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Mr. STETTINIUS. In addition to the report, a full file of the documents of the Conference is available to the Senate and the committee for these hearings. These documents have been placed in filing cabinets in the adjoining room to the rear of me. Arrangements have been made, I am happy to say, for State Department officials who handled these documents at San Francisco, and are therefore thoroughly familiar with them, to be on duty at all times during these hearings in order to assist any member of this committee, or any Senator, to use in any way during these hearings these official documents of the Conference.
I might add that this is the only complete set of these documents now available in Washington. They will eventually be published. and become generally available to the public.
I wish to take a moment to outline all the categories of documents, so that the Senators may know what they are. The file includes the following:
1. All amendments to the Dumbarton Oaks proposals submitted by participating delegations—that is, the 50 countries.
2. Minutes of all meetings of the technical committees and subcommittees of the Conference,
covering our 9 weeks of work. 3. Minutes of all meetings of the commissions. 4. Minutes of all the plenary sessions. 5. The reports of the subcommittees. 6. The reports of the technical committees. 7. The reports of the commissions themselves.
In other words, gentlemen, we have made available to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and to the entire membership of the Senate the working papers of this Conference 10 days after the Conference adjourned. I am very proud of that fact, and I am sure that it will be most convenient, from the standpoint of analysis, to have the detailed working papers available for anyone who wishes to analyze them. First, Mr. Chairman, I wish to make full acknowledgment of the
part taken by members of Congress, and particularly by members che nited States Senate, in making this Charter possible and in
its provisions. Connally and Fulbright resolutions, passed in the fall of 1943 che Senate and House of Representatives, respectively, expressed Je will and purpose of Congress that the United States join with other sovereign nations in establishing as soon as possible an international organization to maintain peace and security.
These resolutions, giving full support to the Moscow Four Nation Declaration, gave renewed impetus to the preparatory work which had been undertaken in the Department of State under the direction of President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull. Members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and of the House Foreign Affairs Committee participated in all these preparations. Their advice was constantly sought and was invaluable. In July 1944 a United States
. draft proposal was completed as a result of this work. This draft, together with similar drafts submitted by the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and China, became the basis of the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, just as the Dumbarton Oaks proposals themselves became the basis of the Charter.
Half of the United States delegation at the San Francisco Conference was composed of members of Congress. Your chairman, Senator Connally, and his distinguished colleague, Senator Vandenberg, acted as vice chairmen of the delegation. They played outstanding roles in the writing of this Charter. They were leading figures at the United Nations Conference and their contributions to its success did honor to themselves, to the Senate, and to the country.
I wish, also, to pay high tribute to Representative Bloom, whom I am happy to see here today, and Representative Eaton, who I wish could be here, who represented the House with such distinction, and to the two able and influential public members of the delegation, Dean Gildersleeve and Commander Stassen. Mr. Hull, whom President Roosevelt rightly called “the father of the United Nations," was not present, but we were in daily communication with him, and his wise counsel was invaluable. Finally, President Truman, your colleague for so many years, guided our efforts with clear vision and a sure hand. His leadership contributed greatly to our success.
From first to last Congress and the executive branch of the Government have worked hand in hand and with no thought of partisanship in this great endeavor. The whole American people have also participated directly to an extent never approached before. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals were submitted to their scrutiny, criticism, and advice 7 months before the San Francisco Conference began, and the results of that public examination are reflected in many of the changes made at San Francisco. Forty-two nongovernmental organizations representing labor, agriculture, industry, the churches, veterans, and other groups were represented by consultants to the United States delegation at the Conference. They, too, exercised an important influence in the construction of the Charter.
This Charter is not the work of any single nation. It is the work of 50 nations. But the influence of the United States in the framing of its provisions has been of the utmost importance. I believe that this is due in a very large degree to the close working relationship developed between the Executive and the Congress, with direct participation by the public. This has made it possible for all America to speak more surely with a united and compelling voice in international affairs.
II. PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
The United Nations Charter is both a binding agreement to preserve peace and to advance human progress and a constitutional document creating the international machinery by which nations can cooperate to realize these purposes in fact.
The purposes of the United Nations are: the maintenance of international peace and security; the development of friendly relations among nations based on respect for the equal rights and self-determination of peoples; cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian character and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all.
Members of the organization are pledged to carry o’t in good faith the obligations of the Charter. They are pledged: to settle their disputes peacefully in such a way that international peace and security, and justice are not endangered; not to use force or the threat of force
against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations; to give the organization every assistance in any action it takes under the Charter; and to refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
The organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its members. It is not authorized to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state. However, a claim of domestic jurisdiction cannot be used to prevent enforcement measures by the Security Council in dealing with a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression by any future aggressor.
The Charter provides six principal instruments for the realization of its purposes and principles. They are the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, the Trusteeship Council, and the Secretariat.
The Security Council is both an enforcement agency and an agency to help nations settle their disputes peacefully in such a manner that enforcement measures may be unnecessary:
The General Assembly is a forum for discussion and recommendation on any matter within the scope of the Charter.
The Economic and Social Council is an instrument for the development of those international economic and social conditions essential to lasting peace.
The International Court of Justice is an institution through which the principles of international justice and law may be developed and increasingly applied to relations between countries.
The Trusteeship Council assists in the supervision of an international trusteeship for some dependent areas.
The Secretariat is the permanent civil service of the United Nations.
III. THE SECURITY COUNCIL
The Charter places the major responsibility for the maintenance and enforcement of international peace and security with the Security Council. The Security Council will not meet merely from time to time. The Charter provides that it shall function continuously and that its members shall always be represented at the seat of the organization.
The Council has the duty of helping to bring about by peaceful means the adjustment or settlement of international disputes. These include such methods as conciliation, mediation, arbitration, judicial settlement, and resort to regional agencies as well as any other peaceful means the parties to a dispute may choose. If necessary the Council may itself recommend the terms of settlement, as well as methods of settlement or adjustment.
Should these means fail, it is the duty of the Security Council to take whatever measures are necessary, including diplomatic and economic sanctions and the use of force, to prevent or suppress a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression.
All members of the organization are pledged to accept and carry out decisions of the Security Council made in fulfillment of these duties. They undertake to make available to the Council, on its call, armed forces, assistance, and facilities in accordance with special agreements which are to be negotiated as soon as possible between the Security Council and the member nations. It is specified that within the limits of these agreements national air force contingents should be immediately available for combined international enforcement action. The Charter provides that these military agreements shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
There will also be a military staff committee consisting of the chiefs of staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives to advise and assist the Council in its military requirements for the maintenance of international peace, the use of the forces at its disposal and in discharging its responsibilites in connection with the regulation of armaments. Thus the military collaboration of the great powers, which has been so important a factor in assuring victory, will be continued and developed for the purpose of insuring peace.
When the military agreements have been made, the Security Council will be ready at all times under these provisions with effective means at its disposal for prompt action against aggression, or a threat of aggression.
The relationship of regional security arrangements to the United Nations organization is also established by the Charter. Because bitter experience has shown that a breach of the peace anywhere in the world may sooner or later threaten the security of all nations, the supremacy of the Security Council in enforcement measures to prevent aggression is established by the Charter, except as concerns the enemy states of this war.
The Charter contemplates that the United Nations organization may in time assume the responsibility for standing guard over the enemy states, but this responsibility is left for the present directly in the hands of the nations which have made victory possible in the present war. They will decide when to transfer this responsibility to the organization. The United States is, of course, one of the nations which retains this responsibility.
While no regional enforcement action may be taken without the consent of the Security Council-except against enemy states—the Charter encourages the use of regional arrangements and agencies in the peaceful adjustment of local disputes. It also provides that should an armed attack occur against a member state, the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense may come into play until the Security Council has taken the necessary measures to maintain peace.
These provisions make possible the further development and strengthening of the inter-American system and its integration with the world system in such a way that the Act of Chapultepec can be put on a permanent basis in conformity with the Charter.
IV. VOTING PROVISIONS
The provisions for membership and voting in the Security Council agreed upon at San Francisco were so drawn up as to enable the Security Council to discharge, with the best chance of success, its responsibility for the maintenance of peace with justice.