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No commitment is made to place any particular area, strategic or nonstrategic, under the trusteeship system. The Charter thus leaves for future determination to what extent and under what terms islands in the Pacific which are taken from Japan at the end of the present war are to be placed under the trusteeship system. Any agreement into which the United States might enter to this end would have to be on terms satisfactory to us.

VIII, INTERNATIONAL SECRETARIAT

The Charter names the Secretariat as one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, together with the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice and the Trusteeship Council. The Secretary General is appointed by the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council and is the chief administrative officer of the organization. The Charter provides that the Secretary General and the staff of the International Secretariat “shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other authority" and shall be responsible only to the Organization, so that they may be international civil servants.

IX

These, gentlemen, in summary, are the main provisions of the United Nations Charter. In my report to the President you will find a much fuller exposition. The Charter is not, of course, a perfect instrument. I am sure it will be improved with time as the United Nations gain experience in its application. But I believe it offers to the United States and to the world a truly effective instrument for lasting peace.

The purposes and principles of the Charter are those in which the great majority of the human race believe. The principal agencies which it will create—the agency for law enforcement, the public meeting, the court of justice, and the center for economic and social progress—are those which all self-governing peoples have developed and learned to use in their own affairs. The powers given to these instruments in the international field are those with which the most thorough consideration has shown the nations are now ready to endow them.

In short, the course which is charted by this document is one which I believe to be within the capacity of the nations at this period of world history to follow and it is a course which leads in the direction of our highest aspirations for human advancement in a world at peace.

I believe our experience at San Francisco offered a convincing demonstration that this Charter can be made to work. Much has been written about the disagreements at San Francisco. Actually, the area of agreement was always vastly wider than the area of disagreement. Attention was naturally directed to the differences among us because neither the five major powers, nor the committees of the Conference, took up their time on all those matters about which they were already in agreement. What was significant about the Conference was this the differences were resolved and a Charter for a strong and effective organization was unanimously adopted. I believe the five major nations proved at San Francisco beyond the shadow of a doubt that they can work successfully and in unity with each other and with the other United Nations under this Charter.

In that firm belief I have come to testify before you today in favor of ratification of the Charter by the Senate of the United States. No country has a greater stake than ours in a speedy beginning upon the task of realizing in fact the promise which the United Nations Charter offers to the world. I thank you. The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Mr. Secretary.

Allow me to say at this point that Mr. Stettinius, as a President of the San Francisco Conference, was not, of course, assigned to any detailed duty on any particular committee or commission; his was the over-all task of supervising the general activities and speeding the work of the Conference. He will be followed a little later by Dr. Leo Pasvolsky, who will discuss the detailed provisions of the Charter and who will be able to answer any questions which the Senators put on the progress of the work and the final result.

With that statement, I would like to ask if there are any questions by members of the committee of Mr. Stettinius. Have you any questions, Senator Johnson.

Senator JOHNSON of California. No, Mr. Chairman.
The CHAIRMAN. Senator George!
Senator GEORGE. No questions.

The CHAIRMAN. Are there any other Senators, without individually naming them, who wish to ask any questions?

Senator VANDENBERG. I do not want to ask any questions, but I want to make one very brief statement for the record, in the presence of the Secretary.

I want to say that the Secretary made a brilliant record at San Francisco, that his work was in the finest American tradition, and that he deserves the approval and appreciation of his countrymen. [Applause.]

The CHAIRMAN. I have on many occasions during the Conference at San Francisco expressed both privately and publicly sentiments similar to those expressed by Senator Vandenberg. I want to say that at several critical points in the Conference the aggressiveness and the firmness of Mr. Stettinius as a President of the Conference served to untangle some very difficult situations and to speed up the work and have the committees act promptly on many matters that were delaying and hindering the Conference. I wish him well in his service on the Security Council and on the Assembly to which high post the President has already indicated that he will be appointed.

I thank you, Mr. Secretary. There are no questions, so you will be excused.

Mr. STETTINIUS. Thank you, Senator. [Applause.]

The CHAIRMAN. At this point I want to read a message from Secretary Cordell Hull. Following is the text of a telegram from the Honorable Cordell Hull to the Honorable Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Chairman, United Nations Delegation, United Nations Conference on International Organization (reading]:

BETHESDA, MD., June 26, 1945. Hon. EDWARD R. STETTINIUS, Jr., Chairman, United States Delegation, United Nations Conference on International Organization,

San Francisco, Calif. I offer you my warmest and heartiest congratulations on the successful conclusion of the San Francisco Conference and the adoption of the Charter of the United Nations.

I want to pay personal tribute to you and to the other members of the United States delegation for the skill, patience, and ability with which you not only represented our Nation in this momentous gathering but gave it leadership toward the realization of humanity's greatest ideal-the achievement of peace, justice, and progress. I am today issuing a public statement, a copy of which is appended.

CORDELL HULL The following is the statement by the Honorable Cordell Hull, dated June 26, 1945 (reading):

The San Francisco Conference will live in history as one of the great milestones in man's upward climb toward a truly civilized existence. The Charter of the United Nations adopted there provides an essential framework within which the peace-loving nations of the world can work together, more effectively than ever before, toward banishing war and toward providing wider opportunities and greater facilities for human progress.

That Charter draws together and brings to a focus the basic moral and political ideals which must underlie a workable system of organized relations among nations. Through such a system alone can mankind hope in the world of today to achieve peace and security, justice and fair-dealing, cultural and material advancement. It builds on the experience of ages, as well as on the realities of the modern world forged in the ordeal of two world wars.

The delegations of the 50 nations represented at San Francisco have labored there in the spirit in which they have been fighting the latest and costliest war for human freedom. The Charter which they have produced stems from the

great documents that, in the darkest hours of the war, served for humanity as • beacon lights of hope and determination-the Atlantic Charter, the declaration

by United Nations, the Moscow four-nation declaration, the Tehran declaration, the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, the decisions of the Crimea Conference.

The magnificent success of the San Francisco Conference attests to the unshakable resolve of the United Nations to work together in peace as they have worked together in war-to preserve the ideals for which they have been and are making such tremendous sacrifices, to make the realization of these ideals a living monument to those who have given their lives that these ideals may endure.

We now have, at long last, a charter of a world organization capable of fulfilling the hopes of mankind. It is a human rather than a perfect instrument. It has within it ample flexibility for growth and development, for dynamic adaptation to changing conditions.

The Charter will work, and grow, and improve, if our Nation and all nations devoted to peace maintain the spirit in which they have created it and remain eternally vigilant in support and defense of the great ideals on which it is founded.

There are many difficulties and complexities ahead of us. We must still bring the present war to a victorious conclusion. We must heal the wounds of the war and repair its ravages. We need build toward new horizons of enduring peace and of an increasing measure of social and economic well-being. In the performance of these vast tasks, our chances of success have been immeasurably strengthened because 50 nations different in race, language, historic background, and attitude toward life—have found common ground at San Francisco and have agreed on a charter for the United Nations.

The Charter now goes to the peoples and legislatures of the world for ratification.

Out of long experience-out of what I see ahead-I appeal with all my heart to our Nation and to all United Nations to ratify the Charter and to bring into existence, as soon as possible, the international organization for which it provides. Upon the success of that organization depend the fulfillment of humanity's highest aspirations and the very survival of our civilization.

I want to say that the spirit and purpose of Secretary Hull animated and inspired the United States delegation at San Francisco. He was one of the pioneers in this great movement for world peace. He gave of his time, his labor, and his efforts. He cooperated and consulted with the Senate and the House in the formative period some 2 or 3 years ago. Mr. Hull will always be looked to as one of the great figures in world peace and one of the great international statesmen of our time.

The next witness will be Dr. Leo Pasvolsky.

Allow me to say at this time that we are glad to have Senators present and also to say that the committee has arranged for the printing of the hearings. It is planned to have the hearings on the desk of every Senator each morning, containing a transcript of the proceedings of the day before. We adopted this system because ordinarily the hearings are delayed, and often several days or perhaps a week'elapse after the testimony is delivered by the witnesses before the hearings reach the Senators. But each morning there will be in their offices a complete report of what transpired the day before, so that the Senators can keep abreast of the committee's activities.

Allow me to say also that we invite the attention of all Senators to the very comprehensive report made by Mr. Stettinius, a President of the Conference, to the President of the United States. The members of the committee have copies of that report, but it is also available to other Senators. It goes into great detail with respect to the various provisions of the Charter.

We are also glad to have with us this morning Congressman Sol Bloom. Likewise we will be glad to have any other Members of the House of Representatives attend the hearings.

STATEMENT BY LEO PASVOLSKY, SPECIAL ASSISTANT TO THE

SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND SECURITY AFFAIRS

The CHAIRMAN. Dr. Pasvolsky, you are and have been for a number of years the State Department's expert on the Charter and on the formative plans to bring about the Charter. I believe you were at Dumbarton Oaks, and you were one of our chief experts at San Francisco. The committee has decided to request that for the benefit of the committee and of the Senate you proceed with your testimony and take up the Charter in detail, explaining its terms and its implications.

Senator VANDENBERG. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that during Dr. Pasvolsky's testimony, instead of waiting until the conclusion for questions, that at any time in the course of his analysis of any point, if any Senator wishes to make an inquiry, it would be preferable to proceed in that fashion.

The CHAIRMAN. That is agreeable. I think that probably would be a wise course to pursue, in view of the long period that the testimony will cover. Any Senator may feel free at any time to interrupt the witness and ask any question about a particular matter that is being discussed.

Mr. PASVOLSKY. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I shall be very glad to avail myself of this great honor and opportunity to discuss the various provisions of the Charter.

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May I, before I begin on the Preamble of the Charter, say a few words about the background of the document which is before you and how it has come about?

The San Francisco Conference had before it a very extensive documentation. There were five principal sets of documents, the first of which was, of course, the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, with which we are all familiar. These proposals resulted from consultations which took place in Washington last year among the representatives of the four signatories of the Moscow declaration. These Dumbarton Oaks proposals were themselves based upon carefully considered papers which were submitted by each of the participating governments. At Moscow, when agreement was reached by Secretary Hull and the other foreign ministers that consultations of this sort on the future international organization would take place, it was also understood that preparations for the meeting would be made by each of the governments. In our case, the Secretary Stettinius has indicated in his report to the President, which is before you, the preparation involved a long study by technical experts in the Department of State and in other departments of the Government, and extensive consultations with outstanding leaders of national thought.

The Dumbarton Oaks proposals were considered by their authors, and were accepted by the Conference, as the irreducible minimum of what was necessary for a workable international organization. They were not a complete charter by themselves. As presented to the San Francisco Conference the Dumbarton Oaks document was supplemented by the proposal on the voting procedure in the Security Council which had been agreed to at the Crimea Conference by President Roosevelt and the heads of the Governments of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union.

The Dumbarton Oaks proposals, then, as supplemented, were the first set of documents before the Conference.

You will recall that the Dumbarton Oaks proposals were made public immediately after the conclusion of the consultations here in Washington last summer. In the light of the immense amount of discussion that took place in the interval between the Dumbarton Oaks meeting and the San Francisco Conference, the sponsoring governments themselves, that is, the four governments which participated in the Dumbarton Oaks Conference and which sponsored the convocation of the San Francisco Conference, came to the conclusion that a number of amendments should be made in the Dumbarton Oaks document, mostly by way of clarification and addition in view of the fact that the discussion had disclosed the need for such changes. And so, at the beginning of the San Francisco Conference, the four

, sponsoring governments submitted to the Conference a set of

proposals for its consideration. France joined in supporting these proposals. That was the second set of documents.

The third set of documents was extremely volumnious. It consisted of proposals put forward by the other participating governments, and every government had some proposals to make. There were literally hundreds of proposals, and they were embodied in a very thick volume which became one of the documents of the Conference.

Then, in addition to those three general sets, there were two rather specialized documents which are of very great importance. One was

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