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clears away the fuperfluous matter, and removes the rubbish. The figure is in the ftone, and the sculptor only finds it. What fculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human foul. The philofopher, the faint, or the hero, the wife, the good, or the great man, very often lie hid and concealed in a plebeian, which a proper education might have dif-interred and have brought to light. I am therefore much delighted with reading the accounts of favage nations, and with contemplating those virtues which are wild and uncultivated; to fee courage exerting itself in fierceness, refolu tion in obftinacy, wisdom in cunning, patience in fullennefs and defpair.

Men's paffions operate varioufly, and appear in different kinds of actions, according as they are more or lefs rectified and fwayed by reafon. When one hears of Begroes, who upon the death of their mafters, or upon changing their fervice, hang themselves upon the next tree, as it frequently happens in our AMERICAN plantations, who can forbear admiring their fidelity, though it expreffes itself in fo dreadful a manner? What might not that favage greatnefs of foul, which appears in these poor wretches on many occafions, be raised to, were it tightly

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rightly cultivated*? And what colour of excufe can there be for the contempt with which we treat this part of our fpecies; that we fhould not put them upon the common footing of humanity; that we should only fet an infignificant fine upon the man who murders them; nay, that we should, as much as in us lies, cut them off from the prospects of happiness in another world as well as in this, and deny them that which we look upon as the proper means for attaining it?

It is therefore an unspeakable bleffing to be born in those parts of the world where wisdom and knowledge flourish; though it must be confeffed there are even in these parts several poor uninstructed persons, who are but little above the inhabitants of those nations of which I have been here speaking; as those who have had the advantages of a more liberal education, rife above one another by feveral different degrees of perfection. For, to return to our statue in the block of marble, we see it fometimes only begun to be chipped, fometimes rough


* A Portuguese negro, fays Abbé RAYNAL, in his Hiftory of the European Settlements, who had fled into the woods to enjoy the liberty which was his natural right, having learned that his old master was arrested, and likely to be condemned for a capital crime, came into the court of juftice; affumed the guilt of the fact; fuffered himself to be imprisoned; and was executed instead

of his beloved master !


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hewn, and but just sketched into an human figure; fometimes we see the man appearing distinctly in all his limbs and features; fometimes we find the figure wrought up to great elegancy; but feldom meet with any to which the hand of a PHIDIAS or a PRAXITELES could not give feveral nice touches and finishings.

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DEMOSTHENES was extremely affected with the honours paid to the orator CALLISTRATUS, and still more with his fupreme power of eloquence; and not being able to refift its charms, he gave himself up wholly to it, renounced all other studies and pleasures, and, during the continuance of CALLISTRATUS at Athens, made all the improvement he could from his precepts. The first effay of his eloquence was against his guardians, whom he obliged to refund a part of his fortune. Encouraged by this, he ventured to speak before the people, but with very ill fuccefs. He had a weak voice, a thick way of fpeaking, and a short breath; notwithstanding which his periods were so long, that he was often obliged to stop in the midst of them for respiration. This occafioned his being hiffed by the whole audience. As he withdrew in the utmost confufion, Satyrus, an excellent actor;

actor, who was his friend, met him; and having learnt the cause of his dejection, he affured him that the evil was not without remedy, and that the cafe was not fo defperate as he imagined. He defired him to repeat some verfes of Sophocles or Euripides to him; which he did. Satyrus fpoke them after him, and gave them fuch graces by the tone, gefture, and fpirit, with which he pronounced them, that DEMOSTHENES found them quite different from what they were in his own manner of speaking. He perceived plainly what he wanted, and applied himself to acquiring it.

His efforts, to correct his natural defect of utterance, and to perfect himself in pronunciation, of which his friend had made him understand the value, feem almost incredible, and prove, THAT PERSEVERANCE CAN SURMOUNT ALL THINGS. He ftammered to fuch a degree, that he could not pronounce fome letters, and was so short-breathed that he could not utter a whole period without stopping. He overcame thefe obftacles by putting small pebbles into his mouth, pronouncing feveral verses without interruption; and with going up steep and difficult places, fo that at last no letter made him hefitate, and his breath held out through the longest periods. He went alfo to the sea-side; and VOL. IV.


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