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committee in the form of House Concurrent Resolution No. 168. The citizens of Middletown still believe that this plan provides the promptest and soundest road to peace. We believe that if House Concurrent Resolution No. 168 is adopted, the United Nations will become the instrument for peace which has been the hope of all Americans since the Charter was first signed in 1945. We are equally convinced that if the Charter is not amended and strengthened soon, the people of America will lose faith in its ability to settle any problem, let alone stop aggressive warfare.

We have felt so keenly about this problem that we have done all in our power to bring the proposals of the Middletown plan (H. Con. Res. No. 168) before America and the world.

From the start we considered four alternatives. First, we can continue to drift into war by remaining unprepared in mind or in armaments. Second, we can play power politics which will lead, as in the past, to a world armament race. Third, we can use our atomic bombs to force an American peace of the world ; and fourth, we can strengthen the United Nations and thereby make it an effective organization capable of keeping the peace.

Finding that the fourth alternative was unanimously adopted by our group, we decided to hold a town meeting in Middleton to see how the citizens of Middletown felt about it.

At our first town meeting on June 13, 1946, we offered the four alternatives to the people of Middletown. As a body, the 500 people present chose a strengthened United Nations.

But more important, the people attending this first town meeting showed such tremendous interest in international affairs and the United Nations, that a committee was appointed, on the spot, to study proposals for strengthening the United Nations and to report back at an early date to the citizens of Middletown.

For another 6 weeks we studied many proposals. But none were sound or complete or so immune to attack as the quota force plan.

On July 11, 1946, we held our second town meeting. Over 1,500 people crowded into a hall with a capacity of 1,200 to debate the pros and cons of our committee's proposals.

After 3 hours devoted to talking and of questions and answers, the vote was taken. The citizens of Middletown wholeheartedly and enthusiastically endorsed the Middletown plan. Not only did they vote, they stayed on to sign resolutions endorsing the plan. These resolutions with over 1,000 signatures were sent to Congress.

But Middletown did not stop there. We realized that before Congress would or could act, thousands of Middletowns would have to be heard from. The very night of our second town meeting our committee dedicated itself to the task of spreading our plan throughout America.

Reader's Digest picked up our story. From letters from their article on the Middletown movement we obtained a mailing list in the thousands. Our first publication, Crossroads Middletown, was sent to 25,000 people.

Soon we were so busy on the Middletown movement that all of our jobs suffered. Our chairman at that time, George V. Hook, took a year's leave of absence from his work so that he could guide the movement properly. All of Middletown cooperated in every way.

Our committee organized town meetings all over Ohio and Kentucky. We made speeches whenever possible. We accepted all requests for radio appearances.

And, strangely enough, we found that wherever we went we found the same conditions. People were worried, scared. They were afraid of another war and of atom bombs. When they heard our plan they were usually just lukewarm to it. But when they would argue about its provisions they would become convinced of its soundness, effectiveness, and practicability. Everywhere we went we athered more and more support.

Soon the citizens of Greensville, Ohio, adopted the Middletown plan, then Xenia, Ohio, and Glendale, Ohio.

Organizations of all types became interested, then enthusiastic, then eager to become a part of this movement. · Today 53 local organizations have adopted the plan. They have convinced their State and National affiliations to adopt this plan as part of their foreign relations or international program.

You might be interested in some of these State groups. The Ohio and Kansas department of the American Legion; the Ohio Rotary Clubs; the Ohio State Legislature; the Ohio Kiwanis Clubs; the Kentucky and Ohio State Federation of Labor (AFL); the Clergy of Diocese of Southern Ohio; the executive board, Federation of Women's Clubs of Ohio.

On the national level : The American Legion; the National Order of AHEPA (American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association); National Association of Fire Fighters (AFL) ; National Association of Foremen.

The Middletown Citizens Committee corresponds with 1,600 people in com. munities in all of the 48 States. We are doing all we can to help these people organize town meetings in their communities.

Our committee corresponds with individuals in 18 different foreign countries, such as Austria, Argentina, Belgium, Germany, Italy, France, New Zealand, Mexico, etc. All these people indicate that their prayers are dedicated to the adoption of the Middletown plan.

Members of our speaker's bureau have given over 300 speeches-all of these at their own expense.

The citizens of Middletown have contributed all the money collected which has been needed to carry on the activities of the Middletown committee.

The Middletown plan has received much national acceptance and acclaim. Some of these includes articles in the Commonweal, June 1946; the Christian Science Monitor, October 5, 1946; Readers' Digest, November 1946; Ohio Magazine, November 1946; the Civitan, January 1947; N. E. A. (Journal of National Education Association), April 1947 ; Magazine Digest, September 1947; Inside U. S. A., by John Gunther; the Kiwanis Magazine, November 1947; and syndicated articles by Thomas L. Stokes, Dorothy Thompson, Peter Edson, and Jack Ramey.

Important radio appearances have included : The Herald Tribune Forum, World Front, In My Opinion, Canal Days, and all four of our town meetings.

All of these things are merely testimony of our activity. The important thing is that at each of our town meetings the people adopted the Middletown plan and urged Congress to adopt its principles.

We are naturally very gratified to feel that perhaps our committee has helped to bring to the attention of the American people the importance of immediately strengthening the United Nations. We are grateful to the 14 Representatives and 16 Senators who introduced into Congress House Concurrent Resolution No. 168 and Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 50.

We believe that all our work will not have been in vain if these resolutions now receive favorable action by your committee.

We believe just as strongly today—as ever-that the future of America, the acceptance of the United Nations by the American people, the prevention of world war III, depend upon the immediate strengthening of the United Nations as provided in House Concurrent Resolution No. 168.

These provisions provide the Christian approach to peace for it is a fair plan to all nations. It gives the smaller nations of the world for the first time, a strong united voice.

By limiting the veto only in matters of aggression or preparation for aggression, there is established an effective limited world authority able to act by majority vote to prevent aggression or preparation for aggression. Aggression is well defined as is preparation for aggression. It means that trouble can be detected and stopped at its earliest stages.

Such veto limitation also means that the veto, for the time being, will be retained in all other matters, such as tariffs or immigration laws.

The second provision sets up armament quotas which divide satisfactorily the armed power of the world. These quotas will be set by the Security Council. They will be just as satisfactory in times of disarmament as they would be now, if only the plan were in action.

The United States proposal for an Atomic Development Authority would alle viate the terrible strain of atomic war which now hangs over the scalps of all peoples.

The establishment of an effective world police force as outlined in House Concurrent Resolution No. 168 would eliminate the terrible strains in present diplomatic relations between the United States and Russia. Think also of how effec tive such a force would be in Greece or Palestine or Berlin.

We have tested American public opinion. We know that the great majority favor such a plan to strengthen the United Nations. Most people wish that such proposals could have been effected earlier. But these same people do not cry over the past. They look to the future. And they want for their future a strong

world authority. They want Congress to act now on strengthening the United Nations.

We, the citizens of Middletown, Ohio, urge you to assume the world leadership which is now rightfully ours by taking the lead in the United Nations to bring about the amendments proposed in House Concurrent Resolution No. 168.

To complete our testimony, I would like to conclude by repeating to your committee my letter to you of May 10, 1948.

"Hon. CHARLES A. EATON,
Chairman, House Foreign Affairs Committee,

Washington, D. O. "DEAR MR. EATON: I am taking the liberty of writing to you because of Middletown, Ohio's tremendous interest in the House Foreign Affairs Committee's present hearing. For 2 years now, we have worked hard for congressional recognition of a plan for strengthening United Nations. The very plan we have strug. gled for so long is now before Congress in the form of House Concurrent Resolution No. 168.

"We are convinced that it is our hope for peace. It is the most important single issue before the American people today. Your committee must give it your most serious and thoughtful attention.

"For 2 years we have held town meetings, given speeches in surrounding communities, appeared on over 30 radio broadcasts, urged over 50 organizations on local, State, and national levels to adopt the Middletown plan (H. R. 168). We have pointed out why time is of the essence, why a preventive war is too un-American, why appeasement is impossible with the Politburo, why an effective, strong, and democratic United Nations can, and will, keep the peace.

"One of the strongest groups that became convinced of the fairness and practicability of the Middletown plan was the American Legion. They are now spearheading the movement to bring their, and our, plan to the attention of Congress, our State Department, and the world. As recently as May 3, 1948, the executive committee of the American Legion urged the adoption of H. R. 168.

"Recently Secretary of State Marshall appeared before your committee and urged a policy of appeasement. He wants the UN to remain as presently constructed.

"If this is allowed to happen you undoubtedly will be credited with the formal burial of the last great hope of the world-a United Nations. As now formulated, the United Nations cannot possibly maintain the peace. Examples are many. Greece and Palestine are ample eloquence.

"Our State Department never has been successful when following a policy of appeasement. I thought that with the Marshall plan they had finally realized that only by a strong offensive can you take the ball from the power-crazed Politburo. Certainly the Marshall plan has been eminently successful in Italy. It will bring future successes.

"But the Marshall plan is not a peace plan. It is a plan to rehabilitate Europe, to rebuild self-sustaining economies, to preserve free institutions, to thwart Communist expansion. With Europe thus revitalized, we will be free to join with other democratic and free nations in keeping the peace through a strong and effective United Nations.

"After the State Department's one forward move, they now want to retreat and return to appeasement of Mr. Wallace and of Russia.

"I hope you will not let this happen.

"Our committee believes that now is the time to push for the strengthened United Nations envisioned in H. R. 168. With our victory in Italy we have a better chance than ever of convincing Russia that her desire for world domination has been stopped, that the world does not wish to live in slavery, that she must now decide if she will join with other nations to create a period of peace, or is her goal-her only goal-a world Communist state.

"Every fair-minded nation in the world wants a United Nations as charted in H. R. 168. We know that most Americans want it, too. It is up to you and your committee to throw out, forever, a policy of appeasement. We must go forward with firmness and fairness to create sufficiently strong world authority which can prevent future aggression and preparation for aggression.

“The citizens of Middletown, Ohio, believe that there is such a plan. We strongly recommend adoption of House Concurrent Resolution 168.” Respectfully submitted.

WILLIAM VERITY,

Chairman, Middletown Citizens Committee. Mr. CHIPERFIELD. The committee will adjourn until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning.

(Whereupon at 1:30 p. m., the committee adjourned until 10 a. m. tomorrow, Friday, May 14, 1948.)

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STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE UNITED NATIONS

FRIDAY, MAY 14, 1948

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS,

Washington, D.C. The committee convened at 10:15 a. m., in the Caucus Room, House Office Building, Hon, Charles A. Eaton (chairman) presiding.

Chairman EATON. The committee will be in order.

The chairman would like to state that all members of the House at the present time are under very great pressure, since adjournment is in the near future.

While we have announced our hearings to begin at 10 o'clock, under our practice, that means 10:20 o'clock, or 10:30 o'clock.

However, the cream of the committee is now here, and we will call on the first witness, Miss Thompson, whose testimony will become the subject of study by the committee.

STATEMENT OF MISS DOROTHY THOMPSON

Miss THOMPSON. Gentlemen, I am here to testify in behalf of congressional Resolution 163.

One curious feature of our public life in these modern times is that the masses of the people are endowed with a maximum responsibility for the acts of their governments together with a minimum of participation in those acts. Thus, in the Potsdam declaration, our Government, as a signatory, held the German people as a whole responsible for the acts of their Government which they either "loudly applauded or blindly obeyed,” overlooking the fact that not a single one of those acts was submitted to public discussion or public approval, including the initial act of war itself.

I welcome these hearings if for no other reason than that they afford an opportuniy to discuss the basic structure of the United Nations Charter on which the peoples of the whole world were invited to rest their hopes of peace and security, which invitation they so joyfully accepted.

The curious thing about this structure has been, however, the unwillingness of its authors, from the very beginning, to subject it to what Hamilton-speaking of the proposed American Constitutioncalled neither blind approbation nor blind disapprobation, but to that sedate and candid consideration which the magnitude and importance of the subject demand, and which it certainly ought to receive.

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