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in title brings the title into accord with the title used on the appointment and confirmation of Ambassador Austin to his present position. Section 2 (6)
The section is amended to authorize the appointment of an additional Deputy Representative of the United States in the Security Council and to provide that he shall serve in the Security Council in the event of the absence or disability of the Representative and Deputy Representative of the United States to the United Nations. The amendment eliminates the provision for rank of envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary for this position. The effect of this amendment is to provide a third member of the United States Mission authorized to serve on the Security Council. This Deputy Representative, however, would not be authorized to serve on any other organ of the United Nations. Section 2 (d)
The amendments to this section change the authorization of the President to designate an officer of the United States to serve, without the advice and consent of the Senate, in the Economic and Social Council and the Trusteeship Council to cover any specified session of either Council rather than any specified meeting as currently provided in the act. The amendments also permit the designation by the President, without the advice and consent of the Senate, of any officer of the United States to act in either of these Councils for a specified session thereof in the event that the position is vacant as well as in the absence or disability of the regular representative.
An additional amendment to this section would authorize the President to designate any departmental officer of the Department of State, whose appointment is subject to confirmation by the Senate, to serve for temporary periods as the Representative of the United States in the Security Council of the United Nations in the absence or disability of the Representative and Deputy Representative or in lieu of such Representatives in connection with a specified subject matter.
It is proposed to amend the section also to make it unnecessary to secure Senate confirmation of Presidential appointments to the Commissions of the United Nations to which the United States is entitled to appoint a representative, except for such commissions as may be formed by the United Nations with respect to atomic energy. This amendment would make it unnecessary to secure Senate confirmation of Pesidential appointments to the many commissions of the Economic and Social Council or to subcommissions of any other organ of the United Nations. Section 7 (a new section replacing former sec. 7)
Section 7 authorizes the Secretary of State to acquire by purchase, gift, devise, construction, exchange, lease or rental, an official residence for the use of the Representative of the United States to the United Nations and the use of the appropriation for participation in the United Nations for payment of maintenance and operating costs of the residence. This amendment is drafted to make provisions for a residence for the Representative, similar to provisions of this nature in the Foreign Service Act of 1946. Section 8 (replaces and amends former section 7)
Most of the amendments of this section are designed to clarify provisions of the existing law and to bring it more nearly into accord with related legislation. The amendments to this section specifically exempt the United States mission from the provisions of the civil-service laws and the Classification Act of 1923, as amended. The amendments also exempt the mission from the provisions of the Subsistence Expense Act of 1926 with regard to the rates of per diem allowances in lieu of subsistence expenses. It is 'proposed to amend the provision regarding payment of cost of living allowances to limit such payment to personnel stationed abroad but to broaden the allowances for official entertainment to include representation also. This provision will permit payment of allowances for living quarters and cost of living allowances to any representatives who may be appointed to regional commissions of the United Nations where the head. quarters are located outside of the United States, such as the Economic Commission for Europe. It also brings the provision for payment of entertainment and representation allowances in line with provisions of the Foreign Service Act. It is proposed also to amend this section to exempt the use of the appropriation for printing and binding from provisions of section 11 of the act of March 1, 1919 (44 U. S. C. 111) (note statute requiring printing by the Government Printing Office) and to exempt the use of the appropiration for expenses as authorized in section 7 and other expenses authorized by the Secretary of State from this appropriation from provisions of section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (41 U. S. C. 5) (note statute requiring advertising for bids).
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, January 19, 1948. Hon. JOSEPH W. MARTIN, Jr.,
Speaker of the House of Representatives. Mr. DEAR MR. SPEAKER: There is transmitted herewith a draft of a proposed bill authorizing the furnishing of services and the temporary detail of United States employees to public international organizations entitled to enjoy, in whole or in part, the privileges, exemptions, and immunities authorized by and in accordance with the International Organization Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669), on a reimbursable basis.
The purpose of this bill is to authorize agencies of the United States Government to detail personnel or supply services required by public international organizations, under the direction and general supervision of the Secretary of State. For reasons of economy, it is desirable that international organizations should follow a policy of providing in their secretariats only a minimum staff and of relying on member governments for service and personnel which it is not feasible for the organizations to provide for themselves. If the organizations are able to draw upon governments for assistance of this kind for short periods, their complement of full-time permanent staff can be kept smaller in size than would otherwise be possible.
The United States Government, as participant in these organizations, has received numerous requests for detail of personnel to assist the international organizations. Under the existing statutes, it is impossible to comply with most of these requests. This bill permits the Secretary of State to comply with these requests, provided the Government agency and United States employee involved consent.
Both the international organizations and the United States Government will benefit from the proposed statute. The international organization will be enabled to maintain a smaller staff than otherwise would be necessary if it is allowed to draw on its member governments for additional staff to meet difficult technical problems or peak work loads. The United States Government will benefit in two ways. In the first place, reducing the budget of the international organization will correspondingly reduce the United States financial contribution. Since it is to be expected that many other nations will similarly loan personnel to the international organizations, the effect on the budget may be quite substantial. In the second place, the employees of the United States Government who are so loaned will have a unique opportunity to broaden their training and background on the technical, professional questions which are the concern of the particular international organization. Their usefulness to the United States will accordingly be increased by the experience gained through service with the international organization.
The bill provides for reimbursement by the international organization concerned of the costs and expenses involved in the furnishing of services and in the detail of personnel. Thus, the bill, if enacted into law, will enable the United States Government, in international comity, to assist, at no cost or expense to itself, public international organizations in which it participates and in whose success this Government and the American public share a continual concern.
A similar letter is being dispatched to the President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
The Department has been informed by the Bureau of the Budget that there is no objection to the submission of this proposal. Faithfully yours,
ROBERT A. LOVETT,
[Draft] A BILL To authorize the furnishing of services and the temporary detail of United States
employees to public international organizations Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the “International Organizations Services and Detail Act of 1948”.
SEC. 2. When used in this Act-
(2) the term "international organization" means any public international organization entitled to enjoy, in whole or in part, the privileges, exemptions, and immunities authorized by and in accordance with the International Organizations Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669); and
(3) the term "Government agency” means any department, independent establishment, or other agency of the Government of the United States, or any corporation wholly owned by the Government of the United States.
SEC. 3. The Secretary is authorized, upon application of an international organization and its agreement to pay the costs and expenses thereof either by advancement of funds or reimbursement, to: (1) provide scientific, technical, professional, or administrative services, through such Government agency as the Secretary may designate, with the approval of that agency, or (2) detail, or authorize the detail, for not exceeding one year at a time, to the international organization of any person, except members of the armed forces, in the employ or service of the Government of the United States with the approval of the Government agency in which such person is employed or serving and with the consent of such person: Provided, That while so detailed, such person shall be considered, for the purpose of preserving his rights and privileges as such, an officer or employee of the Government of the United States and of the Government agency from which detailed, and shall continue to receive therefrom his regular compensation : Provided further, That when reimbursement is made, it shall be credited to the appropriation, fund, or account utilized in incurring the obligation: Provided further, That any officer or employee detailed under the authority of this Act is hereby authorized to accept directly from the funds of the international organization payment for additional compensation, allowances, and travel expenses at rates fixed by such international organization.
SEC. 4. Nothing in this Act shall authorize the disclosure of any information or knowledge in any case in which such disclosure is prohibited by any other law of the United States.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, February 13, 1948. Hon, CHARLES A. EATON,
House of Representatives. DEAR MR. EATON: One of the important matters which the Congress will have before it at its current session is the approval of a loan to the United Nations to finance the construction of its permanent headquarters in New York City. I understand that this matter has already been discussed informally with you.
During the course of the second regular session of the General Assembly in New York last fall, it became clear that, as a result of the critical dollar shortage confronting most of the members of the United Nations, the only satisfactory way of providing for the prompt construction of a permanent home for the Organization would be a loan by the United States. In view of these facts, and taking into consideration the economic and financial advantages that would accrue to the United States from this project, the President authorized Ambassador Austin, in reply to an inquiry from the Secretary General regarding the possibility of a United States Government loan, to state that the President would be willing to request the Congress to approve an interest-free loan of $65,000,000 for this purpose. The General Assembly accepted this offer subject to the express understanding that the loan would require approval of the Congress.
A memorandum is enclosed which gives the background leading up to the loan proposal and the Assembly resolution. This memorandum explains why other methods of financing are not feasible and why the approval of this transaction by the Congress will result in definite benefits to the United States, both in actual economic and financial returns and in leadership and prestige within the United Nations.
The prompt construction of a permanent headquarters for the United Nations is essential not only for the efficient operation of the Organization, but also as a demonstration of faith in and support for the United Nations.
Negotations with United Nations officials conducted by officers of the Department of State and the Treasury, in consultation with the Bureau of the Budget, have resulted in a draft loan agreement specifying the terms of the proposed loan. A copy of this draft is enclosed. If you have any comments or questions about it, Mr. Bohlen, the counselor, or Mr. Rusk, the director of the Office of United Nations Affairs, will be glad to discuss the matter with you at your convenience. It is expected that the agreement will be finally negotiated and signed about February 24. Promptly thereafter, it will be submitted to the Congress for formal approval Faithfully yours,
ROBERT A. LOVETT, Under Secretary.
MEMORANDUM-BUILDING THE PERMANENT HEADQUARTERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS
The United Nations is now ready to build its permanent headquarters in New York City. The site has been substantially cleared. Plans have been drawn. Construction can start as soon as funds are available. To provide these funds, the Congress will be asked to consider a proposed interest-free loan of $65,000,000.
This memorandum describes the developments leading up to the proposal of the loan. It explains why, from the point of view of world peace and United States security and leadership, this proposal, although involving a relatively small sum, is one of the most important matters which will be before the Congress at its present session.
CHOICE OF THE SITE
The United Nations Charter, adopted at San Francisco on June 26, 1945, left the location of the Organization's headquarters for determination by the General Assembly. In December of that year the Congress unanimously adopted a concurrent resolution inviting the new Organization to locate its permanent headquarters in the United States. The General Assembly decided to accept this invitation and to make its temporary home in New York City while looking for an appropriate permanent location.
The General Assembly, during the autumn of 1946, considered several sites which had been proposed in or near New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Boston. It finally accepted the offer of Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and the city of New York of a free gift of land covering approximately six city blocks on the East River in New York City.
Once the site was chosen events moved rapidly. The Congress approved legislation exempting the Rockefeller gift from Federal taxation. Title to the property was transferred to the United Nations. The city of New York undertook extensive commitments valued at about $20,000,000 to make alterations in the surrounding streets and approaches. Nearly all the buildings on the site were demolished except an office building now being used by the United Nations.
The rights of the United Nations and the United States with respect to control over the site are defined in the headquarters agreement which became effective November 21, 1947, pursuant to approval by the Congress (Public Law 357, 80th Cong.). The site remains part of the United States and of the city and State of New York, while the United Nations is given specified privileges and immunities comparable to those enjoyed by foreign embassies here and by United States Embassies abroad.
Plans for the new headquarters have been developed under the guidance of the headquarters advisory committee, a 16-nation committee chaired by Ambassador Warren R. Austin. A group of outstanding architects and engineers from various member nations, led by Wallace K. Harrison, of the United States, collaborated in preparing plans for an assembly hall, office building, and conference facilities. These were unanimously approved by the General Assembly at its last session.
The plans as originally drawn called for buildings that would cost approximately $85,000,000. These plans were revised in an effort to bring costs down to the minimum consistent with efficient operation and room for moderate expansion in the immediate future. As a result, the estimated cost was reduced to $65,000,000.
Estimates made by the headquarters planning staff of the United Nations indi. cate that the total steel required for construction of the permanent headquarters will be approximately 40,000 tons, or about 0.4 percent of the total steel used in the United States for construction and maintenance in 1947. Less than one-half of the steel going into the project will be required during 1948. The type of steel used will, in general, be different from that which is used in multipledwelling housing structures. Thus no appreciable competition with housing requirements is expected.
Cement requirements are estimated at less than one-half of 1 percent of the amount of cement which was shipped to New York State in 1947 when the industry was operating at 75 percent of capacity.
The lumber required for the construction will be mostly concrete form lumber of which it is expected that there will be an adequate supply without competition with housing.
IMPORTANCE OF STARTING CONSTRUCTION PROMPTLY
The temporary headquarters of the United Nations are in a converted factory at Lake Success where the space is cramped and in large part unsuitable for office use.
The General Assembly meets in the New York State building at the old world fair grounds, about 20 minutes drive away. Both buildings are far from hotels, with the result that delegates have to spend many hours commuting to and from New York City.
In addition to operating efficiency, however, there are more fundamental reasons why it is of vital importance that the permanent headquarters of the United Nations promptly became a reality. Recent deterioration of international relations has led the nations of the world to put their faith all the more earnestly in the United Nations as their best ultimate hope for lasting peace. Failure to proceed promptly with the erection of the permanent headquarters would be construed, rightly or wrongly, in many member nations as lack of faith in the future of the organization.
Not only is the success of the United Nations and the assurance of its future development as vital to the United States as to any other member Nation, but the United States is even more vitally concerned than the other members in the establishment of the United Nations headquarters on a permanent basis. Location of the headquarters in this country is a source not only of pride to the United States but a very important factor in the prestige and leadership of this country in the activities of the United Nations.
The decision to locate here was made in the face of strong opposition on the part of many nations who felt that the headquarters should be in Europe. Most of those nations now feel that, once the decision has been made to locate here, it would be calamitous to reverse it. Nevertheless, the permanence of this decision cannot be assured as long as the United Nations remains in makeshift quarters. During the deliberations in the fall of 1946, when the site was chosen, the Soviet Union appeared to regret its original support for location in this country and sought to have a European location reconsidered.
At the last session of the General Assembly it was voted to hold the next session in Europe. Some members opposed this for fear that it would lead to a diminution of United States leadership. The United States felt bound to support the wishes of the majority of the members in this respect as long as the organization had not yet found satisfactory quarters in this country. If, at the time of the next assembly meets in Europe, the construction of the permanent headquarters in this country is not assured, there is a serious possibility that the old question of where the headquarters should be located may be reopened.
DIFFERENT METHODS OF FINANCING CONSIDERED
In normal times, a project such as this would, of course, be financed by cash contributions of member nations. The critical dollar shortage, however, makes this method a practical impossibility for most of the members of the United Nations.
The possibilities of private financing were carefully explored, and the most favorable arrangement that could be developed was submitted to the headquarters