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Mr. EICHELBERGER. With this slight modification. I think the greatest number were cast on the question of membership. While that is certainly a misuse of the veto, it does not involve either chapter 6 or chapter 7. I think one veto was cast in the case of Syria and Lebanon, because the Russians did not think the resolution was strong enough, but it was carried out anyway by the French and the British by .withdrawing their troops.

Four were on the question of Spain, a situation which was not of immediate concern to peace and security.

Six were on the case of Greece, three of which I believe did involve chapter 7, the chapter to which the Culbertson suggestion would apply, but to which General Marshall's would not.

One was in the Corfu Channel case and 11 on the question of admission of new members.

You see, the vetoes have been cast in a surprisingly narrow range after all, and I think we have greatly exaggerated the importance of the veto. I do not like it, but I think the exaggeration of its importance has been overdone.

Chairman EATON. Thank you very much.

The chairman would like to announce that a motion is pending before the committee to have all witnesses send a digest of their testimony, up to 1,000 words, for printing in the record of the meetings, so we can have for our consideration and for the record a complete digest of all the views presented here today, and our position as to the views.

The next witness is Mr. Emerson.



Mr. EMERSON. I am E. A. Emerson. I am addressing the committee in behalf of the Middletown Citizens' Committee, which was formed 2 years ago in an effort to find some way to develop public opinion in the interests of peace.

Chairman EATON. I notice you are representing the ARMCO International. Would you unravel those alphabetical monstrosities for us?

Mr. EMERSON. I am president of the Armco International Corp., foreign subsidiary of the Armco Steel Corp., and in that capacity Í have been engaged in foreign business for some 35 years; but it is as honorary president of the Middletown Citizen's Committee for the United Nations Charter amendment that I appear here.

Chairman EATON. Proceed, Mr. Emerson.

Mr. EMERSON. Speaking for the Middletown Citizen's Committee, I wish to approach the critical problem your committee is facing from the angle of public opinion. In Middletown we have experienced what was to many of us a very thrilling demonstration of what public opinion can mean and can do, and of what American grass roots public opinion today is demanding.

Middletown, Ohio, is a typical small American community of approximately 35,000, with steel, paper, and tobacco industries in the city and fertile farm lands around it.

Just 2 years ago this month, in May 1946, boys were coming back from World War II and already we're being worried by talk of World War III. A group of World War I and World War II vets were

discussing the situation in the American Legion hall one night and we decided that complacently sitting our way into two World Wars was enough. This time we wanted to be on our feet doing something to prevent the next one before it started.

At that time America was complacent and apathetic and completing the utter folly of its premature demobilization.

The World War I vets realized that in the thirty's the Legion had a slogan, “Peace through preparedness,” but no one had worked at it. We had not aroused public opinion enough to support it.

As we studied the subject we realized how vitally important to our American foreign affairs is public opinion. Molotov can bargain internationally as he wishes and then create whatever public opinion he wants. He can bargain for the moon and settle for a street lamp. Secretary Marshall must continually be thinking of public opinion and must be careful not even to suggest anything that public opinion may not support.

For 36 years I have been engaged in the foreign business of my company. During that time I have seen American businessmen and engineers with a steady stream of successes abroad. I have seen our armed forces do the same. During that same time I have seen our diplomats take defeat after defeat including the two worst ones that can come to statesmen, two World Wars.

The Americans in the winning brackets acted with initiative and decisiveness and were strongly supported from home. Our diplomats have been unable to act in that same manner because so often they had only an apathetic, uninformed public opinion at home which would not support them in the positive actions required.

We decided that we would do what one community could do to give our leaders in Washington an aroused and vocal public opinion. We started that May night.

You have had the problem stated to you probably too many times already, but I must briefly describe our future as it appeared to this typical group of grass-root American citizens in 1946 and as it still looks to us:

I. We are drifting into World War III. Not because we threaten or want to threaten ang ne, but because the Soviet communistic leaders are convinced they must destroy our system to triumph with their own.

II. World War III will start with a surprise attack that will conceivably wipe out New York, Washington, and enough American centers to be catastrophic as soon as the Kremlin crowd has accumulated enough A bombs or equivalent.

III. The only way to stop that next war is to stop that one last small but dangerous group of aggressors from making those bombs. Most Russians, as we know, are just as peace loving as we, but that small group in the Kremlin, the last of the four aggressive groups of our time, are made up of ruthless fanatics with a Tartar mentality that holds life very cheap. They must be stopped on their bomb program.

IV. It seemed unthinkable to us that we should let that Third World War come.

V. It seemed unthinkable to us that we should have to spend fantastic, crushing billions of our substance and interfere with the lives of millions of our young men in stopping that one small group of aggressors—14 men-in a country where much opposition must exist to their ruthless tactics of domination.

peace of all

VI. There must be some simpler solution—there is. We have a United Nations set up to stop aggressors. Why not use it?

VII. We believe there are two ways to use the UN to stop the production of those bombs. Both ways channel through Resolution No. 168, which is before you for action. Both of them utilize the United Nations as strengthened by this plan proposed in No. 168. (This resolution was submitted by Congressman Burke, of our district, and is identical to No. 163, submitted by Mr. Judd.)

(a) The first way is through the use of world public opinion. Resolution No. 168 outlines a solution, a plan for keeping the nations on a basis that is so manifestly fair that it can be accepted by any man who is open-minded and wants peace. Some call it the ABC plan--some the Middletown plan-some the Legion plan-or the quota force plan-it doesn't matter. That plan resolutely and skillfully supported by the United States can gain the adherence of an overwhelming number of nations. It can arouse a great mass of public opinion in favor of it on both sides of the iron curtain. That mass of public opinion plus the international strength behind it will in our opinion convince the Kremlin crowd that they have gone as far as they can on the path of aggression and that they had best now join the cause for peace, help make the United Nations work, and benefit therefrom with the rest of us. I do not say this completely without experience because I have carried on many negotiations with Russians. They are the world's best poker players. They push implacably until they have determined to their own satisfaction that you will yield no more. Then and only then the atmosphere clears, amiability appears, and agreements are reached. If we are firm for the solution offered by No. 168 and we show we are firm and determined on it, the odds are very great they will stop pushing and we will have won the elements for

peace. (6) In the unlikely event that the Soviet group continues to stand out against the great mass of world opinion which can be mustered in favor of strentghening the United Nations so that it can accomplish its purpose---as subscribed to by the U. S. S. R.-then the UN needs most obviously to be strengthened, and as Resolution No. 168 indicates. When so strengthened it will constitute a potent authority with a court to determine its laws and a police force to prevent breaches of those laws. Policemen have always carried clubs, and in dangerous districts, sometimes revolvers, and we would not hesitate to make it clear that if the conditions which the bulk of the nations of the world feel are necessary to preserve the peace of all are threatened by anyone that then the police force would under the authority of the revised United Nations utilize whatever means are necessary to stop that aggressor before he brings destruction on the nations dedicated to peace. This is not an American police force—it answers to the revised Security Council and acts for all.

Action on either of the above will keep the initiative in the hands of the peaceful nations and that is the essential.

The Middletown Citizen's Committee wanted action. It was only a study group long enough to test its solution on all the critics it could reach. Then it went out to rouse public opinion in favor of that solution and the success that followed was astonishing.

We were amazed to find such tremendous interest in international affairs, such keen questioning, such a demand for action, and such widespread endorsement of the solution as covered by your Resolution 168. Nearly always the critics were those who had not read or carefully analyzed the plan. The citizens of Middletown got behind the solution in all walks of life. They supported the Middletown Citizen's Committee with their own funds and volunteers of the committee made over 300 speeches in nearby parts of the country.

Reader's Digest picked up our story. From letters from their article on the Middletown movement we obtained a mailing list in the thousands. Our first publication, Crossroads Middletown, was sent to 25,000 people.

Soon we were so busy on the Middletown movement that all of our jobs suffered. Our chairman at that time, George V. Hook, took a year's leave of absence from his work so that he could guide the movement properly. All of Middletown cooperated in every way.

Our committee organized town meetings all over Ohio and Kentucky. We made speeches whenever possible. We accepted many requests for radio appearances.

And, strangely enough, we found that wherever we went we found the same conditions. People were worried, scared. They were afraid of another war and of atom bombs. When they heard our plan they were usually just lukewarm to it. But when they would argue about its provisions they would become convinced of its soundness, effectiveness,

and practicability. Everywhere we went we gathered more and more support.

Organizations of all types became interested, then enthusiastic, then eager to become a part of this movement.

Today 53 local organizations in Middletown, Ohio, have adopted the plan. They have convinced their State and national affiliations to adopt this plan as part of their foreign relations or international program.

I will not stop to read the names of all those 53 organizations but you will find a list attached to your copy of this statement. You will see that they constitute a true cross section of American community life.

Chairman Eaton. The list referred to will appear in the record at this point.




1. Altrusa Club_Hamilton, Ohio
2. Alturian Club
3. American Citizens Club
4. American Hellenic Educational and Progressive Association
5. American Legion Post 218
6. Ancient Order of Hibernians
7. Blythe-Williams American Legion Post
8. Business and Professional Women's Club
9. Chamber of Commerce
10. City Commission
11. Civic Association
12. Civitan Club
13. Congress of Industrial Organizations, Middletown Chapter
14. Co-Operative Club

15. Council of Churches
16. Current Events Club
17. Fabricating Foremen's Club-Armco
18. Federation of Women's Clubs
19. Independent Unions
20. Industrial Council
21. Insurance Underwriters Association
22. International Lyceum Association
23. Junior Board of Trade
24. Junior Chamber of Commerce
25. Junta Club
26. Kiwanis Club
27. Lincoln Community Center
28. Lions Club
29. Lions Club of Cambridge, Ohio
30. Ministerial Association
31. N. A. L. C. Branch No. 188 (Postal Employees)
32. New Hope Baptist Church
33. Poasttown Grange
34. Real Estate Board
35. Red Cross
36. Retail Merchants Association
37. Rotary Club
38. Round Table
39. Spanish American War Veterans
40. St. John Lutheran Church Brotherhood
41. Sulphite Paper Workers Unions (AFL)
42. Talk of the Month Club
43. Trades & Labor Council (AFL)
44. Veterans of Foreign Wars, Miami Valley Post
45. Veterans of Foreign Wars, Hunter Clark Post
46. Armco Employees Independent Union
47. Greenfield Ohio Rotary Club
48. Blanchester Ohio Rotary Club
49. Middletown Teachers Association
50. N. A. A. C. P.-Middletown Chapter
51. Women's Club
52. Young Businessmen's Club
53. Homemakers' Club-Middletown, Ohio


1. Fourth district of the Ohio Department of the American Legion. 2. Ohio district, AHEPA. 3. Eleventh district of the Ohio Department of the American Legion. 4. One hundred fifty-ninth district of Rotary Clubs (38 counties of southern

Ohio). 5. Tenth district of the Ohio Department of the American Legion. 6. The Ohio State Federation of Labor (AFL). 7. The Kentucky State Federation of Labor (AF'L). 8. The Ohio Department of the American Legion. 9. The Kansas Department of the American Legion. 10. Ohio State Ancient Order of Hibernians. 11. Butler County Bar Association. 12. Clergy of the diocese of southern Ohio. 13. American War Mothers, State of Ohio. 14. Butler County Democratic Executive Committee. 15. Executive board, Federation of Women's Clubs of Ohio. 16. Butler County Pomona Grange. 17. Ohio State Legislature. 18. Kiwanis.


1. The National Order of AHEPA.
2. National Association of Fire Fighters (AFL).
3. The American Legion.
4. National Association of Foremen.

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