« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
of atomic, biological, bacteriological, or other weapons of mass destruction, or the production of heavy armaments beyond authorized quotas, or refusal to submit to inspection.
(b) Strengthening of the International Court of Justice to have adequate power to interpret the Charter, and to enter judgments with respect to governments and individuals in specific matters dealing with aggression and preparation for aggression,
(c) Creation of specific enforcement provisions for the prevention of aggression and preparation for aggression as defined in subsection (a) hereof. In the matter of atomic weapons, this shall be in accordance with and through the adoption of the official United States proposal for inspection and control by an Atomic Development Authority. In the matter of heavy armaments, this shall include a world-wide quota-limitation of production, to be established with due regard to the strength of the United States and other permanent members of the Security Council, together with a minimum collective quota for the remaining smaller member states.
(d) Establishment of an effective world police force, to consist primarily of one active international contingent permanently in readiness, and five national contingents operating as reserves. The international contingent shall be responsible to and under the direct control of the Security Council; shall consist of thoroughly trained and disciplined volunteers recruited exclusively from citizens of member states which are not permanent members of the Security Council; and shall be equipped with the smaller nations collective quota of heavy armament. The armed forces of the five permanent members of the Security Council shall constitute the five national contingents and such national contingents shall remain under the full sovereignty of their respective governments; except that in time of peace their effective strength shall be limited by their respective quotas of heavy armament, and except that they shall be available (subject to their constitutional processes) as reserves to the international contingent by a two-thirds vote of the Security Council in specific matters of aggression or preparation for aggression.
Nothing herein shall be taken to prohibit a member state, if actually attacked, from defending itself and increasing its forces and armament beyond the limitations herein provided for; provided, however, that it shall, upon the cessation of such attack, forthwith reduce its forces and armament to their original strength.
(8) Until such time as the foregoing provisions shall be fully put into effect, the armed forces of the United States and its weapons of every kind shall be maintained at wholly adequate levels. COMMENTARY ON SUGGESTED RESOLUTION X, SUBMITTED AT THE REQUEST OF
HON. WALTER H. JUDD BY ANSON T. McCOOK
Resolution X is submitted with reluctance and solely for purposes of analysis by the committee. It follows House Concurrent Resolution 163 in structure and very largely in content, at the same time taking into consideration House Concurrent Resolution 59. It departs from House Concurrent Resolution 163 as noted below:
Sections (1), (2) and (4) of X are substantially identical with the same numbers of House Concurrent Resolution 163. The word "amend” is substituted for "revised”, inasmuch as we recommend making use of the specific power of amendment which is provided for in the Charter. The substitution of "preparation for aggression" for "armament for aggression”, is suggested as broader.
In section (3) of House Concurrent Resolution 163 the last four lines are changed so as to express coordination with the ERP (which the Legion was the first to endorse) but to avoid having this vital subject of amending the Charter tied to something outside the Charter.
Section (5) of House Concurrent Resolution 163 is divided into two sections (5 and 6) in X. Here is the first substantial variance between the two, since X specifically provides that amendment shall be undertaken under article 108 of the Charter, and vigorously pressed. Only if that should fail would amendment under article 109 be attempted as provided in House Concurrent Resolution 59. Then if amendment were completely vetoed (both under 108 and 109), but only in that event, would the United States be free to join in forming a new world organization, or semiworld organization to replace the United Nations. However, I feel so strongly that such a new organization should be a last resort that I incline to omit mention of even the possibility of this. That is, I would prefer at
this stage to omit the last nine lines of my (5) unless for the tactical purpose of warning recalcitrants.
Meanwhile, and irrespective of this, the United States has the right to join with other like-minded states under article 51, 52, etc., to form regional or defense or other special organizations, as already contemplated in the Charter even though hedged about with limitations. This is covered by (6) of X.
Let me accentuate that these limited alternatives already exist under, and therefore require no amendment of, the Charter. Hence their segregation into a separate paragraph. Logically, therefore, they would not be part of any amendment. Nor are they of major importance as compared with obviating the veto. Actually, that part of old 5 (new 6) could be omitted if so desired.
In short, the Legion believes that amendment to achieve law and order is the key to peace, while articles 51 and 52 of the Charter are much more limited, being in essence defense pacts rather than peace pacts. The words "for mutual defense" are omitted for that reason.
Section (6) of House Concurrent Resolution 163 is absorbed in “X” (5).
The first part of section (7) remains substantially the same, but there are variances in the lettered subsections.
Subsection (a) of X omits the words "and admission to membership in the United Nations,” since it seems wise to concentate on aggression and preparation for aggression, which are essential to peace. The admission of new members is important, but nations could differ as to that without affecting peace. Because of the atomic bomb and the imminent danger of war, I respectfully urge that the "must" of your legislation should relate to peace. Aggression touches the conscience of the world, whereas honest difference of opinion may exist elsewhere.
There are omitted from subsection (a) the detailed provisions for 10 members of the Security Council. The Legion in 1946 included this as a "suggested detail," not as a definite resolve, and I question the advisability of being so specific in the legislation itself. I would definitely recommend, however, that decisions on aggression and like matters (after the removal of the veto) be made by a twothirds vote, which would mean 7 out of 10, or 6 out of the present 9; or even three-fourths, which would be 8 of 10, 7 of 9.
In House Concurrent Resolution 163 the unnumbered paragraph under (a) is made a new subsection because of its importance.
(c) of X is similar to (b) of House Concurrent Resolution 163. It is the same as regards the vital United States proposal for an Atomic Development Authority. It attempts, however, to be more elastic as to details of the collective quotas, as above in (a). Here again the Legion's resolution of 1946 mentioned these same quotas as "suggested details."
(d) of X is similar to (c) of House Concurrent Resolution 163, except that details are omitted for purposes of elasticity. And an unnumbered paragraph is added to X, although not of essential importance.
Section (8) is the same in both.
(The following statement has been submitted by Hon. Warren R. Austin :)
UNITED NATIONS—DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INFORMATION, RESEARCH SECTION
STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FIRST REVISION), APRIL 1, 1948
The original members of the United Nations are those which participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco or had previously signed the United Nations declaration of January 1, 1942, and which signed and ratified the Charter.
MEMBERS SUBSEQUENTLY ADMITTED BY HE GENER ASSEMBLY ON RECOMMENDA
TION OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
Afghanistan, November 19, 1946.
The United Nations has six principal organs. They are:
I. The General Assembly.
V. The International Court of Justice.
I. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY Membership
The General Assembly is composed of all the members of the United Nations. Structure
The General Assembly does most of its work in committees, of which there are four types :
A. Main committees.
1 Although Poland was not represented at San Francisco, it was agreed that it should sign the Charter subsequently as an original member.