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was, in fact, the intention of the United States Goverriment to fạlfill the hopes expressed in Part II of the Act.' By public statement issued at San Francisco, he stated the intention of this Government to call a conference before the close of the year, to conclude, consistent with the provisions of the Charter, the permanent hemispheric treaty contemplated by Part II of the Act of Chapultepec.
In conclusion, it may be said that from the point of view of the national interest of the United States, the provisions on regional arrangements adopted at San Francisco insure the preservation of the inter-American system based on the Good Neighbor Policy as an integral and valuable element of an effective collective security system on a world-wide basis. It is believed that this has been accomplished without establishing a precedent which might engender rivalry between regional groups at the expense of world security,
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COOPERATION
ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL COOPERATION
(Chapters IX and X)
The battle of peace has to be fought on two fronts. The first is the security front where victory spells freeajm from fear. The second is the economic and social front where victory means freedom from want. Only victory on both fronts can assure the world of an enduring peace.
In the next twenty-five years the development of the economic and social foundations of peace will be of paramount importance. If the United Nations cooperate effectively toward an expanding world economy, better living conditions for all men and women, and closer understanding among peoples, they will have gone far toward eliminating in advance the causes of another world war a generation hence. If they fail, there will be instead widespread depressions and economic warfare which would fatally undermine the world organization. No provisions that can be written into the Charter will enable the Security Council to make the world secure from war if men and women have no security in their homes and in their jobs.
Effective economic and social cooperation is, furthermore, an urgent necessity for all nations which brooks no delay. The war is over in Europe, but the terrible destruction and the suffering, the wholesale uprooting of peoples and its social consequences, the disruption of production and trade resulting from the war-all these have still to be dealt with. In the Far East, the United Nations face the same task as rapidly as they drive the Japanese out of the occupied lands, and to final defeat.
The stake of the United States in the prompt and successful performance of this task is at least as great as that of any other nation. We cannot provide jobs for the millions now in our armed forces and maintain prosperity for ourselves unless the economy of the rest of the world is restored to health. Continuing poverty and despair abroad can only lead to mass unemployment in our own country.
from the long-range point of view we cannot hope to maintain our contparative wealth unless there is effective international cooperation in the development of trade and higher standards of living throughout the world.
It is equally evident that the promotion of respect for human rights and freedoms, and closer cooperation in fighting ignorance and disease and in the exchange among nations of scientific knowledge and of information about each other are as necessary to peace as an expanding world economy.
Modern communications have brought the peoples of the world into closer contact with each other, and have made mutual understanding not merely desirable but indispensable to the maintenance of good neighborliness. Unless the peoples of the world learn to comprehend that, in spite of diversities in attitudes and outlook, they are bound together by common interests and common aspirations, the peace of the world will rest on uncertain foundations.
Similarly the struggle against disease and pestilence is a matter of international concern. In the age of aviation disease travels faster than ever, and becomes a threat to the highly developed countries with their vast centers of communication even more than to remote and undeveloped regions of the world. Nor is it enough to fight dread epidemics. Preventive medicine, mental hygiene, improved standards of nutrition and better health in general are essential to the wellbeing of nations. They mean higher productivity, enlarged markets, and a general well-being which makes for peace.
Finally, no sure foundation of lasting peace and security can be laid which does not rest on the voluntary association of free peoples. Only so far as the rights and dignity of all men are respected and protected, only so far as men have free access to information, assurance of free speech and free assembly, freedom from discrimination on grounds of race, sex, language, or religion and other fundamental rights and freedoms, will men insist upon the right to live at peace, to compose such differences as they may have by peaceful methods, and to be guided by reason and goodwill rather than driven by prejudice and resentment The United States, as a nation which takes pride in its free institutions, is particularly interested in the promotion, through international means, of human rights throughout the world
To foster cooperation in all these fields is a vast undertaking It was approached boldly and in a spirit of realism both at Dumbarton Oaks and at San Francisco.
It was evident to the architects of the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals that to neglect the economic and social aspects of international relations in the way in which they were frequently neglected during the period between the two wars, was to court disaster. Thus their Proposals provided for the setting up, under the authority of the General Assembly, of an Economic and Social Council designed to become an effective instrument in the promotion of international economic and social cooperation.
Unlike the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council was not to have any coercive powers. The Proposals recognized that in social and economic matters an international organization could aid in the solution of economic and social problems but could not interfere with the functions and powers of sovereign states. It could not command performance by individual member nations; it should not reach into the domestic affairs of Members. Its tools and procedures are those of study, discussion, report, and recommendation. These are the voluntary means of a free and voluntary association of nations.
The Economic and Social Council, according to the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals, differs from the Security Council in another important respect. Arrangements for international cooperation in security matters are largely centered in the Security Council. By contrast, international economic and social issues cannot be dealt with by any one agency. Effective cooperation in fields so diverse and so fundamental to nations and individuals as the movement of trade, monetary stability, public health, freedom of the press, or aviation, requires the creation of specified agencies, some of which are already functioning while others are being planned.
To coordinate the policies and activities of these specialized agencies and to avoid duplication of effort is to be one of the major tasks of the Organization and, specifically, of the Economic and Social Council as defined at Dumbarton Oaks.
The San Francisco Conference added new provisions to the original text, and earlier provisions were expanded. All these changes, while upholding the principles laid down at Dumbarton Oaks, were designed to strengthen the position of the Economic and Social Council within the general international organization and to enable it to achieve its vital tasks. Objectives were more clearly defined and functions more clearly stated. And, significantly, it was unanimously decided that the Economic and Social Council should become one of the principal organs in the New Organization, one of the cornerstones of the peace of tomorrow.
The Committee of the Conference dealing with economic and social arrangements and its Drafting Subcommittee held altogether forty meetings. All nations represented in the Conference, both large and small, took an active part in the work of these committees. They were firm in their determination to get at the very roots of international conflict and to prepare the way for active and constructive international cooperation in the creation of a peaceful world. Chapters IX and X of the Charter reflect their achievement. They combine the wisdom of experience with the wisdom of hope. The first of these two chapters contains the general provisions of the Charter regarding international economic and social cooperation, while Chapter X deals with the Economic and Social Council.
PURPOSE AND UNDERTAKINGS
The Dumbarton Oaks language had confined its statement of objectives in the field of international economic and social cooperation to the following:
"With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and wellbeing which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations, the Organization should facilitate solutions of international economic, social and other humanitarian problems and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms". Chapter I, Paragraph 3 contained an even briefer statement in listing among the purposes of the Organization the achievement of "international cooperation in the solution of international economic, social and other humanitarian problems”.
Out of weeks of purposeful and often spirited discussion in committee, by delegations, and by consultants, there emerged at San Francisco a new statement of the economic and social objectives of the Organization, both broader and more incisive than the original text. It is well to reproduce it in full in this report, for it represents one of the high achievements of the Conference:
"With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and wellbeing which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:
"a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development;
“b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; and international cultural and educational cooperation; and
"c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex,
language, or religion.” (Article 55). In line with this broader statement of objectives, the statement of purposes in Chapter I (Article 1) was also strengthened as described in the commentary on that chapter.
In the course of the deliberations leading up to the adoption of these texts several issues were brought out which deserve special mention.
A number of delegations felt that to speak of solutions of "economic, social and other humanitarian problems” was not sufficiently descriptive of the range of activities contemplated for the Economic and Social Council. In particular, there was strong support for specific enumeration of cultural, health and educational matters.
From the outset, the United States Delegation found itself in agreement with the addition of “cultural” and “health” to the enumeration, but believed that "educational” was adequately comprehended within “cultural". In addition, it felt that whereas the members individually and in cooperation could work toward solutions of international economic and social problems, the same language was not equally applicable to the cultural and educational fields. In those fields it was not the solutions of international problems that was sought, but the advancement of international cooperation as a means of promoting mutual understanding and good will among the peoples of the world. Stated in that way, it would also remove any basis for misapprehension that the Organization was in any way designed to interfere in the domestic educational systems of any
of the member nations. The compromise text as stated above was approved unanimously.
The inclusion of the passage referring to the promotion of “higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress” gave rise to prolonged discussion.
The United States Delegation preferred the expression “high and stable levels of employment" rather than “full employment” because it believed that the latter term, while in wide use, was less precise and less meaningful than "high and stable levels”. It did not, however, insist upon this point when it became apparent that there was strong preference for the term "full employment” among most of the other delegations.
One of the most striking differences between the original Dumbarton Oaks Proposals and the final text as adopted lies in the greater emphasis on human rights. At the outset of the Conference the Sponsoring Powers proposed that the objective of promotion of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as set forth in the Dumbarton Oaks text should be expanded into promotion of respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. The Conference further strengthened this language to read “universal respect for, and observance of, human rights
In no part of the deliberations of the Conference was greater interest displayed by the group of American consultants, representing forty-two seading American organizations and groups concerned with American foreign relations, than in the opportunity accorded to extend the enjoyment of human rights and basic freedoms to all peoples. They warmly endorsed the additions to the statement of objectives. Beyond this they urged that the Charter itself should provide for adequate machinery to further these objectives. A direct outgrowth of discussions between the United States Delegation and the consultants was the proposal of the United States Delegation, in which it was joined by the other Sponsoring Powers, that the Charter (Article 68) be amended to provide for a commission on human rights of which more will be said later. The Nations Pledge Themselves
The statement of purposes is followed by Article 56, which reads as follows:
"All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in cooperation with the Organization for the achievement
of the purposes set forth in Article 55."" No corresponding provision occurs in the Dumbarton Oaks text. Early in the Conference the Delegation of Australia introduced a lengthy amendment which would have pledged all members of the Organization “to take action both national and international for the purpose of securing for all peoples, including their own, improved labor standards, economic advancement, social security and employment for all who seek it," and to report annually upon steps taken in the fulfillment of the pledge.
These are objectives which have the full support of the Government and the people of the United States. The United States Government has repeatedly demonstrated its desire for international cooperation toward the achievement of steadily rising levels of economic activity, free from disruptive fluctuations, throughout the world. Thus, the United States Delegation deemed it perfectly appropriate for the member states to pledge themselves to cooperate with the organization for the achievement of these purposes.