposals toward restraining the use of the veto in the Security Council and reducing the scope of the veto through its elimination from matters of pacific settlement and the admission of new members.

3. We proposed the establishment of an interim committee of the General Assembly, popularly known as the Little Assembly, to consider various possibilities for improving international cooperation and to put to work the undeveloped powers of the General Assembly in the field of international security. By means of this committee the farreaching influence of the General Assembly is being brought more effectively to bear in fulfilling the purposes and principles of the Charter.

The United Nations is the forum of daily world negotiation. It is the world's vehicle for dealing with basic economic and social maladjustments, for developing safeguards of essential freedoms, for advancing the development of dependent peoples and areas.

On several occasions negotiation in the United Nations, even during its short history, has postponed fighting long enough to remove the cause for fighting. It is a forum of negotiation where charges or distortions are held answerable, where violations of treaty obligations I ust meet the verdict of world opinion, and where those responsible must answer for their conduct. It is a forum where the nations of the world are called upon to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter. United Nations negotiation affords continuing working cont:cts in international relations and an open door to communication between the east and the west.

A number of projects designed to improve international conditions by rew forms of international organization have been proposed. These nrojects envisage radical changes in the existing United Nations Charte". Some propose the elimination of a veto on enforcement measures, the establishment of inequality of voting among the major powers, and the virtual elimination of the influence of small nations in Secuwity Council decisions. Others go beyond the revision of the United Nations Charter and call for the establishment of new forms of inter

tional structure along the lines of world government. In general,

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